Celtic culture appears across Europe
The Massiliote Periplus is written in the Greek port of Massilia (Marseille), describing two distant islands: IERNE (Ireland) and ALBION (England) [600]
Early style art
Compass-drawn decorations, compositions based on axial symmetry; gold torques, chariot fittings and phalera, belt-hooks, scabbards, wine jugs, sculpture
The Hochdorf Prince and the Princess of Vix are buried in Southern Germany (550)
Celtic culture found throughout Britain, France, Western Spain, Southern Germany to the Black Sea
Herodotus describes the Celts in Western Spain and around the source of the Danube (450)
Celts cross the Alps and invade Italy (400), later sacking Rome (390)
Continuous vegetal style art
Compositions with radial symmetry alongside those with axial symmetry; red enamel appears; helmets, sheathes and scabbards, torques, armlets, red-figure vases
Celtic peoples begin to settle in Britain
Voyage of the Massilian Pytheas, who describes the PRETANIC islands (Britain) [325]
Celts defeated by Romans at battle of Telamon in Italy (225)
Plastic style and Sword style art
Plastic metamorphosis: the blending of human, animal, plant, and abstract forms; complex compositions incorporating various forms of symmetry; high point of metalwork; colored glass beads and bracelets
Romans conquer southern Gaul (125)
Julius Caesar conquers Gaul and invades Britain (58-50). Uprisings led by Acco (53) and Vercingetorix (52) are put down.
Interpretatio Romana
Leads to Celtic gods shown in Roman manner: full-length figures accompanied by attributes.
Roman emperor Claudius invades Britain, defeating Caradoc at the Battle of the River Medway (43)
Boudicca's rebellion is crushed; Britain (except Ireland) becomes a Roman province (60)
Britain conquered as far as Scotland (84)
Hadrian's Wall built to keep out Picts (122)
Christianity introduced in Britain
Five representatives from Britain attend the Council of Arles (314)
Emperor Honorius withdraws last Roman troops from Britain (409)
Germanic tribes, including the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, and Vandals sweep through the continent. Roman Gaul disintegrates. (400-450)
Annular and penannular brooches developed
Monasteries of Derry, Iona, and Durrow are founded (563)
Gregory the Great sends Augustine of Canterbury to England to convert the Angles in Britain (597)
Germanic artistic motifs
New repertoire of colors and designs: geometric step patterns (fret), angular cell shapes, animal ornament, and interlace added to the spirals and trumpet scrolls of earlier work.
Bede completes his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum at Monkwearmouth/Jarrow (731)
Monastery at Lindesfarne plundered by Vikings (793). Raid on the island of Lambay marks the beginning of Viking Age Ireland (795).
Chip-Carving and Filigree
Brooches become larger and more ornate. Demand for more flamboyant brooches leads to the introduction of chip-carving and filigree. (7th-8th C)
Growth of Irish monasteries creates a demand for metal liturgical objects, such as chalices, patens, croziers, and reliquaries (7th-8th C)
Dublin founded as the first and most important Viking settlement (841)
Scots take Pictland (843)
Irish defeat Vikings at battle of Clontarf (1014)