Home | How It Affects the Lungs | Diagnosis | Treatments | Clinical Trials | Bibliography
Bibliography
Emphysema [Internet]. American Lung Association; [updated 2003; cited 2004 Jan 21]. Available from: http:              //www.lungusa.org/diseases/lungemphysem.html

This source is a website by the American Lung Association.  The website is broken into five categories and gives the reader a basic but complete understanding of the emphysema disease.  The main topics include explaining what emphysema is, its seriousness, its causes, and its treatments.  Therefore, it can be very helpful for the common person who may not be scientifically trained, but who is looking for the basic facts about emphysema.  Unfortunately, it will not be of much help to professionals in this field as the information found on this site will be common knowledge for them.  The site is well organized and the information is laid out in such a manner to allow easy navigation and understanding.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis: they take your breath away. Harvard Men’s Health Watch [Internet].                    2003 Jun [cited 2004 Jan 21]; 7(11): 1-5. Available from: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=                        9753196&db=hxh

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of emphysema and chronic bronchitis.  This particular article goes into more detail about COPD, but since emphysema is a large part of COPD, the article is still very resourceful for emphysema research.  The article gives basic descriptions on how normal lungs work and how COPD and emphysema affect the normal functioning of the lungs.  The bulk of the article, however, is spent specifying the different kinds of treatment for this lung disease and the effectiveness of each method.  The article also talks about the symptoms and the diagnosis, and has an illustration of a normal and infected lung.  The article contains many medical terms, but they are explained in a manner to still allow readers to comprehend.  Since the article only briefly explains what emphysema is and focuses more on the treatments, it might not be very helpful to researchers who want detailed information about emphysema.

Fishman A, Martinez F, Naunheim K, Piantadosi S, Wise R, Ries A, Weinmann G, Wood DE. A randomized              trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema. The New                England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2003 May 20 [cited 2004 Jan 21]; 348(21): 2059-73.                          Available from: http://content.nejm.org/cgi/reprint/348/21/2059.pdf

This article is a report from an experiment which was testing how effective surgery would be on patients with severe emphysema.  For the experiment, a large number of patients with severe emphysema were divided into two groups.  One group continued their usual medical treatment.  The other group underwent lung-volume- reduction surgery.  The point of the experiment was to determine whether or not the lung-volume-reduction surgery actually improved one’s condition and improved their survival chances.

The article goes into great detail describing the patients they used and the procedures they took in gathering their data.  Then, the article continues in detail with substantial, statistical evidence that the research group used to reach a conclusion about the trial.  In general, the article does not go into what emphysema is or the effects it has because it is directed towards the professionals in this field, and talks solely about the effectiveness of surgery as a treatment for severe emphysema.

Glass RM, Lynm C, Parmet S. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Journal of the American Medical                Association [Internet]. 2003 Nov 5 [cited 2004 Jan 21]; 290(17): 2362. Available from: http://jama                   .ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/290/17/2362

This article is about the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which occurs in the lungs.  The article only briefly mentions the two other lung diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, that develop into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  The main purpose of this article is the illustration, which shows how the lungs should look and how the lungs do look when a person has chronic bronchitis or emphysema.  In addition, the article lists some symptoms and treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, however not in very much detail.  This source is really only good for the illustration, where as it lacks detailed information about emphysema.

Lambert JG, Morgan GE. Emphysema. AllRefer Health [Internet]. 2000 Sep 25 [cited 2004 Feb 23].                        Available from: http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/emphysema.html

Stulbarg M. Emphysema. McGraw-Hill AccessScience [Internet]. 2000 Apr 10 [cited 2004 Jan 21]; 1-3.                    Available from: http://ironcity.edoc.com/email_pdf/7b699f70f851faedba011bcc89a6b1b6.pdf

This article explains emphysema in greater detail and does so in a very professional and scientific manner.  The article first explains what emphysema is, and then it is divided into sections on the types, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.  Two types are centriacinar emphysema, associated more with smokers, and panacinar emphysema.  For physiology, the article gives a much more in-depth look at how the actual lung is affected.  It describes how the lung works when infected by emphysema as opposed to when the lung is healthy.

Under pathogenesis, the article explains the reasons for why the lung works how it does when infected.  Also, the article briefly mentions one substance that possibly leads to a person being infected with emphysema.  For the diagnosis and treatment section, the article explains that diagnosis usually occurs when symptoms occur, mainly shortness of breath; and that the best form of treatment is prevention.  Overall the article goes in depth as to the affects of the disease and a little into the causes and treatments.  The article, given its use of medical terms, is somewhat difficult to understand, making it not very resourceful for the everyday person.

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