[Internet]. American Lung Association; [updated 2003; cited 2004 Jan
21]. Available from: http: //www.lungusa.org/diseases/lungemphysem.html
This source is a website by the American Lung Association.
The website is broken into five categories and gives the reader a basic
but complete understanding of the emphysema disease. The main topics
include explaining what emphysema is, its seriousness, its causes, and
its treatments. Therefore, it can be very helpful for the common
person who may not be scientifically trained, but who is looking for the
basic facts about emphysema. Unfortunately, it will not be of much
help to professionals in this field as the information found on this site
will be common knowledge for them. The site is well organized and
the information is laid out in such a manner to allow easy navigation and
Emphysema and chronic bronchitis: they take your breath away.
Harvard Men’s Health Watch [Internet].
2003 Jun [cited 2004 Jan 21];
7(11): 1-5. Available from: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) consists of emphysema
and chronic bronchitis. This particular article goes into more
detail about COPD, but since emphysema is a large part of COPD, the article
is still very resourceful for emphysema research. The article gives
basic descriptions on how normal lungs work and how COPD and emphysema
affect the normal functioning of the lungs. The bulk of the article,
however, is spent specifying the different kinds of treatment for this lung
disease and the effectiveness of each method. The article also talks
about the symptoms and the diagnosis, and has an illustration of a normal
and infected lung. The article contains many medical terms, but they
are explained in a manner to still allow readers to comprehend. Since
the article only briefly explains what emphysema is and focuses more on the
treatments, it might not be very helpful to researchers who want detailed
information about emphysema.
Fishman A, Martinez F, Naunheim K, Piantadosi S, Wise R, Ries
A, Weinmann G, Wood DE. A randomized
trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical
therapy for severe emphysema. The New
England Journal of Medicine [Internet]. 2003 May 20
[cited 2004 Jan 21]; 348(21): 2059-73.
This article is a report from an experiment which was testing
how effective surgery would be on patients with severe emphysema.
For the experiment, a large number of patients with severe emphysema
were divided into two groups. One group continued their usual medical
treatment. The other group underwent lung-volume- reduction surgery.
The point of the experiment was to determine whether or not the lung-volume-reduction
surgery actually improved one’s condition and improved their survival
The article goes into great detail describing the patients they
used and the procedures they took in gathering their data. Then,
the article continues in detail with substantial, statistical evidence
that the research group used to reach a conclusion about the trial.
In general, the article does not go into what emphysema is or the effects
it has because it is directed towards the professionals in this field,
and talks solely about the effectiveness of surgery as a treatment for
Glass RM, Lynm C, Parmet S. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
The Journal of the American Medical
Association [Internet]. 2003 Nov 5 [cited 2004 Jan
21]; 290(17): 2362. Available from: http://jama
This article is about the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
which occurs in the lungs. The article only briefly mentions the
two other lung diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema, that develop
into chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The main purpose of
this article is the illustration, which shows how the lungs should look
and how the lungs do look when a person has chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
In addition, the article lists some symptoms and treatments for chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, however not in very much detail.
This source is really only good for the illustration, where as it lacks
detailed information about emphysema.
Lambert JG, Morgan GE. Emphysema. AllRefer Health [Internet]. 2000 Sep
25 [cited 2004 Feb 23].
Available from: http://health.allrefer.com/pictures-images/emphysema.html
Stulbarg M. Emphysema. McGraw-Hill AccessScience [Internet].
2000 Apr 10 [cited 2004 Jan 21]; 1-3.
Available from: http://ironcity.edoc.com/email_pdf/7b699f70f851faedba011bcc89a6b1b6.pdf
This article explains emphysema in greater detail and does so
in a very professional and scientific manner. The article first
explains what emphysema is, and then it is divided into sections on
the types, physiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment.
Two types are centriacinar emphysema, associated more with smokers, and
panacinar emphysema. For physiology, the article gives a much more
in-depth look at how the actual lung is affected. It describes
how the lung works when infected by emphysema as opposed to when the lung
Under pathogenesis, the article explains the reasons for why
the lung works how it does when infected. Also, the article briefly
mentions one substance that possibly leads to a person being infected
with emphysema. For the diagnosis and treatment section, the article
explains that diagnosis usually occurs when symptoms occur, mainly shortness
of breath; and that the best form of treatment is prevention. Overall
the article goes in depth as to the affects of the disease and a little
into the causes and treatments. The article, given its use of medical
terms, is somewhat difficult to understand, making it not very resourceful
for the everyday person.