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Would appreciate more info on the ASTP program [“Army Specialized Training Program,” WINTER 1998], especially the men selected to enter the Mechanical Engineering program. I was sent to the Citadel, Charleston, SC, which was a Star unit for testing and evaluation. I was then sent to Heidelberg College in Tiffin, Ohio.

When the program was shut down everyone except those who had enlisted or were voluntary enlistees in the Army Air Corp were shipped to infantry basic training centers for a 5 week infantry training and were then shipped to Western Front as individual replacements for units that had battle losses. Many of these former students were killed in the Battle of the Bulge. I was one of the few sent to Army Air Corp replacement centers.

Lawrence J. Friedel 37660391
4004 S. Lewis Ave
Sioux Falls, SD 57103

After reading Mitchell's article ["How to Link Economic Growth with Democratic Governance," AUTUMN 1998], I was interested to know if any lessons might be learned from Tanzania, especially as a good portion of his comments surround Africa. I don't know if you have any information on their economy but I believe Tanzania's socio-political development provides some lessons for African general development.

[NOTE: Prof. Mitchell has supplied an extended reply to Mr. Blood's interesting letter. Be sure to read it by clicking either here or at the end of this letter. ~ Ed.]

Tanzania has done a wonderful job of dealing with the issue of religious and ethnic diversity since the 1950's. Rather than adopting a pure model of Western development in the 1960's, as was attempted by other non-Western nations, Tanzania placed particular importance on the African context in its development. Interreligious relations provides one example. While the West would seem to place an emphasis on separation of church and state, this proves less appropriate for most African nations. Religion is more intertwined with politics and society in many African nations than in most Western nations. Furthermore, specific religions such as Chistianity and Islam are practiced differently than in other areas of the world. Recognizing this fact, Tanzanians emphasized incorporating religious diversity into the political and social development of the country rather than attempting to relegate the place religion naturally holds in Tanzanian society. For the most part, this recognition of the African context, of what values are important in their own society, has allowed for general peaceful relations.

I would argue that adopting a Western model of political-religious separation has caused the following negative reactions in some non-Western nations:

1. On the one hand, dismissing religion as separate from the political and social aspects of a nation will cause people who do not believe in this to assert their religious identity in more visible ways

2. This, in turn, will cause other religions to react for fear of being disenfranchised

The movement, highlighted by Ali Mazrui, of Islamization in many Eastern and African nations is a good example.

In short, I would be interested to see if some of the tactics used by Tanzania (focused around identifying the most important charcteristics of African society and incorporating them, rather than adopting a pure foreign model) would be applicable to 1. economics and 2. other nations. I think it might.

In addition, you might think about including a regular letter to the editor section, beyond the forum for those comments not dealing with that particular article, such as my comments above
[a suggestion we have happily adopted ~ Ed.].

Also I was interested in learning your thoughts (or maybe the subject of a future article) regarding the application of international law; England's attempt to try Pinnochet for human rights crimes has sparked my interest.

Thanks. Seriously, thanks for providing such an easy accessible forum for learning more about foreign policy and providing an opportunity for us "arm-chair" diplomats to voice our opinions.

Robert Blood

Read Prof. Mitchell's reply by clicking here.

I am a 19-year-old student from Austria. When I was surfing through the net and was looking for Diplomacy-adresses, I found your interesting site. The reason for my writing is that I am looking for information about the Treaty of St. Germain-En-Laye 1919.

I started studying the law on the first of October. I am supposed to hold a 15-minutes speech about the Treaty of St. Germain in the [near future]. My wish would be to mention the Treaty from various perspectives. I would like to give the audience (50-people) information about how Americans or other nations than the Austrian one think about this Treaty. If you could refer me to an article on your site or provide an email-adress from an American professor or reputed diplomat I can ask for help, I would thank you.

Klaus Peichl

Mr. Peichl,
I wish I could help you personally, but I have no knowledge of a 1919 Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye. However, we will post your request in our journal's "Research Inquiries" department and hope that a reader will be able to respond to your need for information.

Good luck with your research. ~ Ed.

Through a press release the Romanian Foreign Office conveys its will to rethink the working of the office and to train the diplomats according to new criterias. All citizens, economic players and diplomatic professionals who feel concerned are invited to bring their contributions such as ideas, thoughts and experiences.

To facilitate this participation, a forum of discussion is open at the address:


I beg you to promote this forum through your site and to participate to it as well. Thank you very much.


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