Eagle
American Diplomacy




Highlight map


 

Support American Diplomacy RSS Mailing-list Subscription Email American Diplomacy Facebook


END NOTES

(Please use your browser's back button to return to Sempa text.) 

  1. George F. Kennan, Memoirs 1950-1963 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972), p. 100.
  2. The facts and circumstances of Burnham’s early life and intellectual activity are derived from John P. Diggins, Up From Communism: Conservative Odysseys in American Intellectual Development (New York: Columbia University Press, Morningside Edition, 1994), pp. 161-180; Sidney Hook, Out of Step: An Unquiet Life in the 20th Century ( New York: Carrol & Graf Publishers, Inc., 1988), pp. 192-204; Samuel Francis, Power and History: The Political Thought of James Burnham ( Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984), p 7; Kevin J. Smant, How Great the Triumph: James Burnham, Anticommunism and the Conservative Movement ( Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1992), pp. 1-21; and Sidney Hook, “Radical, Teacher, Technician,” National Review (September 11, 1987), pp. 32-33.
  3. John Kenneth Galbraith, National Review (September 11, 1987), p. 35; William Barrett, The Truants: Adventures Among the Intellectuals ( Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1982), p. 86.
  4. James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution: What is Happening in the World (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1941), pp. 179, 176, 180, 177, 262, 264.
  5. Ibid., pp. 47, 195.
  6. James Burnham,The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1943), pp. 223-226.
  7. Francis, Power and History, p. 49; Brian Crozier, National Review (September 11, 1987), p. 36; Joseph Sobran, National Review (September 11, 1987), p. 46; John B. Judis, Grand Illusion: Critics and Champions of the American Century (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1992), p. 155.
  8. Diggins, Up From Communism, p. 319; Francis, Power and History, p. 67; Judis, Grand Illusion, p. 146; Christopher Hitchens, “How Neo-Conservatives Perish,” For the Sake of Argument (London: Verso, 1993), p. 144; George H. Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1976), p. 92; James Burnham, The War We Are In: The Last Decade and the Next (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1967), p. 10.
  9. Burnham, The War We Are In, p. 10.
  10. James Burnham, The Struggle for the World (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1947), p. 3.
  11. James Burnham, “The Sixth Turn of the Communist Screw,” Partisan Review, Volume 11, Number 3, Summer 1944.
  12. For an analysis of Mackinder’s writings, see Francis P. Sempa, “Mackinder’s World,” American Diplomacy (Winter 2000) , http://www.americandiplomacy.org; Francis P. Sempa, “The Geopolitics Man,” The National Interest (Fall 1992), pp. 96-102; and Francis P. Sempa, “Geopolitics and American Strategy: A Reassessment,” in Herbert M. Levine and Jean Edward Smith, ed., The Conduct of American Foreign Policy Debated (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 1990), pp. 330-343.
  13. James Burnham, “Lenin’s Heir,” Partisan Review, Volume 12, 1945, Issue 1, p. 66.
  14. William C. Bullitt appears to have recognized even earlier than Burnham that the United States would have post-war problems with the Soviet Union. Bullitt wrote lengthy, prophetic memos to FDR on January 29 and August 10, 1943, warning the president about Soviet post-war goals. Bullitt also wrote a book in 1946 entitled The Great Globe Itself that provided a realistic assessment of Soviet post-war intentions. Burnham’s analyses and proposals as set forth in the OSS paper, the Partisan Review essays, and his early Cold War trilogy, however, are more comprehensive than Bullitt’s works.
  15. Burnham, “Lenin’s Heir,” pp. 71-72; Richard H. Pells, The Liberal Mind in a Conservative Age: American Intellectuals in the 1940s & 1950s (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), p. 82; Barrett, The Truants, pp. 88-9.
  16. Burnham, Struggle for the World, p. 162; James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1950), p. 14.
  17. James Burnham, Containment or Liberation? (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1952), p. 147; Nicholas J. Spykman, The Geography of the Peace (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1944); Burnham, Struggle for the World, pp. 114-115.
  18. Burnham, Struggle for the World, p. 97.
  19. Burnham, Coming Defeat of Communism, p. 23; Burnham, Containment or Liberation?, p. 73.
  20. Burnham, Struggle for the World, pp. 59, 90; Burnham, Coming Defeat of Communism, p. 104;
  21. Burnham, Struggle for the World, pp. 171, 163, 159, 10, 239-40.
  22. Burnham, Coming Defeat of Communism, p.99.
  23. Burnham, Struggle for the World, p. 181; Burnham, Coming Defeat of Communism, p. 100, 36-7.
  24. Ibid., p. 251.
  25. Writing three years after Burnham, the great French writer Raymond Aron noted ominously that “Russia has in fact nearly achieved the ‘world island’ which Mackinder considered the necessary and almost sufficient condition for universal empire.” Raymond Aron, The Century of Total War (Boston: The Beacon Press, 1955), p. 111.
  26. Burnham, Containment or Liberation?, p. 251.
  27. Burnham, Struggle for the World, pp. 162, 197-198, 228-229, 239, 221.
  28. Burnham, Coming Defeat of Communism, pp. 159-160.
  29. Burnham, Containment or Liberation?, p. 128.
  30. Halford J. Mackinder, Democratic Ideals and Reality (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1962), p.150. The book was originally published in 1919.
  31. See John Foster Dulles, "A Policy of Boldness," Life (May 19, 1952), pp. 146-60; and Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 2000).
  32. W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), p. 254; Nash, Conservative Intellectual Movement in America, p. 91.
  33. Diggins, Up From Communism, p. 322; Smant, How Great the Triumph, pp. 36, 43, 51.
  34. James Burnham, The Web of Subversion: Underground Networks in the U.S. Government (New York: John Day Company, Inc., 1959). It was first published in 1954.
  35. “Southeast Asian Contradiction,” National Review (March 13, 1962), p. 163; “Escalating Downward,” in The War We Are In, pp. 267-269; “Toujours, la Sale Guerre,” National Review (January 29, 1963), p. 60; “What Chance in Vietnam,” National Review (October 8, 1963), p. 304; “The Perils of Under-simplification,” National Review (September 8, 1964), p. 766; “The Hand on the Trigger,” in The War We Are In, pp. 95-97; “What is the President Waiting For?,” National Review (June 28, 1966), p. 612; “Hanoi’s Special Weapons System,” National Review (August 9, 1966), p. 765; “The War in Studio 7,” National Review (February 27, 1968), p. 179; “Time for Some Answers,” National Review (March 26, 1968), p. 282; “An Honorable Peace,” National Review (July 30, 1968), p. 792; “Front into Government,” National Review (July 1, 1969), p. 635; “Stripped Down,” National Review (July 28, 1970), p. 778; “Is It All Over in Vietnam?,” National Review (April 28, 1972), p. 449; “Peace, Peace but is it Peace?,” National Review (February 16, 1973), p. 199; “Under Northern Eyes,” National Review (March 16, 1973), p. 303.
  36. James Burnham, Congress and the American Tradition (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1965). First published in 1959.
  37. Peter Schweizer, Victory: The Reagan Administration’s Secret Strategy That Hastened the Collapse of the Soviet Union (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994); Jay Winik, On the Brink: The Dramatic, Behind the Scenes Saga of the Reagan Era and the Men and Women Who Won the Cold War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996); Andrew E. Busch, “Ronald Reagan and the Defeat of the Soviet Empire,” Presidential Studies Quarterly (Summer 1997), pp. 451-466. The Reagan strategy to undermine Soviet power was laid out in secret National Security Decision Directives in 1982 and 1983 (NSDD-32, NSDD-66 and NSDD-75).
  38. James Burnham, Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning of Destiny of Liberalism (Chicago: Regnery Books, 1985, first publ. 1964), pp., 301, 26.
American Diplomacy               Vol. V, No. 4               Fall 2000
Copyright © 2000 American Diplomacy Publishers, Durham NC
http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/amdipl_17
  Send email to
  
American Diplomacy
Updated: 
 Sunday, December 3, 2000 
  Subscribe (free) to
  
American Diplomacy
Search the American Diplomacy website


white starAmerican Diplomacy white star
Copyright © 2012 American Diplomacy Publishers Chapel Hill NC
www.americandiplomacy.org