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Table 1
Bachelor Degrees as % at theoretical age of graduation; Bachelor Degrees awarded in science related fields as a % of total; Number of citizens between age 20 and 24 (For comparison against theoretical age of graduation) in select countries.

Country
Bachelor degree recipients as a % at theoretical age of graduation.
Bachelor degrees awarded in science related fields as a % of total.
# citizens between age 20-24(1000's)
Australia 27.0 19.4 1313
Canada 29.319.7 2061
Finland33.933.2328
Germany16.0 33.54526
Ireland26.0 25.8 319
Italy16.0 27.6 3672
Japan29.0 18.9 8598
Norway33.9 12.8276
Sweden27.2 25.0 517
Switzerland20.5 25.1405
United Kingdom36.8 28.9 3652
United States33.2 17.4 19185

Note. As reported by the U.S. Census Bureau (2000) and the National Center for Educational Statistics (2001). Consider the vast difference in population represented by these percentages.

Table 2.
Comparison of highest monetary military budgets to the United States at present time.

Top 25 Countries in terms of military spending
U.S. Dollar amount (Billions)
Top 25 Countries in terms of military spending
U.S. Dollar amount (Billions)
Russia
60.0
Taiwan
8.2
China
42.0
Canada
7.7
Japan
40.4
Spain
6.9
United Kingdom
34.0
Australia
6.6
Saudi Arabia
27.2
Netherlands
5.6
France
25.3
Turkey
5.1
Germany
21.0
Singapore
4.3
Brazil
17.9
Sweden
4.2
India
15.6
United Arab Emirates
3.9
Italy
15.5
Poland
3.7
South Korea
11.8
Greece
3.3
Iran
9.1
Argentina
3.1
Israel
9.0

Total:

384.4
United States
396.1

Notes. As reported by the Center for Defense Information (2002). It's important to remember that reported budgets are hard to use in determining quality of armed forces. Such factors as equipment cost, R&D allotments, and pay can vary greatly between armed forces. Dual use resources are often left out of military budget allotments also.

Table 3
Comparison of GDP, GDP % annual growth, and % of GDP due to the combined import and exports of the top 10 GDP nation states for the year 2000 and 2001.

2000
2001
Top ten GDP Nation States
GDP (in millions)
GDP % Growth
Trade in goods % of GDP
GDP (in millions)
GDP % Growth
Trade in goods % of GDP
United States
9,837,406
4
21
10,171,400
1
-
Japan
4,841,584
2
18
4,245,191
-0
-
Germany
1,872,992
3
56
1,873,854
1
-
United Kingdom
1,414,557
3
44
1,406,310
2
-
France
1,294,246
3
47
1,302,793
2
-
China
1.079.948
8
44
1,159,017
7
-
Italy
1,073,960
3
44
1,090,910
2
-
Canada
687,882
5
76
677,178
1
-
Mexico
580,121
7
61
617,817
-0
-
Spain
558,558
4
48
577,539
3
-

Notes. As reported by the World Bank Organization (2002). Note the relative dependence on trade for GDP. No data was available for 2001 Trade in goods as a % of GDP.



1. Norman A. Graebner(ed.),"Freedom, the United States, and the World Environment." Freedom in America: A 200 Year Perspective. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press. 1977.

2. Tom Lansford, "Regime Formation and Maturation in the White House: The Rise of Internationalism During the Administration of Theodore Roosevelt", White House Studies, Vol.1 Number 4 (2001), pp. 505-524.

3. G. John Ikenberry, "Why Export Democracy?: The 'Hidden Grand Strategy' of American Foreign Policy", The Wilson Quarterly, Vol. 23, no. 2 (Spring 1999).

4. David D. Newsom. The Public Dimension of Foreign Policy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1996.
Newson describes how the public plays a major part in U.S. decision making.

5. Caitlin Talmadge", The Restrained Hegemon: Political Limits to US Military Power", Harvard International Review, Vol. 24 Issue 3 (Fall 2002),pp. 26-30.

6. John J. Mearsheimer. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2001.

7. North Atlantic Treaty. Washington D.C. 1944. Available at http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#.

8. Issac Asimov, Asimov's Chronology of the World: The History of the World from Big Bang to Modern Times. New York: Harper Collins publishers. 1991.
Asimov gives a great layman's description of the events of the time referred to here.

9. Hans Schmidt, Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and The Contradictions of American Military History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987.

10. Ellen C. Collier. "Instances of use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993." Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service. 7 October 1993. Available at http://www.fas.org/man/crs/crs_931007.htm

11. John J. Mearsheimer. p.40.

12. Ibid.

13. Vincent Ferraro, "Notes on Hegemonic Stability Theory". Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/hegemony.htm on 10/20/2002.
Helen Milner, "International Political Economy: Beyond Hegemonic Stability," Foreign Policy, No. 110, Spring 1998.

14. Ibid

15. World Development Indicators database, World Bank, August 2002. available at http://www/worldbank.org/data/countrydata/countrydata.html.

16. Economic Report of The President 2002, Council of Economic advisors, transmitted to congress February 2002. Available online at http://w3.access.gpo.gov/eop/ .

17. ibid

18. Dick K. Nanto and Thomas Lum, "U.S. International Trade: Data and Forecasts". Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Center. Updated September 27, 2002. Available at http://house.gov/htbin/crsprodget?/ib/IBINDX

19. ibid

20. "International Comparisons of Education, Digest of Educational Statistics" Washington D.C.: National Center for Educational Statistics. 2001. Available at http://nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/digest2001/ch6.asp .

21. "International R & D expenditures in constant dollars and as a percent of GDP:1981-98" Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation. As taken from http://www.nsf.gov on 10/24/2002. Constant 1992 dollars.

22."Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2000" Washington D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau.
Section 20 of this document gives a more detailed breakdown of America's performance in the field of science and technology.

23. "Industry, Technology, and the Global Marketplace: U.S. Technology in the Marketplace" Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov on 10/24/2002.

24.Tom Lansford. All for One: Terrorism, NATO, and the United States. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. 2002.
Lansford looks at the formation of NATO and the coalition building process in detail for the campaign to over throw the Taliban government in Afghanistan.

25. Ibid. p67.

26. Ibid.

27. Richard N. Haass. The Reluctant Sheriff.

28. "World military expenditures." Center for Defense Information. Retrieved from http://www.cdi.org/issues/wme/ on 10/27/02.

29. Richard Haass, "What to do with American Primacy," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 78, no.5, pp. 37-49.

30. W.Max Corden, "American Decline and the End of Hegemony," SAIS Review,Vol. 10, no. 2 (Summer-Fall 1990), pp.13-26.
Michael H. Hunt, "American Decline and the Great Debate: A Historical Perspective," SAIS Review, Vol. 10, no.2 (Summer-Fall 1990), pp. 27-40.
R.A. Scalapino, "The United States and Asia: Future Prospects," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, issue 5 (Winter91/92), pp. 19-40.
W. Pfaff, "Redefining World Power," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, issue 1(1990/1991), p34-48.
A few examples.

31. As quoted by G. John Ikenberry, "Getting Hegemony Right," The National Interest, No. 63 (Spring 2001).
It should be noted that this French Foreign Minister has called for turning Europe into a counter balance against U.S. dominance.

32. Ibid.

33. Also review James Chace, "An Empty Hegemony?," World Policy Journal . 1997. available at http://www/worldpolicy.org/chace3.html .

34. David D. Newsom.

35. G. John Ikenberry. "Getting Hegemony Right"

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. Tom Lansford. All for One
Lansford discusses the relationship between a hegemon and international regimes in Chapter one.
Richard N. Haass, The Reluctant Sheriff. pp 90-94.
Haass discusses the U.S. use of institutionalism.

39. Caitlin Talmadge. pp. 26-30.

40. Clark S. Judge, "Hegemony of the Heart," Policy Review, No. 110 (December2001/January 2002).

41. David D. Newsom.

42. Moral, in this case, is being defined as socially acceptable to the actors that shall pass judgment on that decision; populations or states.

43. Caitlin Talmadge. pp. 26-30.

44. Donald D.A. Schaefer "U.S. Foreign Policies of Presidents Bush and Clinton: The Influence of China's Most Favored Nation Status upon Human Rights Issues," Social Science Journal, Vol 35, Issue 3 (1998), pp407-421.
This article discusses the party fighting that occurred due to the foreign policies concerning China pushed by these dichotic presidencies.

45. Kevin Phillips,"American Internationalism is No Longer Global," New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol9, Issue 3 (Summer 92) pp42-44.

46. Caitlin Talmadge. pp. 26-30.

47. Richard Haass, From Reluctant to Resolute.

48.. Kim Dae Jung," Is culture destiny?", Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73 Issue 6 (Nov/Dec 94), pp189-194.
Kim Dae Jung responses to an interview with Lee Kuan Yew who believes that Western Democracies are not compatible to Eastern culture.

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