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The Paradox of Unilateralism: An Early Assessment of the George W. Bush Approach to Nuclear Arms Control

1. Anthony Clark Arend, “Is Preemption Necessary? International Law and the Preemptive Use of Military Force” Washington Quarterly 26/2 (2003): 89.

2. Nicholas Kristof, “Handing Over the Keys to Iraq,” New York Times (15 April 2003): A17.

3. Brad Roberts, “The Road Ahead of Arms Control,” Washington Quarterly 23/2 (2000): 219.

4. For a good review of the G.H.W. Bush record on arms control, see David B. Cohen, “From START to START II: Dynamism and Pragmatism in the Bush Administration’s Nuclear Weapons Policies,” Presidential Studies Quarterly 27/3 (1997): 412-429.

5. Stephen Budianksy, “An Assault on Nuclear Arms (Unilateral Cuts by Bush),” U.S. News & World Report (7 October 1991), accessed via InfoTrac OneFile.

6. Walter Pincus, “’Rogue’ Nations Policy Builds on Clinton’s Lead,” Washington Post (12 March 2002): A4.

7. Brad Roberts, “From Nonproliferation to Anti-Proliferation,” International Security 18/1 (1993): 139.

8.Gilles Andreani, “The Disarray of US Non-Proliferation Policy,” Survival 41/4 (1999-2000): 43.

9. Francine Kiefer, “Why Bush Team is No Fan of Arms-Control Treaties,” Christian Science Monitor (20 July 2001): 2.

10. James Dao, “Rumsfeld Call on Europe to Rethink Arms Control,” New York Times (11 June 2001): A8.

11. Helen Dewar, “Senate Backs U.S.-Russian Nuclear Pact; Deployment to be Cut by Two-Thirds,” Washington Post (7 March 2003): A1.

12. Pavel Felgenhauer, “Bush’s Brezhnev Doctrine,” Moscow Times (20 March 2003) reprinted in “Iraq War & World Order,” CDI Russia Weekly #249, Center for Defense Information, online at www.cdi.org.

13. Richard Sokolsky, “Demystifying the US Nuclear Posture Review,” Survival 44/3 (2002): 134.

14. Philipp C. Bleek, “Nuclear Posture Review Leaks; Outlines Targets, Contingencies,” (April 2002): 20.

15. National Institute for Public Policy, Strategic Offensive Forces and the Nuclear Posture Review’s “New Triad” Fairfax, VA: National Institute for Public Policy, March 2003), online at www.nipp.org.

16. Ibid.

17. Phillip C. Bleek, “Nuclear Posture Review Released, Stresses Flexible Force Planning,” Arms Control Today (January-February 2002): 28-29.

18. Sokolsky, 144, emphasis added.

19. Quoted in Gerry J. Gilmore, “Operation Iraqi Freedom Marks New Way of Fighting War,” American Forces Press Service (17 April 2003).

20. Walter Pincus, “’Rogue’ Nations Policy Builds on Clinton’s Lead.”

21. Richard Butler, “Restarting the Nuclear Race,” New York Times (2 May 2001): A19.

22. Ibid.

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Assessing the Presidency of George W. Bush at Midpoint


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