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Behind the Rhetoric

[1] Jerome Slater, "Bush, Sharon and U.S. Policy in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, " Security Studies, 12 no. 1 (autumn 2002): 164-206; Dana Allin and Steven Simon, "The Moral Psychology of U. S. Support for Israel, " Survival 45, no. 3 (autumn 2003): 123-144; Kathleen Christison, "All Those Old Issues: George W. Bush and the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict," Journal of Palestine Studies, 33 no. 2 (Winter 2004): 36-50; Stephen Zunes, "U. S. Policy Towards Syria and the Triumph of Neoconservativism" Middle East Policy 11 no. 1 (2004): 52-69; Joel Beinin, "Pro-Israel Hawks and the Second Gulf War " Middle East Report On-Line www.merip.org/mero/mero040603.html. Regarding the case that the Bush administration's overall foreign policy has been dictated by neoconservatism, see Stefan Halper and Jonathan Clarke, America Alone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004); Richard Clarke, Against All Enemies (New York: Simon & SchU. S. ter, 2004); Ron SU. S. kind The Price of Loyalty (New York: Simon & SchU. S. ter, 2004); James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush's War Cabinet (New York: Viking Press, 2004); Seymour Hersh, "Selective Intelligence " The New Yorker 12 May 2003. For a discU. S. sion of the role of ideas in the Bush administration's foreign policy see Melvin Leffler, "9/11 and American Foreign Policy, " Diplomatic History 29 no. 3 (June 2005): 395-413 and the responses to the article in the same issue of the journal; see also Colin Dueck, 'Ideas and alternatives in American grand strategy, 2000–2004' Review of International Studies (2004) 30: 511-535.

[2] See for example, Robert Art, A Grand Strategy for America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003): 45-82.

[3] For a survey on the unpopularity of the U. S. in the Arab world see "The Pew Global Attitudes Project – A Year after the Iraq War " www.people-press.org

[4] Slater, "Bush, Sharon and U. S. Policy "; Shibley Telhami, "Understanding the Challenge, " Middle East Journal, 56 no. 1 (2002); Shibley Telhami, The Stakes: The United States and the Middle East (Boulder: Westview, 2002); Halper & Clarke, America Alone, 335; Gilles Andreani, "The 'War on Terror': Good CaU. S. e, Wrong Concept " Survival, 46 no. 4 (2004-5) 48; Simon & Allin, "The Moral Psychology of U. S. Support for Israel. " Former Secretary of State Powell seemed to endorse this outlook, see his speech to Congress cited in Janine Zacharia, "U. S. to hit Syria with sanctions " Jerusalem Post 13 February 2004.

[5] Michael Scott Doran, "Palestine, Iraq, and American Strategy " Foreign Affairs, 82 no. 1 (January/ February 2003); Fouad Ajami, "The Sentry's Solitude ", Foreign Affairs 80, no. 6 (November/December 2001); Walter RU. S. sell Mead, Power, Terror, Peace and War (New York: Knorf, 2004), 82-105.

[6] Barry Rubin, "The Real Roots of Arab Anti-Americanism " Foreign Affairs 81, no. 6 (November/December 2002); Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, Hating America (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) chapters 7 and 9; Fouad Ajami, 'The Falseness of Anti-Americanism' Foreign Policy (September/October 2003) Fawaz Gerges, 'The Tragedy of Arab-American Relations' Christian Science Monitor  18 September 2001; On anti-Americanism in the Middle East, see also Josh Pollack, "Anti-Americanism in Contemporary Saudi Arabia " MERIA 7, no 4  (December 2003); Reuven Paz, "Islamists and Anti-Americanism " MERIA 7, no 4  (December 2003); Adel Darwish, "Anti-Americanism in the Arabic Language Media " MERIA 7, no 4  (December 2003); Patrick Clawson, "The Paradox of Anti-Americanism in Iran" MERIA, 8, no. 1 (March 2004).

[7] Rubin, "The Real Roots of Arab Anti-Americanism. "

[8] Josef Joffe, "A World Without Israel, " Foreign Policy January/February 2005.

[9] Telhami, "Understanding the Challenge ".

[10] William Arkin Code Names: Deciphering U.S. Military Plans, Programs and Operations in the 9/11 World (Steerforth Press 2005).

[11] Benjamin Miller, "The Great Powers and Regional Peacemaking: Patterns in the Middle East and Beyond " Journal of Strategic Studies 20 (1) 1997: 103-142. Miller argues that the details of any permanent settlement – conflict resolution - are not of great concern to the U. S. . In contrast, for the local protagonists vital interests are deemed to be at stake in core questions such as borders, refugees and other symbolic identity issues, such as exist with regard to Jerusalem. This means that the balance of motivation favours the local protagonists. The locals have a greater interest in the details and thU. S. will be prepared to pay a higher price in terms of defiance than the U. S. has an interest in bearing.

[12] Mead, Power, Terror, Peace and War, 182-89.

[13] Mordechai Gazit, "Israel's Military Procurement from the United States " in Gabriel Sheffer ed, Dynamics of Dependence (Boulder: Westview, 1987).

[14] Abraham Ben-Zvi, The United States and Israel (Columbia University Press, 1993), 29-76.

[15] Kathleen Christison, Perceptions of Palestine (Berkeley: University of California 1999), 95-100; Slater, "Bush, Sharon and U.S. Policy ".

[16] The 'Alpha' plan called for Israel significant territorial concession in the Negev; limitations on Jewish immigration to Israel and a reduction in the size of the Israeli army were also mentioned  Ben-Zvi, Decade of Transition, 28, 45-53. One of the main architects of the plan thought it posed an existential threat to Israel, Evelyn Shuckburgh, Descent to Suez, (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1986), 279, 297.

[17] National Security Council Meeting, 7 AugU. S. t 1957, cited in Ben-Zvi, Decade of Transition, 81.

[18] On the policy-making process in relation to U. S. policy towards the Middle East, see Steven Spiegel, The Other Arab Israeli Conflict (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985) 1-16; William Quandt, Peace Process (Brookings/UCLA, 1993): 7-21.

[19] Edward Tivnan, The Lobby (New York: Simon and SchU. S. ter 1987); Mansour, Beyond Alliance, 237-285

[20] Spiegel, The Other Arab-Israeli Conflict, 16-49; John Snetsinger, Truman, the Jewish Vote and the Creation of Israel (Stanford: Hoover Institute 1979).

[21] "The State Department's extreme makeover " Salon http://fairU. S. e.1accesshost.com/ news2/salon39.html; Michael Lind "Churchill for Dummies " Spectator, 24 April 2004, p. 25; Joshua Marshall, "The Power Rangers " New Yorker, 2 February 2004, p. 85; James Fallows, "Bush's Lost Year " Atlantic Monthly October 2004. See also a discU. S. sion of this issue in Joshua Muravchik, "The Neoconservative Cabal " Commentary September 2003, 26-33; Irwin Seltzer ed. Neoconservatism (London: Atlantic Books 2004), 5-7.

[22] In this vein, see Halper and Clarke America Alone, 33. They cite a Strategic Policy Report written in June 1996 for the new Netanyahu government in Israel that was authored by Richard Pearle, Douglas Feith and David Wurmser, entitled A Clean break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm (Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies 1996); see also Maureen Dowd, "Necon Coup at the Department d'Etat," New York Times, AugU. S. t 6, 2003.

[23] Nathan Gutman, "Zinni: Criticism of Iraq war not spurred by anti-Semitism " Ha'aretz 25 May 2004. For similar claims regarding U. S. policy towards Iran see William Pfaff, "Neocons have Iran in their sights " International Herald Tribune 26 AugU. S. t 2004

[24] Rebecca Phillips, "Dual Loyalty?: Are Israeli Interests 'The Elephant in the Room' in the Conflict with Iraq? " ABCNEWS.com, 15 March 2004 http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/ Primetime/iraq_israel030315_bn.html, cited in Dore Gold, "Wartime Witch Hunt: Blaming Israel for the Iraq War " Jerusalem Issue Brief Vol. 3 (25) June 2004. For a critique of the way the Bush administration manipulated intelligence information with regard to Iraq in order to garner support for the war, see John Prados, Hoodwinked: The Documents That Reveal How Bush Sold U. S. a War (New York: The New Press, 2004); James Bamford, Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the AbU. S. e of America's Intelligence Agencies  (New York, Doubleday, 2004).

[25] The survey, commissioned by 'Stand for Israel', a project of the International Fellowship of Christians and Jews, polled 1200 Americans, with an over-sampling of Jews and Evangelicals. The survey found that 85% of Jews expressed support for Israel, as did 62% of "conservative church-going Christians" see the 'Executive Summary', Stand for Israel Survey (Washington DC: Tarrance Group, 9 October 2002) cited in Carl Schrag, "American Jews and Evangelical Christians: Anatomy of a Changing Relationship " Jewish Political Studies Review 17:1-2 (Spring 2005).

[26] Michael Freund, "Onward Christian Voters " Jerusalem Post 16 November 2004; Chip Berlet, "U. S. Christian evangelicals raise the stakes " Bitterlemons-international.org 2 (34) 2 Spetember 2002.

[27] Stephen Zunes, "The Influence of the Christian Right in U. S. Middle East Policy " Middle East Policy, 12 (2) 2005: 73-78. On Christian Zionism in the U. S. see Moshe Davis, America and the Holy Land (Praeger 1995); Timothy Weber On the Road to Armageddon (Michigan: Baker 2004); Lester Vogel, To See a Promised Land: Americans and the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Pennsylvania State University Press 1983); Yaacov Ariel, On Behalf of Israel: American Fundamentalist Attitudes Towards Jews, Judaism and Zionism 1865-1945 (New York: Carlson 1991); Lawrence Davidson, "Christian Zionism as a Representation of American Manifest Destiny " Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 14 (2) Summer 2005.

[28] For an argument that societal factors, such as Congress and lobbies, have become more influential in the post-Cold War era, see Samuel Huntington, "The Disintegration of the U. S. National Interest " Foreign Affairs (2000-1); Steven Hook, "Domestic Obstacles to International Affairs: The State Dept Under Fire At Home " PS (January 2003), 23-29; Tony Smith, Foreign Attachments: The Power of Ethnic Groups in the Making of U. S. Foreign Policy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000); SU. S. an Peterson and Christopher Went, "Institutional Change and Foreign Policy: A Comparative Study of U. S. intervention in Guatamala and Nicaragua " Security Studies  11, no. 1 (2001).

[29] Alison Mitchell, "Mideast Turmoil: Congress " New York Times 3 May 2002.

[30] Elizabeth Oldmixon, Beth Rosenson & Kenneth Wald, "Conflict over Israel: The Role of Religion, Race, Party and Ideology in the U. S. House of Representatives, 1997-2002 " Terrorism and Political Violence 17(3) Summer 2005.

[31] Nathan Guttman, "Getting tight with the Bible Belt " Ha'aretz 16 February 2005; Lily Galili, "National Union trys to rally American right vs. road map " Ha'aretz 25 April 2003.

[32] For a statement to this effect by a major American Jewish leader see Abraham Foxman, "Evangelical Support for Israel Is a Good Thing," Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 16 July 2002. For a discU. S. sion of this issue see, Schrag, "American Jews and Evangelical Christians ".

[33] Slater, "Bush, Sharon and U. S. Policy, "192; Nathan Guttman, "Wiping out terror, bringing on redemption " Ha'aretz 29 April 2002.

[34] Slater, "Bush, Sharon and U. S. Policy, " 192; Marc Lynch, 'Taking Arabs' SerioU. S. ly' Foreign Affairs, 82 (5) September/October 2003 Elizebeth Burmiller, "Mideast Turmoil: The Meeting " New York Times 26 April 2002; Todd Purdum, "Palestinians meeting Powell urge Pullout " New York Times 9 AugU. S. t 2002.

[35] Alan Sipress, "Lawmakers criticize Palestinians " Washington Post, 6 April 2001.

[36] Marvin Fuewenger, Congress and Israel (Westport: Greenwood, 1979); Marie Henehan, Congress and Foreign Policy  (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Jerel Rosati, The Politics of United States Foreign Policy (London: Wadsworth, 2004, 3rd Edition) 292-333. Increased Congressional foreign policy activism since the end of the Cold War is mainly expressed regarding economic issues important to the general public, see Andrew Bennett, "Who Rules the Roost? Congressional-Executive Relations on Foreign Policy after the Cold War " in Robert Lieber ed. Eagle Rules? (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002). For a systematic analysis of the way domestic politics and strategic interests have combined to constrain U. S. policy towards Israel, see Ben-Zvi, United States and Israel

[37] Nathan Guttman, "Bush sends $20M directly to PA, citing `national security needs " Ha'aretz 10 July 2003. For another example see, "Bush blocks U. S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital " Jerusalem Post 2 October 2002

[38] Dennis Ross  " The National Interest Fall 2003, no. 73; David Frum, The Right Man (New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003) 169.

[39] Cited in Schrag, "American Jews and Evangelical Christians ".

[40] Ibid. The survey was carried out by John Green, director of the Bliss Institute of Applied Politics at the University of Akron, Todd Hertz, "Opinion Roundup: The Evangelical View of Israel," Christianity Today, 9 June 2003.

[41] Kenneth Wald et al, "Reclaiming Zion: How American ReligioU. S. Groups View Israel, " in Sheffer U. S. -Israeli Relations at the Crossroads: 147-168; Todd Hertz, "Opinion Roundup: The Evangelical View of Israel," Christianity Today, 9 June 2003.

[42] Zunes, The Influence of the Christian Right, 75

[43] Janine Zacharia, "Bush to Israel: "Withdraw without delay " Jerusalem Post 7 April 2002.

[44] Zunes, The Influence of the Christian Right, 76; Dana Milbank, "Bush "Deeply Troubled " by Israeli Action: Aides Fear Impact On "Road Map " Washington Post 11 June 2003; Aluf Benn, "Bush's determination surprised Israel " Ha'aretz 7 June 2003; "Washington carefully orchestrates Aqaba meeting " Ha'aretz 1 June 2003; Shlomo Shamir, "Bush: Abu Mazen is a man dedicated to peace " Ha'aretz 27 April 2003; "Bush to Abbas: Terror first step on road map " AP 26 July 2003; Melissa Radler, "U. S. Christians call for 'biblical road map' " Jerusalem Post 1 May 2003; for the text of the letter of the 88 Senators, see Journal of Palestine Studies 32/4 (Summer 2003):185.

[45] "Christians differ over 'road map' " Associated Press 25 July 2003.

[46] Yossi Shain and Barry Bristman, "Diaspora, Kinship and Loyalty: The renewal of Jewish National Security "International Affairs 78 no. 1 (January 2002): 69-95; Ofira Seliktar, Divided We Stand: American Jews, Israel, and the Peace Process (Praeger 2002); Jonathan Rynhold, "Labour, Likud, the Special Relationship and the Peace Process " Israel Affairs 3 nos. 3 & 4 (1997).

[47] CNN exit polls suggested 79% of U. S. Jews voted for Gore, Allin and Simon , "The Moral Psychology of U. S. Support for Israel " 134; Nathan Guttman, "The voting trend for Arab Americans: anyone but Bush " Ha'aretz 7 March ‏2004.

[48] Nathan Guttman, "Kerry jumps on Sharon bandwagon in favoring Gaza disengagement plan " Ha'aretz 25 April 2004; "Kerry: Statesman Arafat now `an outlaw to the peace process " Associated Press 10 March 2004; Ron Kampeas, "Despite Republicans' best efforts, Jews still vote strongly Democrat " Jewish Telegraph Agency 3 November 2004.

[49] According to a poll conducted by the Fox Broadcasting Company, see 'Polling the Nation' http://poll.orspub.com.

[50] Allin and Simon, "The Moral Psychology of U. S. Support for Israel, " 132; Global Views 2004 survey www.ccfr.org/globalviews2004/sub/pdf/Global_Views_2004_U. S. .pdf; "Poll: Americans back Israel in intifada " Jerusalem Post 14 March 2001; CBS Poll 3 April 2002; "69% in U. S. sympathize with Israel " Jerusalem Post 20 February 2005.

[51]   "Poll: Most U. S. Jews back Palestinian state " Ha'aretz 12 November 2001

[52] www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/IsrPalConflict/MEroadmap/MERoadMapReport.pdf; Joe Berkofsky "What's in a 'road map'? " Jewish Telegraph Agency 3 June 2003.

[53] Halper & Clarke, America Alone, 58, 78-81, 99-100

[54] Eytan Gilboa, American Public Opinion Toward Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Lexington: Lexington Books, 1987)

[55] Halper & Clarke, America Alone, 82, 89-91.

[56] Aluf Benn, "Pentagon official wants Yaron fired " Ha'aretz 16 December 2004; "Mofaz postpones Washington trip "Edward Cody, "China Scolds U.S. for Blocking Israeli Arms Sale " Washington Post 28 June 2005.

[57] David Frum & Richard Perle, An End to Evil: How to Win the War on Terror (New York: Random House, 2003), 182. See also Frank Gaffney, "DangeroU. S. Liaisons-Does Israel have a new "opportunity"?' 21 December 2004 www.nationalreview.com/gaffney/gaffney2004 12211100.asp; Douglas Feith, "Wye and the Road to War," Commentary, January 1999.
21
December 2004 www.nationalreview.com/gaffney/gaffney200412211100.asp

[58] Halper & Clarke, America Alone, 332.

[59] Glenn Kessler, "Bush Says Peace Plan May Be "Productive " Washington Post 5 December 2003; "Wolfowitz supports Ayalon-NU. S. siebeh peace plan " Ha'aretz 31 October 2003; Akiva Eldar  "The Europeans " hobby - and Moskowitz's " Ha'aretz 18 March 2003; Janine Zacharia "Powell, Annan encourage Geneva authors " Jerusalem Post 6 December 2003.

[60] Aluf Benn, "U.S. sends messages to J "lem, criticizing settlements, fence " Ha'aretz 16 November 2003; Aluf Benn, "Bush's indelible imprint " Ha'aretz 27 AugU. S. t 2004; Glenn Kessler, "U.S., Israel DiscU. S. s Internal Growth in West Bank Settlements " Washington Post 30 October 2004; Nicholas Kralev, "White House urged broader withdrawal " Washington Times 13 AugU. S. t 2004; "U. S. & Israeli Officials: Yesha Headed for Destruction " 8 December 2004 www.israelnationalnews.com/news.php3?id=73287.

[61] On the influence of neoconservatism in Israel see, Jonathan Rynhold, "In Search of Israeli Conservatism " Journal of Political Ideologies 2002, 7 (2).

[62] White House takes page out of Sharansky's playbook "Limits to Sharansky's ideal " Ha'aretz 8 February 2004.

[63] Ivo Daalder and James Lindsay, America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy (Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2003), 13-16; see also Steven Hurst,'Myths of Neoconservatism: George W. Bush's 'Neo-conservative' Foreign Policy Revisited' 42, no. 1 (2005): 75-96. While criticizing many aspects of Bush's foreign policy doctrine, Jervis conceded that much of its is consistent with U. S. interests as defined from within a realist approach, see Robert Jervis, "Understanding the Bush Doctrine " Political Science Quarterly 118, no. 3 (2003); Phillip Gordon, "Bush's Middle East Vision " Survival 45, no.1: 155-165.

[64] Halper and Clarke, America Alone, 14, 128-134.

[65] Hook, "Domestic Obstacles to International Affairs, " 23-29; Thomas Schoenbaum, Waging Peace and War (New York: Simon & SchU. S. ter, 1988), 274-5; Quandt, Peace Process, 65- 94.

[66] Thomas Carothers, "Promoting Democracy and Fighting Terror " Foreign Affairs January/February 2003.

[67] Aluf Benn, "Bush's determination surprised Israel " Ha'aretz 7 June 2003; "Washington carefully orchestrates Aqaba meeting " Ha'aretz 1 June 2003; Shlomo Shamir, "Bush: Abu Mazen is a man dedicated to peace " Ha'aretz 27 April 2003; "Bush to Abbas: Terror first step on road map "AP 26 July 2003.

[68] Daalder and Lindsay, America Unbound, 40-47, 63-67; Robert Liebler, "Rethinking America's Grand Strategy " The Chronicle Review 50 (39) p. B6; Halper and Clarke, America Alone, 147; James Baker, The Politics of Diplomacy (New York: Putnam, 1995), 435; Glenn Kessler, "U.S. Decision On Iraq Has Puzzling Past " Washington Post 12 January 2003.

[69] Daalder and Lindsay, America Unbound, 92-3, 119, 130; Bob Woodward, Plan of Attack: The Road to War (New York: Simon & SchU. S. ter, 2004).

[70] Cited in Halper and Clarke, America Alone, 33.

[71] John Lewis Gaddis, Surprise, Security, and the American Experience, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004). The ideological aspects of the neoconservative approach to U. S. foreign policy are hardly unique either, see Mead, Power, Terror, Peace and War, 82-105.

[72] Gold, "Wartime Witch Hunt "; Author interview with former Israeli National Security Advisor, General Res. Uzi Dayan.

[73] Yossi Verter, "Barak, the come-back kid' Ha'aretz 24 July 2003; Allin and Simon, "The Moral Psychology of U. S. Support for Israel " 130; Barry Rubin and Judith Kolp-Rubin, Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography (Oxford University Press, 2003), 213; Daalder and Lindsay, America Unbound, 168-9. It is often claimed that the Israelis and Palestinians both accepted with the Clinton Parameters, albeit with reservations, see for example Jeremy Pressman, "Visions in Collision: What Happened at Camp David and Taba? " International Security 28, no. 2 (2003): 5-43. However, on closer inspection this turns out to be incorrect because while Israeli reservations were within the contours of Parameters, Palestinian reservations were clearly outside the bounds of the Parameters. Consequently, senior U. S. officials at the time including National Security Council Advisor Sandy Berger, his deputy Bruce Reidel, Dennis Ross and Rob Malley from the State Department all attested to Arafat's rejection of the plan, see the memoirs of one of Barak's chief negotiators, Gilad Sher, Within Touching Distance (Tel Aviv: Yediot Achronot 2001) [Hebrew], 382-88 and Dennis Ross "Panel interview " 8 AugU. S. t 2001, www.Washingtoninstitute.org/media/ross.htm. See also the official Palestinian rejection of the plan published in Al-Ayyam 2 January 2001. It is also claimed claim that Israelis and Palestinians were close to agreement at Taba during the final days of the Barak government at the end of January 2001, for a rebuttal of this claim see David Makovsky, "Taba Mythchief, " The National Interest (Spring 2003).

[74] Dana Milbank, "Powell vows U. S. will match foes," Washington Post, 17 December

2000.

[75] Privately, France concurred with the U. S. 's negative assessment of Bashar Asad regime as 'beyond reform' and given their historical commitment to Lebanon where Syrian behaviour undermined the countries independence, the French were not keen to press Israel to resume negotiations over the Golan with Syria; personal communication with senior French diplomat, September 2005.

[76] Abraham Ben-Zvi, "Playing different melodies " Jerusalem Post 13 March 2003.

[77] Amir Oren, "Strategic chaos in the Middle East " Ha'aretz 7 September 2003; Janine Zacharia, "White House slams Arafat's appointment of Rajoub " Jerusalem Post 27 AugU. S. t 2003; Michael Dobbs, "Palestinians Urged to Break Up Terrorist Groups " Washington Post 21 AugU. S. t 2003.

[78] Nathan Gutman, "U. S. declines to criticize Rantisi assassination " Ha'aretz 19 April 2004; Dana Milbank, "Bush Qualifies Praise for Israeli Plan " Washington Post 13 April 2004.

[79] Aluf Benn and Arnon Regular, "PM to Powell: We'll coordinate pullout if PA combats terror " Ha'aretz 23 November 2004.

[80] Aluf Benn, "Rice winds up her visit by naming U.S. security coordinator in region " Ha'aretz 8 February 2005; Glenn Kessler "U. S. Plans Low-Key Approach in Return to Mideast Role " Washington Post 6 February 2005; Aluf Benn, "CIA set to oversee the PA-Israel security cooperation " Ha'aretz 30 January 2005; Amir Oren, "Inside Track / Okay, give me 30 pU. S. h-ups " Ha'aretz 11 February.2005; Glenn Kessler, "U. S. Expands Envoy's Role on Gaza Issues " Washington Post 28 May 2005.

[81] Nitzan Horowitz, "Sharon's victory gets mixed response in U.S " Ha'aretz 7 February 2001. On the deep animosity towards Sharon in U. S. foreign policy making circles, see Joyce Starr, Kissing Through Glass (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1990) 126-9.

[82] Itamar Rabinovich, "No radical shift " Bitter Lemons 2 no. 42, 2 December 2004.

[83] Jane Perlez, "U. S. says killings by Israel inflame Middle East conflict," New York Times, 28 AugU. S. t 2001 Aluf Benn, "U. S. administration has reservations about transferral of promised funds to Israel " Ha'aretz 31 May 2001; Nathan Guttman, 'U. S. stopped parts sales during intifada' Jerusalem Post 22 September 2005; see also Robert O. Freedman, "The Bush administration and the Arab-Israeli Conflict " MERIA 9(1) March 2005.

[84] Marc Lacey, "Attacks up last year U. S. terrorism report says," New York Times 1 May 2001.

[85] Ross  "Frum, The Right Man, 169; Jane Perlez, 'Before Attacks U. S. was ready to say it backs Palestinain State'  New York Times 2 October 2001.

[86] Frum, The Right Man, 153 169-170, 199, 254-6; The Financial Times 19 September 2001; Washington Post 27 September 2001, 5 October 2001.

[88] Bill Salmon, "Bush Will Not Meet Arafat " Washington Times 9 November 2001. For an example of the links between Fatah, Hamas and Hizbullah see Yoav Stern, "Fatah militants tell UK paper: Hezbollah funded terror attacks " Ha'aretz 4 April 2005.

[89] Frum, The Right Man, 169-170, 199, 254-6; Aluf Benn, "Zinni says Arafat a liar, " Ha'aretz 27 January 2002, see also Robert O. Freedman, "The Bush Administration and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: The Record of its First Four Years " MERIA 9(1) March 2005.

[90] Amir Oren, "U. S. and Egypt convinced: Arafat Coordinated covertly with Hamenani " Ha'aretz 14 January 2002; Janine Zacharia, "Reaching the cut-off point? " Jerusalem Post 1 February 2002; Todd Purdum & Patrick Tyler, "Mideast Turmoil: Aides To Bush Say Arafat Financed Terrorist Group " New York Times 26 June 2002; "White House spokesman links PA to 'axis of evil' nations " Ha'aretz 14 February 2002; Ronald Kessler A Matter Of Character: Inside The White House Of George W. Bush (New York: Sentinel, 2004); Candice Karp, 'The Bush administration and its Policy on Palestine: Opportunities Scorned', Palestine-Israel Journal 11 no. 2, (2004).

[91] "Text of Bush Speech ", White House transcript 4 April 2002; Janine Zacharia, "Bush to Israel: "Withdraw without delay " Jerusalem Post 7 April 2002

[92] Janine Zacharia, "Bush: Palestinians need new leadership " Jerusalem Post 25 June 2002.

[93] "The Middle East to 2020 " U.S. National Intelligence Council www.cia.gov/nic/ PDF_GIF_2020_Support/2003_12_08_papers/dec8_middleeast.doc

[94]   "State Department Wins Against National Security Council in Road Map Responsibility " Middle East Newsline 4 June, 2003 www.mideastweb.org/mewnews1.htm; Dana Milbank, "Bush "Deeply Troubled " by Israeli Action: Aides Fear Impact On "Road Map " Washington Post 11 June 2003; Nathan Guttman, "Weisglass takes road map doubts to White House " Ha'aretz 15 April 2003; Aluf Benn, "Bush's determination surprised Israel " Ha'aretz 7 June 2003; "Washington carefully orchestrates Aqaba meeting " Ha'aretz 1 June 2003; Shlomo Shamir, "Bush: Abu Mazen is a man dedicated to peace " Ha'aretz 27 April 2003; Akiva Eldar, "Bush likes Dahlan, believes Abbas, and has `a problem with Sharon " Ha'aretz 10 June 2003; Herb Keinon, "U. S. eager to see more outposts go " Jerusalem Post 10 July 2003; Aluf Benn, "U.S. presses Israel on outposts and prisoners " Ha'aretz 9 July 2003; Janine Zacharia, "Bush: Security wall "a problem " Jerusalem Post 27 July 2003; "Bush to Abbas: Terror first step on road map " AP 26 July 2003.

[95] '57 Terror Attacks Thwarted July-AugU. S. t 2003' IDF Spokesperson 10 September 2003, www.idf.il

[96] Remarks with U.N. secretary general Kofi Annan, U.N. headquarters, New York, Aug. 21, 2003, at http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2003/23452.htm

[97] Khaled Abu Toameh, "Abbas: I will never take job again " Jerusalem Post, 28 March 2004.

[98] Zev Schiff, "Behind the Disco Bombing " Ha'aretz 22 June 2001; "Mofaz: Palestinians do not intend to halt terrorism " Jerusalem Post 11 June 11 2001; Aluf Benn, "Sharon, U.S. work out settlement freeze deal " Ha'aretz 6 June 2001.

[99] Aluf Benn, "U. S. expects Migron to be dismantled " Ha'aretz 23 December 2003; 'Burns: Israeli concessions not good enough' Jerusalem Post 30 November 2003; Janine Zacharia, "U. S. to cut settlement spending from Israeli loan guarantees " Jerusalem Post 26 November 2003; Douglas Davis, "Bush rebukes Israel, PA " Jerusalem Post 20 November 2003; Aluf Benn, "Analysis / U.S. loses interest in the road map " Ha'aretz 16 October 2003.

[100] Herb Keinon, "PM details disengagement plan " Jerusalem Post 19 December 2003

[101] Steven Weisman, "U.S. May Support Israeli Approach on Leaving Gaza " New York Times 13 February 2004; Ben Kaspit, "On the Verge of a Package Deal " Ma'ariv 1 March 2004.

[102] "Rice: Palestinians key to ending conflict " AP 18 April 2004.

[103] Aluf Benn, "U.S. won't press Israel to remove outposts " Ha'aretz 8 November 2004; Aluf Benn "Washington rejects Israel's list of illegal outposts " 1 November 2004; Nathan Guttman, "U. S. to Israel: No more excU. S. es, remove outposts " Ha'aretz 9 June 2004; Glenn Kessler, "U. S. , Israel DiscU. S. s Internal Growth in West Bank Settlements " Washington Post, 30 October 2004.

[104] See "Statement by the President " 14 April 2004, www.whiteHouse.gov/news/releases/ 2004/04/20040414-2.html; "Press Background Briefing " White House Office Of The Press Secretary 14 April 2004; Letter from Dov Weissglass to Condoleezza Rice, 18 April 2004 www.pmo.gov.il/english/ts.exe?tsurl=0.22.7864.0.0; "Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Statement at the White House " Israel Government Press Office 14 April 2004; "Sharon Letter to Bush " www.imra.org.il 14 April 2004; James Bennet "Sharon Coup: U. S. Go-Ahead " New York Times 15 April 2004; Elisabeth Bumiller, "In Major Shift, Bush Endorses Sharon Plan " New York Times 15 April 2004; Ilil Shachar, "Israel commits to removing illegal outposts " Ma'ariv 18 April 2004.

[105] What was really remarkable about the U. S. statement was not its content, but the fact that a right-wing Israeli government sought assurances from the U. S. that essentially bound it to elements of the Clinton Plan, that it had so vehemently rejected previoU. S. ly, Aluf Benn, "A U.S. 'trU. S. teeship' for the Palestinians " Ha'aretz 22 April 2004.

[106] Glenn Kessler, "Bush Offers Palestinians Aid " Washington Post 27 May 2005.

[107] Nicholas Kralev, "White House urged broader withdrawal " Washington Times 13 AugU. S. t 2004

[108] See Jonathan Rynhold, "Israel's Fence: Can Separation Make Better Neighbours? " Survival 46 no. 1 (2004); Peter Slevin, "Delicate Manoeuvres Led To U. S. -Israeli Stance " Washington Post 16 April 2004; Uzi Benziman, "A PU. S. h from Bush " 16 April 2004; Aluf Benn, "Israel wants U.S. endorsement of fence " Ha'aretz 31 March 2004.

[109] 'Summary of State of Israel's Response regarding the Security Fence' 28 February 2005, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs www.mfa.gov.il; www.btselem.org/english/Separation_ Barrier/Statistics; Aluf Benn, 'Israel's new frontier' Ha'aretz 25 February 2005.

[110] Jim VandeHei, "President Opposes New Israeli Settlements " Washington Post 12 April 2005

[111] "Construction halted in 50 W. Bank outposts " Ha'aretz  28 June 2005; "Sasson - more than meets the eye "

[112] Aluf Benn and Nathan Guttman, "U. S. : Israel should let East J'lem residents vote in PA elections " Ha'aretz 14 November 2004.

[113] 'Secretary Condoleezza Rice: Remarks With Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas After Their Meeting' www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/41934.htm

[114] Nathan Guttman, "Bush pledges $350m in aid to PA " Ha'aretz 8 February 2005;

Kessler, "Bush Offers Palestinians Aid ".

[115] U. S. Weighs Punishing Syria "U. S. : Syria Still Enabling Terror Funding "'U.S. Recalls Ambassador To Syria' www.State.Gov/R/Pa/Prs/Ps/2005/42305.Htm

[116] Analysis: Bush remains in our corner " Mike Allen and Glenn Kessler, "Bush Goal: Palestinian State by 2009 " Washington Post 13 November 2004; Aluf Benn, "Diplomatic swarms " Ha'aretz 26 November 2004; Ehud Ya'ari, "Staying the Course " Jerusalem Report 15 December 2004

[117] White House Press Briefing by Scott McClellan 9 February 2005 www.whiteHouse.gov/ news/releases/2005/02/20050209-11.html.



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