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American Diplomacy

Commentary and Analysis
Fall 2018



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First Ambassador with Peace Corps Experience: Parker Borg
by John Coyne

Parker Borg was a volunteer with the initial group to the Philippines, 1961-63.  Later, as a career Foreign Service Officer, he would be nominated by three separate Presidents for ambassadorial positions: Mali, Burma, and Iceland.  (Borg never went to Burma because of Senate objections to that country's human rights issues.)

When Borg was nominated as ambassador to Mali in 1981, the first returned volunteer to reach that position, Peace Corps Director Loret Ruppe, was elated. It had taken the State Department twenty years to fulfill JFK's hope for the Peace Corps, that someday returned volunteers would fill the ranks of US ambassadors. (Peter McPherson, Peru 1965-66, was named the Director of USAID that same year, making him the first former volunteer to head a federal agency.)

In a 2002 interview with the Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training, Borg explained how he joined the Peace Corps. Coming from a middle class Republican family in Minneapolis, Minnesota, he hadn't voted for Kennedy, but was intrigued by the idea of working overseas in a new US program as a volunteer. "It sounded like a fantastic idea. I went down to Washington from Dartmouth at spring break to the Peace Corps office and told them I wanted to join. My family was appalled I would be considering something like this after graduating. They didn't think much of any government programs; the world of business was what mattered to them."

Parker explained to the recruiting office his focus on international relations in college, his enthusiasm about the new program, and his interest in possibly becoming a teacher. The official at the Peace Corps office didn't think much of his qualifications.

"We don't want people from Ivy League colleges," they told him in Washington. "We want people who've gone to ag schools and technical schools and who can do the sorts of things we need to do."

Declared persona non grata for having gone to an Ivy League school and having earned a liberal arts degree didn't discourage Borg. He immediately found out where the first Peace Corps programs were going and the required skills.

"There were programs for Tanzania, Ghana, Santa Lucia and the Philippines," he recalled. "They were all technical except the one in the Philippines. The Philippines was going to be an education program. So when I filled out my Peace Corps application, I said I wanted to be a teacher. To my surprise, I was selected despite my lack of teaching background but, I guess, because I had indicated an interest."

Assigned to a school in a small town in the province of Camarines Norte on the island of Luzon, he worked as a teacher's aide in an elementary school, the only volunteer at the school. "I taught beginning English to first graders; I taught mathematics skills to third graders; I taught science to some sixth graders; I expanded into the local high school where I also taught literature to eighth graders; current events and history to some seniors. It was great fun. I had a wonderful time." Borg felt he had to work extra hard to prove to himself and to those who doubted his qualifications that, despite the absence of a proper background the Peace Corps official had told him they wanted, he could do the job.

"As a volunteer, I was required to find a project for the months when school was not in session.  Most of my colleagues worked with local youth in summer camps, but I wanted to learn more about US Government operations overseas. In the summer of my second year, I went to the director of the USAID Mission, and asked about working for free in the office. This experience gave me my first opportunity to see American Foreign Service Officers and I was appalled."

As somebody who felt a connection with rural life in the Philippines, Parker didn't think the Foreign Service officers he met had much connection with the country. "They were mostly younger guys doing visa work and participating in what I thought was the most frivolous sort of life, traveling relatively little outside of the capital, going out on their sailboats on the weekends, living an American life in this foreign country."

"In many ways this is, of course, the typical reaction of PCVs towards embassies. We're out in the boondocks and we're living the 'real' life; the diplomats are up in the capital and don't know the country. I think this is duplicated almost everywhere in the third world."

Description: http://peacecorpsworldwide.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Borg-Parker-w-Schoonover-Brenda-et-al-1961bw-281x300.jpg
Future RPCV Ambassadors Brenda (Brown) Schoonover & Parker Borg
With other PCVs in the Philippines, 1961.

While less than certain about following a diplomatic career, Parker took advantage of a Peace Corps offer of a free trip to Manila to take the Foreign Service Exam.  Although he passed the written and oral exams, he put off joining the State Department until he had finished two years of graduate school and could reflect further about a post-Peace Corps career.

Borg's State Department orientation class included two other returned volunteers—Leo Cecchini (Ethiopia) and Weldon Burson (Colombia). "There were no minorities. There were only three females. I found some of the people interesting, but talking to a few of my new colleagues, they said that being selected for the Foreign Service was the greatest thing that would ever happen in their lives. It struck me they had rather limited perspectives on what it was that they were entering."

Parker's first assignment with the State Department was to Malaysia, where he found some of his best friends among the local Peace Corps volunteers.  They were closer to him in age and their orientation to local events.

After memorable assignments in Vietnam and several jobs in Washington, Parker got another overseas job, this time as head of the US Consulate in Lubumbashi, Zaire (now the Congo).  During his two years in Zaire, he made a point of getting to know all the members of the Peace Corps community in his consular district. This became extremely useful when insurrections (known as the Shaban Wars) in 1977 and 1978 required the extraction of many volunteers from their communities,  an operation that had to be carried out quietly to avoid notifying government officials that this was an evacuation.

Later, as Director of West African Affairs in Washington, Borg traveled frequently in West Africa, generally including visits with PC offices and volunteers in the field in addition to the formal visits with the Embassy and AID mission.

In Mali, when he became ambassador in 1981, Parker found a Peace Corps program of about 50-60 volunteers scattered widely throughout the country. At first the Government of Mali, then more closely allied with the Soviet Union than the West, attempted to curtail his travel out of the capital, demanding two-week advance notification and an official government escort. When he explained that he wanted to visit Peace Corps volunteers, the door to travel opened up.

Description: http://peacecorpsworldwide.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Parker-in-Rome-2008-with-American-Univeristy-student.-300x255.jpg
Parker teaching in Rome, 2008, with American University student.

Volunteers were involved in small-scale agricultural production, health care and community development; all rural projects, focused on basic human needs. He recalled feeling that per dollar spent, the American taxpayer got a better return out of our Peace Corps investment than out of USAID funding.

"To accomplish the small-scale project was probably much more effective. This was something I had sensed first as a PCV. I saw this over and over again with AID.  We would try to do things that were too big, that we couldn't manage, and that were not appropriate. We tried to universalize some program or some idea that just didn't take.

As they say, once a Marine, always a Marine. Well, once a Peace Corps Volunteer, always a PCV.bluestar



Author John Coyne (Peace Corps Ethiopia 1962–64) is the editor of: Peace Corps OnLine: http://peacecorpsworldwide.org/
John was with the first group of Peace Corps Volunteers to serve in Ethiopia. After completing his service, he worked for the Peace Corps in Washington, and then became an Associate Peace Corps Director in Ethiopia.
He left the Peace Corps in 1967 to become Dean of Admissions and Students at the SUNY/Old Westbury, and later turned to writing full time. In 1995 John returned to the Peace Corps as Special Assistant to the Associate Director for Volunteer Support where he conceived of and edited three essay books about the Peace Corps experience: To Touch the World, At Home in the World, and Peace Corps: The Great Adventure, and wrote the concept paper that outlined a new role for Peace Corps Volunteers —the Crisis Corps, later renamed the Response Corps. In 1996 he was appointed Manager of the New York Peace Corps Recruitment Office.
John, who is considered an authority on the history of the Peace Corps, has written or edited over twenty-five books including Going Up Country: Travel Essays by Peace Corps Writers and Living on the Edge: Fiction by Peace Corps Writers, and a novel partially set in Ethiopia, Long Ago and Far Away.


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