Business Briefs

The European Union After Lisbon

On December 1, 2009, after a long and protracted ratification process, the European Union’s new Lisbon Treaty finally entered into force. This brought to an end the EU’s drawn-out reform process that started in the early 2000s and aimed at preparing the European institutions for Enlargement. With the debate on constitutional reforms finally settled, the EU has moved into the implementation stage and is adapting to its new institutional reality. This paper reviews the EU’s constitutional reform process over the last few years and highlights the main changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty.

  • The Long Road to Lisbon
  • Institutional Changes
    • Legal Personality
    • Council Voting Rules
    • President of the European Council
    • High Representative for Foreign Affairs
    • European Parliament
    • National Parliaments
  • Other Changes
    • Solidarity and Defense Clauses
    • Charter of Fundamental Rights
    • European Citizens Initiative
    • Secession Clause
  • Conclusion


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