The panel sessions for the sixteenth annual Celebration of Undergraduate Research will be held in rooms located on the third floor of the Frank Porter Graham Student Union. Panel sessions have been organized according to thematic tracks. Each presentation will last a maximum of 15 minutes. There is a 15-minute break in each session from 2:00-2:15.
Click on the title of the student's poster to read the abstract and see any other research contributors.
Panel Session I: Diversity & Equity
Abstract: Abstract: In 1997, United Nations (UN) Secretary-General Kofi Annan mandated the full mainstreaming of human rights into all of the organization???s principal activities and programs as a ???cross-cutting??? approach. This call spurred the development of an increasingly shared understanding of human rights among UN agencies including within the World Health Organization (WHO). Specifically, WHO has faced obstacles in these efforts in each of its six largely autonomous regional offices: Africa, the Americas, South-East Asia, Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Western Pacific. With a lack of human rights leadership in a fragmented global health governance landscape, regional health offices have sought individually to advance human rights and support states in realizing a rights-based approach to health, aided by organizational structures uncommon within the UN system. Through documentary analysis of regional office policies and semi-structured interviews with human rights focal points in each of the six WHO regional offices, regional implementation of human rights through regional health governance was analyzed. Interviews examined factors related to the development, implementation and future application of human rights in regional office policies and programs. Documentary records from regional offices contextualized information gleaned from interviews. Comparisons across regions were drawn to isolate several of the factors critical to human rights success.
Abstract: Race as a social construct and sign of demarcation has played a significant role in the shaping of modern society the last 300 years. In Reconstruction Louisiana and apartheid South Africa, Creoles of color and ???Coloureds???, respectively, occupied a middle ground in two extreme racial conflicts. Neither white nor black, these groups looked to find belonging under white supremacist regimes that robbed them of their rights under racial pretenses. Under differing demographic contexts, Creoles of color were lumped into the monolithic minority African-African category, while Coloureds occupied a third caste above black Africans and below white Afrikaners, and the nonwhite groups were intentionally fragmented under minority white rule. This thesis uses the case studies of mixed-race groups under racist regimes to explore the power-driven agenda behind racial construction. In legalizing and codifying race, South Africa and Louisiana gave legitimacy to abstract concepts, as constructed racial identities had tangible effects on peoples??? lives. Creoles of color and Coloureds challenged the idea of a black-white racial dichotomy and illustrated the shades of grey of race, identity, and nationhood.
Abstract: Twice as many people are alive on Earth today than there were in 1968. With a population of 7.2 billion and counting, we collectively face the challenge of sustainably allowing every man and woman their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The Internet will play a central role in our ability to accomplish this goal ??? the world must become more connected, efficient, and mindful than ever before for us to build a society where everyone has equal access to education, news, and other valuable information that helps drive economic growth and well-being. Already, nearly 3 billion people use the Internet. As the remaining 60% of the world???s population connects to the Internet over the coming decades, tremendous social change will continue to progress at an unprecedented scale and rate. Because the Web allows people to converse with others around the world in real-time, cultural boundaries may become increasingly blurred and ideologies will gradually change. As this occurs, we must recognize that communication via the Internet is fundamentally different than other methods of communication and might affect both the way we convey information and the way we interpret what we hear. I am interested in further researching the subtle roles the Internet plays in shaping human communication and cognition which we must be cognizant of as the Internet plays an increasingly critical role in our daily lives.
Abstract: In this paper, we examine the needs of disabled residents of La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia with regards to public transit. Through semi-structured interviews with people with mobility impairments, we identify the most pressing problems as seen by disabled people themselves. We find that, while the transit system in LP/EA fails to meet any standard of physical accessibility, respondents were more concerned with the lack of support from drivers and fellow passengers than with the physical condition of streets and vehicles. Pervasive discrimination from bus operators results in long wait times and the obligatory use of more expensive modes of transport such as taxis. Overcoming these barriers is vital for the social inclusion of disabled residents. We trace these problems to the economic incentives created by the region???s informal transit system. Respondents favorably evaluate recent efforts by the municipality to create a formal transit system. We argue that the continuation of such efforts is the best opportunity to improve mobility for disabled residents. However, it is imperative that policymakers devote attention to the human aspects of transit service rather than just the physical design.
Abstract: After Brown, the North Carolina Executive Branch and the Pearsall Committee???s used the discourse of moderation as a tool to keep North Carolina public schools open. In practice, however, these men prioritized the public opinion of the white majority over the rights of African Americans, openly excluding them from the decision making process and continuing the Southern tradition of paternalism and racial oppression. From 1954 to 1956, the executive branch defined moderation through the tactics that they used to keep segregation as the status quo in North Carolina including active inaction, voluntary segregation, and the Pearsall Plan.
Abstract: How important is the composition of a nation???s legislature in determining politicians??? responses to citizens??? needs or interests? The theory behind descriptive representation maintains that democratic politicians should represent the population in terms of politically important characteristics, such as ethnicity or gender, which would help them to better understand the constituency???s policy preferences and respond appropriately. With a descriptive representation frame, this study examines the relationship between the changes in political representation in South Africa and the economic inequality since the start of majority rule in 1994 through today, and how this association can be explained by policies. Past research has focused on inequality and economic policies in South Africa; however, scholars have yet to discuss these two important topics within the context of the South African Parliament descriptive representation. My research found that the government has become more representative of the South African population since 1994, which has generally correlated to more of a policy focus on inequality. Over the past 20 years, poverty has reduced, but not economic inequality. Patterns revealed in the study reflect on whether descriptive representation can lead to substantive representation. In addition, my results contribute to literature on the connection between political justice and economic justice in a democratic setting, specifically after a transition period.
Abstract: Racism makes it difficult for ethnic minorities to reconcile their dual cultural identities. I???m American, but I was born Bangladeshi. I felt American while growing up, but I was treated as a foreigner for being brown in a white, suburban New Jersey town after 9/11. Hyphenated-Americans like me are pressured to negate their ethnic identities in order to avoid ridicule and stereotypes; this erases personal cultural history. I???ve created a collection of poetry and memoir work to study how life writing can document my efforts to reconcile two conflicting cultural identities. Caught in a cultural collision, I feared rejection and struggled for acceptance in both American and Bangladeshi worlds. I narrate my experiences in post-9/11 America and my first time traveling in Bangladesh this summer. I reflect on how my desire to learn about my cultural history in Bangladesh made me realize that I couldn???t claim either country as home. While traveling in four regions in Bangladesh, I visited cultural institutions and engaged with locals and family. However, across both cultures, skin color is used to discriminate and determine self-worth and superiority. Assumptions about my identity, based on appearance, were still used to designate me as a foreigner. My writing portrays the raw emotional truth about racism, which erases the experiences of ethnic minorities like me. Dual cultural identities are complex; merely changing the cultural environment does not solve this conflict.
Abstract: This research project is a study of the causes of disproportionate suspensions in public schools and how to prevent these disproportionate suspensions. Black, male, and low-income students are overrepresented in school discipline. Evidence shows that implicit bias in schools causes teachers to hold lower expectations for African American and Latino children compared to European American children. This implicit bias manifests in school discipline as African American and Latino students are more likely than their white peers to receive expulsion or out of school suspension as a consequence for the same behavior. This study examines strategies and tactics for teachers and school personnel to use that can reduce and eventually eliminate the disproportionality in school discipline.
Panel Session II: Education
Abstract: The goal of this study is to connect sensory-based strategies, derived from sensory-based theory and occupational therapy practices, to the classroom. A child???s inability to modulate, discriminate, coordinate or organize sensations negatively affects their ability to function and participate within the classroom. When children with Sensory Processing Disorder attempt to gain input from the environment that they require, their behavior is often negatively labeled by the teacher as challenging behavior. For this reason, it is important that teachers become more knowledgeable about SPD. As they become more familiar with the concept, they can impact the children they work with by providing them with intervention resources. Due to the fact that SPD is not a recognized condition within the DSM-5, this study plans to research sensory-based intervention strategies that have been established for the treatment of sensory processing abnormalities present in children within Autism Spectrum Disorder. Taking this knowledge, the study will demonstrate ways in which the strategies discussed within previously performed research can be translated and implemented within the general education classroom for any child regardless of a diagnosis. This study hopes to prepare teachers to provide sensory-based strategies for children in their classroom. Using this knowledge, teachers will be able to deliver important assistance within their classrooms to enhance student learning.
Abstract: According to the theory of social reproduction, public schools do not create a level playing field for students as it is intended but instead work as organisms that further instill social inequalities. In a society where achievement gaps are widening and Black lives still do not matter the public school system and education is widely regarded as at fault. This study investigates the validity of social reproduction in schools, what it looks like, what it feels like and if it does exist how we can combat it. With an inside look at one of the North Carolina???s inner city schools, Goldsboro High School, this study recounts personal experiences of students, teachers and administration. The study also assesses and presents exclusive data of the school???s resources and tracking of student success over time.
Abstract: Despite the recent gains in elementary students??? literacy, almost 75% of adolescents participating in the National Assessment of Education Progress did not meet the proficient standard in writing, according to researchers Jacobson and Reid (157). Because of this, many have explored the potential factors, including lack of teacher education in writing instruction, insufficient time to provide feedback, and disparities between high school teachers??? expectations for writing and college instructors' expectations for writing. Some claim the lack of writing in classrooms, along with the lack of instruction and feedback, cripples students as they go into the workforce and onto college. Furthermore, businesses and educational institutions pay the price for this, through remedial programs and courses for their employees. By incorporating writing-to-learn strategies and low-stakes writing assignments (such as freewriting and journaling) in all classrooms???not just English and Language Arts???students can receive the instruction, practice, and feedback they need to properly develop writing skills, as well as deepen their knowledge of individual subject areas. This paper will examine data collected by Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools in elective classrooms before and after additional writing instruction, writing support, and low-stakes writing assignments.
Abstract: In the twenty-first century, college students no longer value the university library as a silent bastion of concentrated studying; rather, these students prefer a noisy social center, which provides them with a comfortable studying atmosphere as well as required technological equipment. It is this latter library that scholars have classified as the commons library. This ethnographic study focuses on the environment of the three main libraries at the University of North Carolina: Wilson Library, Davis Library, and the Undergraduate Library (UL). My findings suggest that despite the fact that Wilson is the quietest library on campus, very few students preferred it as many chose instead to study in Davis or the UL. Both of these newer libraries have tailored themselves to fit the interests of modern students and encourage a more relaxed atmosphere by including comfortable seating, a wide variety of useful technology and relaxed policies related to food and drink as well as talking. Without these adaptations ??? all of which are designed to improve students??? studying experiences ??? students simply do not value the library because they strongly dislike studying. This reality, of course, presents important questions related to the entire academic culture of American colleges.
2:00-2:15 — BREAK
Abstract: The purpose of this project is to expose the personal lived realities of ELL students in the American Public School system using the narrative lens of documentary filmmaking. Compared against the background of previously existing research studies, this project follows the academic and social journey of on ELL 4th grader in a North Carolina Public school and, by harnessing the rhetorical power of his narrative, seeks to disrupt preconceived notions about members of the ELL population???s daily experience. The documentary and corresponding paper hope to enlighten the audience regarding the unique needs, both academic and socio-emotional, of individual ELL students.
Abstract: Teacher expectations have been found to have a significant impact on students??? academic achievement. Students whose teachers hold the highest expectations of them often perform better academically as a result of positive teacher attitudes and behaviors. The purpose of this project is to begin to understand the effect of teachers??? expectations on the academic outcomes of Black males ??? the demographic for which teachers have been shown to hold the lowest expectations. Through interviews of nearly forty high-achieving Black male students, this project aims to understand the extent to which Black males are aware of and feel affected by biases against them, and to determine if any actions can be taken by students to challenge and overcome negative expectations. Specifically, this project evaluates the effects of strong student-teacher relationships on teachers??? expectations of students and on students??? subsequent academic outcomes.
Abstract: Rooted in an extensive history of racial segregation between schools, this research addresses the subsequent stratification within schools that often arises once schools are integrated, through an analysis of tracking and its implications for students in rural high schools. Using a sample of three racially diverse public high schools, this interview and fieldwork based study assesses how tracking stratifies students by race. This study assesses, from students??? own view, their placement into tracks as well as their perceptions of their school experiences, their teachers' expectations, and their schools??? college-going culture, while also taking into account their plans for the future. Through in-depth interviews with thirty-seven students, with a specific focus on how students are stratified by race, this study acquires a more holistic perspective of why students are placed in their tracks, whether they change tracks, how they perceive their tracks, and how their placements and perceptions impact their plans for their futures. This study???s in-depth analysis of the process of tracking, from placement to perception of treatment to plans after high school provides increased insight about how race plays a role in educational opportunity within schools.
Panel Session III: Environment
Abstract: Shade intolerance may be caused by inability to tolerate carbon loss when carbon gain is limited by low light. We manipulated light and nitrogen availability, and carbon loss (fungal enemies, leaf clipping) in a shade intolerant tree, Liquidambar styraciflua. Light and nitrogen availability each affected foliar fungal damage independently and interacted to affect aboveground biomass. Surprisingly, plant growth responded similarly to leaf clipping regardless of light and nitrogen availability. These results suggest that L. styraciflua is better able to tolerate carbon loss than expected for a species considered shade intolerant.
Abstract: Meteoroids are exposed to cosmic radiation from the Sun and from outside the solar system. Cosmic radiation consists mainly of high energy protons and ??-particles and initiates nuclear reactions in meteoroids that lead to the production of radioactive cosmogenic nuclides, or radionuclides. Once a meteorite has fallen to Earth, the atmosphere shields against further cosmogenic production of radionuclides and the radionuclide abundance begins decaying exponentially over time. Measurement of this decay provides information on the irradiation conditions of the meteorite fragment, the intensity of cosmic rays in the inner solar system, and variations of the solar magnetic field strength over the past few hundred years. This project reports on the measurement of the activity of the radionuclide 26Al in a sample of the Farmville meteorite, which fell in Farmville, North Carolina on December 4, 1934. The decay of 26Al through positron emission simultaneously produces three ??-rays, a characteristic photon of 1808.7 keV energy and two 511 keV photons that are emitted back-to-back. Measurements were made using a cost-effective ????-coincidence spectrometer system consisting of two NaI scintillation detectors. In ????-coincidence spectrometry, only events that are recorded by both detectors within a given time window and within a given energy range are kept, significantly reducing the background.
Abstract: By characterizing the thermodynamic properties of one dimensional systems of a certain class of particle called fermions, we can obtain benchmarks for many-body problems that are useful in nuclear and condensed matter physics, as well as in experiments with ultra-cold atoms. Energies and particle numbers were calculated numerically by means of a non-uniform lattice Monte Carlo simulation. The parameter-space of the problem was explored: the system temperature, particle interaction strength, and chemical potential were varied, and the values of various thermodynamic properties were examined. In particular, we determine the density, pressure, compressibility, and a many-body parameter called Tan's contact for a variety of short-range attractively interacting fermions confined within a potential energy well in the shape of a quantum harmonic oscillator.
Abstract: The annual spring river ice breakup has vast consequences for northern ecosystems as well as significant economic implications for Arctic industry and transportation. The timing of breakup can be used to understand regional climate variability, and there is substantial interest in how patterns in ice breakup may change as a result of climate warming. River ice breakup research is limited by the sparse distribution of hydrologic stations in the Arctic region. The use of satellite imagery allows for breakup research over the entire reach of rivers, yet only a few such studies exist. In this talk I will describe an automated algorithm for detecting the timing of river ice breakup using MODIS imagery and present an analysis of spatial and temporal trends in breakup for the four largest pan-Arctic rivers. Through splitting each river into 10 km segments and classifying each river pixel as snow, ice, mixed ice/water or open water, the algorithm determines the date of breakup, here defined as the first day where 75% of the river segment is open water. Cloud-obscured imagery is by far the largest source of error, and the average window of breakup error is around +/- 1.5 days. There is noticeable variability in breakup timing both temporally and across the entire river length. Statistically significant trends towards earlier occurrence of breakup are found for the lower Mackenzie and upper Lena rivers.
2:00-2:15 — BREAK
Abstract: We determine the ground-state energies (i.e., the lowest energy states) for multiple, attractively interacting point particles called ???fermions??? at unitarity confined in a three-dimensional harmonic potential energy well. At unitarity, particles are at the critical point where they are almost bound together. These energies are calculated numerically via lattice Monte Carlo calculations. Our approach is unique because we implement a non-uniform Gauss-Hermite spatial lattice, which has not been done previously and has many advantages over other lattices. Experimental observation and manipulation of few- to many-body quantum systems is currently possible, but the theory is not well developed. These theoretical results serve as a prediction for the ground-state energies of such experiments.
Abstract: Prior to the 1950s, common partial harvesting operations in the southern Appalachians involved the removal of logs by ground-skidding and the construction of steep roads and skid trails along stream channels. Little is known about how these historical practices have affected long-term vegetation changes. An experimental watershed in Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory was partially harvested in 1942 to 1956 according to these practices. Using long-term vegetation surveys, I analyzed patterns in composition, abundance, and diversity of the woody species in this watershed 62 years after treatment. I calculated Shannon???s index of diversity based on species biomass (H??biomass) and species richness for each survey and grouped species into xylem anatomy categories. I also compared the partially harvested watershed to a watershed that was clearcut in 1977 and to an untreated watershed (mature forest). The partially harvested forest was not different from the mature forest in terms of species composition, total aboveground biomass, basal area, density, and the distribution of xylem anatomy groups. The partially harvested forest had lower H??biomass than the mature forest in the last survey period (2010s). However, the partial harvest did not alter long-term vegetation dynamics as significantly as clear cutting. These results could help forest managers, conservationists, and hydrologists make informed decisions when designing a forest management strategy.
Abstract: UNC's Laboratory for Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics (LENA) is home to a sophisticated proton accelerator of the highest intensity of any currently in use in our field. The purpose of this accelerator is to utilize gamma-ray spectroscopy to study the nuclear reactions that occur in the cores of massive stars. In the type of reactions measured at LENA, a proton of a given kinetic energy is incident on a target nucleus, leaving a product nucleus in an excited state. The excited nucleus then decays down to the ground state through a series of intermediate decays. The ratio of decays of a certain decay mode to the total decays is called the branching ratio. Recently, we have worked to replace our old acceleration column with a column that will improve intensity by a factor of ten. We have also improved the proton beam-transport system by adding new beam-focusing lenses as well as new beam-stops to measure the improved beam current. Along with these improvements, we have demonstrated the ability to pulse the beam with a duty cycle of 10%. By collecting the spectra separately when the beam is on and when the beam is off, we are able to more easily analyze spectra, since we can discriminate which gamma-radiation comes from the reaction and which comes from the background.
Faculty/Postdoc Contributors: Gary L. Glish
Abstract: The analysis of complex mixtures by mass spectrometry often leads to convoluted spectra in which it is difficult identify compounds of interest. Oftentimes, pre-ionization separation techniques such as liquid chromatography are used prior to mass spectrometric analysis. As an alternative to pre-ionization separations, post-ionization, gas phase separations such as differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) can be coupled to mass spectrometry to improve signal-to-background. While nitrogen is typically used as the DIMS carrier gas, helium can be added to improve the resolution of these separations. However, the addition of helium also leads to a loss of ion transmission, especially for ions of higher differential ion mobility. In an effort to improve both the resolution and ion transmission of DIMS separations the ???linked scan???, which varies the DIMS compensation voltage and carrier gas helium content simultaneously, was developed. Throughout the linked scan, as the compensation voltage increases, the helium content of the carrier gas is decreased. Thus, the higher mobility ions are transmitted at lower helium content. In this presentation the theory of DIMS linked scans will be discussed. Examples from several applications will be presented.
Panel Session IV: Fine Arts
Abstract: This project explores the contemporary relevance and intersectional challenges of feminist art through academic research, gallery and museum visits, and interviews with woman-identified creative practitioners. It will ultimately exist as a creative piece in its own right in the form of an extended audio collage. Feminism as a social philosophy seems to be enjoying a moment of especially pronounced visibility, resulting in a widespread culture of discussion and interest as well as opportunities for increased scrutiny. As one might expect, many women makers are consequently exploring their personal stance towards feminism through their art practices. Often, however, women artists view their feminist identities (or lack thereof) as inextricable from a complex of other characteristics that mark them as individuals as well as members of various communities. While feminism provides a valuable lens of practice and critique for many artists, it may be necessary to approach the discourse around their work from a perspective that acknowledges the possible influence of feminism (including the historical feminist art movement) alongside features such as the artist???s Blackness or socioeconomic experience, for example. In fact, taking a step back from feminism to give breathing room to other analytical structures is critically important, as failure to do so could lead to an erasure of identities and oppression that many feminists claim to champion.
Abstract: A scene of complexity, movement, and emotion, "Hercules and Antaeus" is an engraving attributed to Agostino Veneziano, a Venetian printmaker born around 1490. Biographical information on the artist is lacking, for what is known of Veneziano is more determinant on accounts of the prominent artists he worked with. Veneziano was a student, alongside Marco Dente de Ravenna, of the celebrated engraver Marcantonio Raimondi, all three members of Raphael???s circle in Rome. The engraving, from the Burton Emmett Collection of the Ackland Art Museum, shows the classical hero Hercules grappling with the giant Antaeus as an episode of his labors. While the Hercules and Antaeus trope is well documented by art historical scholarship, this specific print has resisted virtually any mention, a pity since its composition holds a series of puzzles waiting to be solved. I mean to contextualize the work by tracing the iconography of the Hercules and Antaeus story, in both text and image, from its genesis in antiquity to its proliferation in the Renaissance. I will locate the print within the environment of its creation and discuss how an atmosphere of collaboration, repetition, and reproduction in the Raimondi workshop raises questions of its originality. Then, I shall explore and elucidate the print???s curious idiosyncrasies, which only become more intriguing once the backdrop of its origins is constructed. This print shows important divergences from the canonical representations of the myth, principally in the unusual arrangement of the fighters??? bodies and the inclusion of a third figure. These apparent innovations seem incongruous with what is known of the Raimondi workshop and its penchant for appropriation. I will prove that there must have existed a now-missing image from which our print was derived.
Abstract: This thesis will investigate how several short stories written by the French nineteenth century author Guy de Maupassant both reflect his progressing neurological and psychiatric symptoms and intersect with the contemporary medical knowledge within the burgeoning field of psychiatry. Maupassant expresses his opinions on hysteria and hypnotism, a diagnosis and treatment, respectively, popularized by Dr. Jean Martin Charcot, through several of his writings and notably in ???Conte de No??l.??? Maupassant further explores his experiences with hallucinations throughout his writing career at the same time as nineteenth-century French psychiatrists were characterizing hallucinations. Finally, Maupassant examines the descent into madness and its relationship with suicide in several other stories, at the same time that outdated conceptions of insanity and modern diagnoses of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder were evolving. These analyses will demonstrate that Maupassant, through both his literary ability and his intimate knowledge of psychological and neurological disorders, provides a unique insight into French medical attitudes of the nineteenth-century.
Abstract: The architecture of the Elizabethan era presents an intriguing stylistic conundrum defined by a unique mixing of architectural forms within individual buildings. Elizabethan patrons built enormous country houses with the hopes of one day entertaining Queen Elizabeth. The houses are united by the fusion of traditional gothic elements, native to England, Italian Renaissance forms, and Mannerist ideas from the low countries. This presentation will explore the unprecedented combination of architectural styles in Elizabethan manor houses, how these architectural choices came to be made, and the impact these unique homes had on the greater cultural landscape of the Elizabethan Era. Four houses, Burghley House (1587), Longleat House (1580), Wollaton Hall (1588), and Hardwick Hall (1593), will be used as case studies. Results from on-site visits to major Elizabethan houses will be included and the presentation with be supplemented by a Powerpoint featuring high-quality images.
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Abstract: In this study the effects of different factors (strength, tranquility, emotionality, complexity, regularity) on the overall attractiveness of architecture were examined in order to determine if there was an aesthetic bias in the general population towards buildings which exhibited median values in these categories. Fifteen skyscrapers, purposefully chosen to be culturally ambiguous and unimportant in order to decrease the effects of societal biases on the data, were rated on a 1 to 10 scale in each of six categories (strength, tranquility, emotionality, complexity, regularity, as well as overall attractiveness) by over six hundred voluntary online survey takers. Previous research has shown that a general preference for buildings exhibiting median amounts of complexity and regularity exists due to a theorized human predisposition for more natural forms; the present study aimed to corroborate past findings as well as to better understand the effects that more abstract values such as strength and emotionality have on determining overall attractiveness. Regression modeling showed that strength, tranquility, emotionality, and complexity were highly correlated with overall attractiveness, but that the relationships were direct as opposed to quadratic as previous research would have suggested. Regularity however showed the expected quadratic relationship with overall attractiveness, demonstrating a preference in the general population for buildings of median regularity.
Abstract: Urbanism in Archaic Greece was highly heterogeneous; many cities experimented with various forms of social and political organization before arriving at their Classical forms. Excavations at the site of Azoria, jointly run by UNC and Iowa State, have produced a wealth of information about the social and economic organization of this early urban settlement before the Classical period. My work focuses on contextualizing artifacts and spaces to understand how labor organization relates to class and gender, which currently suggests the use of domestic and civic slave labor for food and textile production.
Abstract: This paper builds on literature discussing Catalan ritual, contemporary Catalan theater, and the relationship between theater and ritual beyond the Catalan sphere in order to explore the influence of Catalan ritual on Catalan theater and the implications this has on Catalan cultural identity. At a time when Catalan identity has become increasingly complicated due to relations with Spain, rising immigration levels, and the pressure of globalization, looking to the confluence of theater and ritual for answers is both natural and necessary. By identifying key thematic and symbolic elements that are present in Catalan rituals and conducting a case study of theater company La Fura dels Baus in order to examine how these elements appear in their work, this paper will establish that Catalan ritual has a clear influence on contemporary Catalan theater. Furthermore, it will argue that while La Fura dels Baus does not directly engage with questions of Catalan identity, the company does create a theatrical space in which identity can be defined. Theatrical spaces like this can help to clarify questions of identity and promote social unity, both of which are key issues in contemporary Catalan society.
Abstract: Long associated with hasty scrawls on bathroom walls or with gangs, graffiti is finally being looked at as an important form of artistic protest in politically unstable areas throughout the world. Nobel Peace Laureate Jose Ramos-Horta believes that ???graffiti is always relevant because it provides at the very least a snapshot of current opinions and attitudes, of stored feelings and concerns from the past, and of fears and hopes for the future???. This relevance is particularly evident in the graffiti related to the Gezi Park Protests in Istanbul in 2013. Graffiti became a visual marker of events in the city and it???s residents??? reaction to those events. These images I will show, which range from crude and angry to elaborately planned artistic social commentary, seethe with deeper meanings beyond the proposed destruction of green space of Gezi Park. This form of protest is not merely an aesthetic artistic exchange, but the only true means of communication that a protester may have with the world. By looking at the motivating factors behind the graffiti, the artistic choices made by the artists, and repeated themes in the protest graffiti (such as images of Che Guevara or references to American rap songs or video games) it can provide insight into what people felt about a variety of topics in Istanbul as well as how outside cultural influences played a part in these themes. These pieces of art became an important voice for citizens not represented in traditional media.
Panel Session V: Health & Well-being
Faculty/Postdoc Contributors: Brian Pietrosimone
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the combined effects of foam rolling and vibration therapy on dorsiflexion range of motion restriction. Determining a more effective treatment for increasing range of motion will contribute to developing a more efficient treatment for range of motion restrictions, improvement of lower extremity kinematics, and a reduction of injury. Healthy, physically active young adults (n=20) with restricted dorsiflexion in the weight-bearing lunge (<40 degrees) and a minimum of one myofascial trigger point were included. A controlled crossover study design was used. Participants received foam rolling with vibration during one session and foam rolling without vibration during the other session. Foam rolling with vibration was more effective in increasing range of motion than foam rolling without vibration without a resultant increase in measured or perceived pain. Foam rolling with vibration is an effective clinical tool for improving range of motion restrictions caused by myofascial trigger points. The purpose of this study was to identify the combined effects of foam rolling and vibration therapy on dorsiflexion range of motion restriction. Determining a more effective treatment for increasing range of motion will contribute to developing a more efficient treatment of range of motion restrictions, improvement of lower extremity kinematics, and a reduction of injury. Healthy, physically active young adults (n=20) with restricted dorsiflexion in the weight-bearing lunge (<40??) were included. A controlled crossover study design was used. Participants received foam rolling with vibration during one data collection session and foam rolling without vibration during the other session. Range of motion and pain-pressure threshold measurements were made before and after treatment. Hip, knee, and ankle three-dimensional kinematic data were sampled from the dominant leg during an overhead squat, single-leg squat, and jump landing task.
Abstract: In this presentation I will discuss a prominent type of model used to analyze cognitive processes. These models are Bayesian Computational Models. Psychologists and Cognitive Scientists use these models to explain how children learn languages or causal relationships. However, these models do not specify what neural mechanisms are underlying the cognitive processes. So, how can we understand their role as explanatory models of science? I will discuss how we should interpret these models in contemporary psychology and cognitive science.
Abstract: Proper water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) infrastructure prevents contamination of drinking water and thus reduces disease and death. Attention has been focused on recommendations and monitoring of household WaSH, but less emphasis has been placed on school settings, where a vulnerable population spends much of their day. The Sustainability Development Goals will be the first time schools are included in the WaSH development agenda, but the current status of access is unknown. To gauge current levels of WaSH access and infrastructure in schools, we sampled 2269 schools in regions of six countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. Using surveys developed from internationally established indicators and field- and lab-based water quality testing, we found 78% of schools sampled reported access to an improved water source; 80% of schools reported an improved sanitation facility, though fewer than 25% of schools had access for all students. Hygiene indicators reflected fewer than 10% of schools had hand-washing facilities on the day of the survey, and all six countries reported fewer than 20% of schools with the recommended menstrual hygiene facilities. These results along with additional indicators reflect low access to sanitation and hygiene in schools. Given the associations between poor sanitation and hygiene access and poor health outcomes, development organizations and governments should emphasize these areas in developing WaSH infrastructure.
Abstract: Background: Using focused ultrasound beams, diseased tissue can be ablated, and this process can be amplified with the use of microbubbles. At sufficiently high pressures, the microbubbles collapse in on themselves in a process known as cavitation. By using a dual frequency waveform, I hypothesize that effective cavitation will still occur with less energy, reducing surface heating and making high intensity focused ultrasound therapies safer. Methods: Two transducers were submerged in water and aligned confocally onto a tube containing microbubbles flowing at a rate of 0.1mL/min. A 2.25 MHz transducer transmitted a pulse comprised of varying ratios of a 1.5MHz wave and a 3.0 MHz wave at pressures ranging from -0.75 MPa to -2.25 MPa. A 5 MHz transducer received the acoustic response. One hundred acoustic responses were collected for each waveform and each pressure. Results: Acoustic responses from microbubbles were highest when the transmitted pulses were emitted at 10 Hz. The waveform with 80% 1.5MHz frequency wave and 20% 3.0 MHz frequency wave created the greatest cavitation. Conclusions: Dual frequency pulses more efficiently cavitate microbubbles compared to single frequency pulses at the same pressure. The magnitude of cavitation is directly related to the pressure input. Cavitation is dependent on the pulse repetition frequency. In future experiments, the dual frequency acoustic pulses will be tested on ex vivo tissue.
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Abstract: Concentric tube robots are tentacle-like, medical robots that have potential to enable novel, minimally-invasive surgical procedures. These robots are composed of pre-curved, nested tubes which can be rotated and translated to cause the robot???s shape to change and enable maneuverability. Due to the complex interactions between the robot???s tubes, the physical specifications of each of the robot???s tubes, such as curvature and length, significantly affect the set of clinical targets that the robot can reach. Hence, a concentric tube robot with design parameters that are appropriately chosen for a particular patient and clinical application will be more capable in reaching surgery-specific clinical targets than will concentric tube robots with generic designs. In this presentation, I present my work on design optimization algorithms for concentric tube robots, i.e. computational methods that can optimize the design parameters of concentric tube robot on a patient- and application-specific basis. I also provide results showing the effectiveness of our approach in a medically motivated, simulated scenario involving the use of concentric tube robots in minimally invasive lung biopsy for early-stage lung cancer diagnosis.
Abstract: ???If it bleeds, it leads??? is a leading theme characterizing the recent film, Nightcrawler. Its disturbingly realistic story is that of an individual, Lou Bloom, who decides to sell graphic footage to local television news stations for profit. Simultaneously, Bloom???s behavior grows more aggressive and his apathy towards violent or tragic situations increases. In the increasingly interconnected and informed world, many agree that news media has a wealth of power as they deliver a wealth of information to their viewers. News outlets are concerned with not only providing information but also gaining a larger audience than their competition and increasing ratings. Each outlet has a choice in how it aims to do this but, much of the time, the debate is centered upon utilizing graphic or violent footage. Scholars define media desensitization as ???the gradual reduction in responsiveness to an arousal-eliciting stimulus as a function of repeated exposure.??? A recent study by Brad Bushman and Craig Anderson pointed out that although there is a positive correlation between prolonged exposure to media violence and heightened aggression, news media is reluctant to report on it. In fact, news outlets either ignore or refute new evidence for the correlation. My research will analyze why television news media still utilizes graphic or violent footage when there have been many studies showing the adverse effects of this footage on their audience.
Faculty/Postdoc Contributors: Randal J. Nonneman, Allison K. Ryan, Nana N. Feinberg, Bentley R. Midkiff, Yongjuan Xia, C. Ryan Miller, Patrick F. Sullivan, James J. Crowley
Abstract: Adult mammalian neurogenesis has become an accepted phenomenon in neurobiology, but the neuroanatomical extent to which it is exhibited in adult mammals is controversial. Furthermore, only few migratory patterns (and associated functional implications) of these adult born cells are well characterized, while others are either undiscovered or under dispute. Here we survey, brain wide, the proliferative behavior of neurons and glia in adult laboratory mice. Following BrdU injections and behavioral tests, the mice were sacrificed and their brains were appropriately sectioned for staining and imaging. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated the presence of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the classic neurogenic niches in the brain (the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus) and in the subventricular zone of the third ventricle, which is a novel neurogenic finding in mice. Additionally, quantitative histological analyses suggested that adult-born neural progenitor cells migrate to numerous regions in the brain, such as the cortex and striatum, and differentiate into various cell types according to the local environment of the target neuroanatomical region in a predictable manner. These findings present novel insights into the nature of spatiotemporal neurobiological dynamics in adult mammals.
Abstract: HIV-1 entry into host cells depends on the Env protein, which uses both the CD4 receptor and one of two co-receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. All HIV-1 viruses have Env proteins that can make use of the high-density CD4 present on the surfaces of T cells to gain entry. A subset of HIV-1 Env proteins are also capable of using low densities of CD4, such as those present on macrophages. Macrophage-tropism appears to evolve within the central nervous system in subjects with severe disease. Macrophage-tropic virus is rarely detected outside of cerebrospinal fluid samples. Previously, a single macrophage-tropic virus was isolated from the semen of Subject C018. This study evaluated the ability of viruses to infect Affinofile cells, which can be induced to express variable levels of CD4. We determined the tropism of 19 additional clones from 12 viral amplicons from the subject???s semen and four viral isolates from the patient???s blood used as controls. Four of the semen amplicons registered as macrophage-tropic, and two additional semen amplicons expressed intermediate tropism. The remaining six amplicons are T cell-tropic. Maraviroc inhibited the infectivity of 12 amplicons, indicating that those use CCR5 to gain cell entry. TZM cells were infected in the presence and absence of soluble CD4, and amplicons showed differential infectivity confirming their tropism phenotypes. This indicates that macrophage-tropic HIV-1 virus can evolve within the genital tract of subjects with advanced disease.
Panel Session VI: The US & Foreign Relations
Abstract: My thesis is a two-part analysis of National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski???s theory of peaceful engagement. The first half examines Brzezinski???s ideas during his academic career with a specific focus on the USSR (1961-1976). In this first half, I analyze how Brzezinski conceptualized the Soviet system through a model of totalitarianism. Building off of this model I then explore his foreign policy of peaceful engagement ??? a long term strategy aimed at undermining the USSR. I conclude that his policy of peaceful engagement is broad but well conceptualized, while his model of totalitarianism relies too heavily on American perceptions of Communism. In the second section I analyze Brzezinski???s years as National Security Advisor during the Carter administration (1977-1981). Here, I explore his theory of peaceful engagement in action, particularly concerning the administration???s interest in Soviet dissidents. I argue that his human rights campaign is much more about American interests than actually coming to the aid of dissident organizations in the USSR. I conclude that Brzezinski clearly build off of one another ??? flaws and all ??? but that there is a significant difference between his ideas during his academic career and his term with the Carter administration. These differences exist because Brzezinski???s perceptions of the USSR change once he goes from studying Soviets to negotiating against them. I???ll pick a half of my thesis to present so as to keep it to 10 mins
Abstract: Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi boarded a plane and flew over the country he once ruled for the last time in January 1979. A proponent for modernization and westernization in Iran, he was overthrown by his own countrymen in favor of a theocratic regime that revolved around the governmental implementation of Islam. This revolution has been understood as a religious revolt, but has its roots in economic and political events that occurred throughout the Shah???s reign. Those suffering under the Shah???s modernizing tactics utilized religion as a vehicle for the change they wished to see in the country. Specifically, Iranians living in rural areas, urban workers on fixed wages, and those working within bazaars, or traditional Middle Eastern markets, looked to gain the most from the Islamic Revolution. My goal, through research, is to demonstrate how the Shah???s propagandistic portrayal of events throughout his reign created a rift between the Shah and his lower and middle class citizens. Furthermore, I wish to focus on revolutionist leaders??? utilization of propaganda against the Shah in the years leading up to 1979, which worked to increase civilian unrest and catalyze the Shah's relinquishment of power over Iran.
Abstract: The African continent is a region of increasing economic opportunity and threats of terrorism. What accounts for these seemingly contradictory trends? This study argues that the recent terrorism rise is partly due to increasing investment by multinational corporations (MNCs) in Africa. I examine MNC investment in infrastructure through the mechanism of Private Participation in Infrastructure (PPI). I argue that greater infrastructure investment gives African states the incentive and military capacity to reassert control over territories previously lost to violent non-state actors. MNCs introduce a third party into the bargaining between rebels and governments over resource control. Since MNC investment empowers the state, the resulting territorial contestation may induce non-state actors to respond with terrorism. I argue that African states will experience increasing terrorist attacks as PPI increases and furthers the process of state consolidation. Increasing PPI gives terrorist campaigns an initial burst of resolve to prolong their initiatives. However, I ultimately assert that if this PPI investment is allowed to appreciate through initial periods of increased violence, African states can eventually use this new power to accelerate the demise of terrorist groups. Sustained MNC investment will strengthen African governments and decrease the survivability of terrorist campaigns. I test these predictions in the period from 1990-2006.
Abstract: This research was conducted with the goal of implementing a previously evaluated commercial exchange system of patient samples between the UNC Project research center in Lilongwe, Malawi and other surrounding private and international clinics. While implementing this exchange system, research was conducted to identify possible challenges and barriers, both cultural and financial, that could limit the project???s progress and to determine a system of methods to overcome those obstacles. This was done to assist in the creation of a methodology that will allow the project to succeed fully. If successful, this entire commercialization framework could be used as a guide for other international research sites in the developing world, particularly those that require the interaction and coordination of multi-national research teams.
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Abstract: In an analysis of two contemporary, fictional Arab-American texts: I, the Divine: A Novel in First Chapters (2001) by Rabih Alameddine and Through and Through: Toledo Stories (1990) by Joseph Geha, I draw the relationship between the authors' use of formal and thematic elements as promotions of self and experiential multiplicity, respectively. I connect these advances to the combating of ethnic homogenization from without faced by Arab-Americans in a hostile post 9/11 environment. I also explore the way the text's thematic treatments of the individual's relationship to the larger familial collective act as representations for the concept of solidarity in difference among Arab-Americans at large and as a means of avoiding previous invisibilization of Arab-Americans into the white racial category before 9/11. Essentially, the texts act to create a meaningful space for Arab-Americans in popular discourse as hyphenated subjects with unique identities and subjectivities, whilst avoiding homogenization and invisibilization from without and divisiveness from within.
Abstract: It has been well observed that patterns of social network utilization are very different in China than those in the United States. Previous research explains this difference by addressing structural distinctions, while a few scholars point out that culture may also be an important factor. However, the way how culture functions remains largely unexplained. With a more process-based approach, this study explores the role of culture by comparing how college seniors in the United States and in China utilize social networks when they are looking for jobs. In-depth interviews are conducted respectively with college seniors from two elite public universities in the U.S. and China (n=15 for the U.S. and n=20 for China). Data is also collected from 62 job-seeking related posts written by Chinese college seniors who posted on the university???s online forum from 2010 to 2014. Interview transcripts and online posts are analyzed using software MAXQDA11. The results suggest that the observed disparity may be explained by the nuanced influence culture exerts in networking practices: their definition and interpretation of network, networking and network utilization are very different. Therefore, even if Chinese respondents report more utilization of intimate and influential ties, it can be explained by the finding that weak and informational connections are not considered as a part of the networking process.
Undergraduate Co-Authors: N/A
Graduate Student Contributors: N/A
Faculty/Postdoc Contributors: N/A
Abstract: Using the Anglo-Cherokee War (1758-1761) as a case study, this project examines why British and Native American attempts to de-escalate their mid-eighteenth century conflicts frequently failed. Often, a seemingly trivial event ??? a Native warrior stealing a few horses from a British colonist, for example ??? unleashed widespread violence that destroyed swathes of the frontiers of Britain???s mainland North American colonies. British and Native belligerents attempted to forestall this escalation by using prisoners of war, civilian captives, and hostages to communicate their desire for de-escalation to their opponents. Frequently, these communication attempts were unsuccessful, resulting in intensification of the conflict. Based on an analysis of colonial officials??? and British officers??? letters and campaign journals, Cherokee leaders??? speeches, and treaties between the two groups, I conclude that widely differing conceptions of captivity played a large part in the failure of British and Cherokee efforts to communicate and de-escalate violence.
Abstract: In 2011, protests erupted in the streets of Russia in response to the results of the Duma elections and erupted once again in 2012 in response to the presidential elections that elected Vladimir Putin to his third presidential term. Now those protests have subsided. Even more peculiar is the fact that Putin and his government have been able to maintain this support against the backdrop of a failing economy which was one of his pillars of popular support in his previous two terms. Russia???s domestic situation under Putin???s third presidential term has in fact seemed to worsen since the last time that he took office as Russia suffers from economic sanctions, isolation from the international community due to its involvement in the Ukraine crisis, collapse of the Ruble, and persistent corruption. How exactly has Putin been able to restore and maintain his legitimacy in the eyes of the Russian people in his third presidential term in the midst of a failing economy and as many of the protester's original grievances continue to go unaddressed? My research question is focused on examining how Putin has been able to regain and maintain legitimacy following the 2012 protests till present day without actually addressing the grievances of the Russian population. I ultimately argue that by altering his legitimization strategy from performance-based legitimacy to value-based legitimacy, Putin has been able to reassert his right to rule over the Russian state.