098. Emilie Kadhim
(Geography), Adolescent Demographics and Geographic Location Associated with Depression: Which adolescents are most likely to be depressed?
Track: Health & Well-Being
Advisor: Tamera Coyne-Beasley (Pediatrics- School of Medicine )
Undergraduate Contributors: Beatriz Vega, Sofia Oceguenda
Graduate Student Contributors: Marni Krehnbrink
Race, Place, and Depression: How are adolescent demographics related to depression in North Carolina?
Is adolescent depressive symptom severity associated with gender, race, socioeconomic status and city?
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents aged 10-24 in the United States; injuries due to self-harm for those ages 15-19 are higher than in any other age group. Both suicide and self-harm are preventable and associated with depression. Depression in adolescents and young adults is underdiagnosed and undertreated. Intersectionality in race, gender, place, and socio-economic status create multidimensional and interplaying layers of disadvantage that may impact depression severity.
Data were obtained from patients, ages 11-21 at a pediatric clinic from 2012-2016. Demographics were abstracted through electronic medical records. A modified Guidelines for Adolescent Preventative Services survey was used to collect data on behaviors. PHQ9 was used to screen for depression; a score of ?11 indicated a positive screen. Insurance was used as a proxy for socioeconomic status. It was measured through record of public vs private vs no insurance for each patient (coded as 0, 1, 2). Sample characteristics were assessed with univariate analysis. Bi-variate chi-square analyses were then utilized to assess associations of depression with demographics and potentially protective behaviors; multivariate logistical regression assessed global associations between depression, demographics, and categorical risk taking behaviors to calculate odds ratios for depression.
839 adolescents participated in the study, 48.8% male and 51.2% female. Participants were distributed with the following percentages: 18.4% white; 42.0% black; 31.0% Hispanic. About 12.21% were uninsured and 66.71% were publically insured. The mean age was 14.0 years. 11.32% screened positive for depression. Depression was significantly positively correlated with being female (OR=2.26, p=0.041), Hispanic (OR=2.92, p=0.045), and on public insurance (69.39% of 11+, p=.841). There is a statistically significant relationship between insurance status and geographic location (p=.031); more adolescents screened positive for depression (score 11+) category who are from Chapel Hill and Durham (24.49% and 28.57% respectively) (p=.85), than other locations (Raleigh, Hillsborough, and Burlington).
Conclusion: In the sample of 839 adolescents, females, people of Hispanic origin, uninsured/publically insured individuals, and those in Durham, NC and Chapel Hill, NC were the most likely to report depressive symptoms. Hispanic publically insured females were the most likely to have the highest PHQ9 scores. These findings call for an increase in attention to adolescent groups that experience multiple facets of disadvantage and depression.