Mueller, Frederick O., Ph.D., Stephen Marshall and Renee Johnson. A Survey of Safety Equipment
Used in Little League Baseball: A Report to the medical and Safety Advisory Committee.
Dept. of Physical Education, Exercise and Sports Science and Injury Prevention Research Center,
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. March 1998.|
This research included a national survey of injuries in Little League Baseball and of safety equipment used in same.
Purpose: To link Little League injury data to the equipment data collected from the Little League in the summer of 1997. As a result, to be able to recommend using or not using a batter's face mask, batter chest protector, break away bases, and the soft baseball would be useful.
Discussion: Compliance with the survey was good and the survey achieved an excellent response rate (94%). Use of modified bases is widespread, with approximately one-half of leagues using them in the senior divisions and about two-thirds using them in the junior divisions. Using the face guard was not common, with about one-quarter of leagues using them in the Little League division. Modified balls were widely used in the Tee-ball and challenges divisions, but usage in all other divisions was low (typically less than 5% of leagues).
Previous research indicates that the most common cause of injury in youth baseball is contact with the ball, with fewer injuries associated with contact with the base. Sporting goods manufacturers currently market a wide range of baseball and softball safety equipment and youth baseball leagues exhibit considerable interest in adopting new safety equipment.
Summary: It would be extremely useful for leagues, teams, parents and players to know which safety equipment options are the most functional, most cost-effective, and have the highest compliance rating. The second phase of this research will compare injury to those leagues which are non-users.
Funded by Major League Baseball through a grant to USA Baseball.
Mueller, Frederick O., Ph.D., and Robert Cantu, MD. Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries, 1931-1997.
The 1997 Annual Survey of Catastrophic Football Injuries was part of a concerted by many individuals and research organizations to reduce the incidence of football head and neck injuries. "Catastrophic injuries" were defined as football injuries which resulted in brain or spinal cord injury or skull or spinal fracture. Investigations included injuries in high school, college and professional football.
This research was funded by a grant from the National Collegiate Athletic Association.