From Carl W. Ernst and Bruce B. Lawrence,
Sufi Martyrs of Love: Chishti Sufism in South Asia and Beyond  (Palgrave Press, 2002).
© 2002


I. General Surveys
II. Biographical Dictionaries
III. Individual Biographical Studies (listed alphabetically)
IV. Discourses (malfuzat)
V. Regional Studies
VI. Institutional Studies
VII. Persian Poetry
VIII. Literature in Modern Indian Languages
IX. Music
X. Reformist Adaptations and Critiques of Chishti Sufism
XI. The Chishtiyya in Diaspora

I. General Surveys Arnold, Thomas."Saints and Martyrs, Muhammadan, in India." Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (1911), XI, 68-73.

Begg, W. D. The Big Five of India in Sufism. Ajmer: W. E. Begg, 1972.

Bhajjan, Samuel Victor. "The Chishti Sufis of India." M. A. Thesis, Hartford Seminary, 1959.

Boewering, Gerhard. "Cestiya." Encyclopaedia Iranica, V, 333-39.

Digby, Simon. "The Sufi Shaikh as a Source of Authority in Medieval India." Purusartha 9 (1986), pp. 57-77.

Ernst, Carl W. Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center. SUNY Series in Muslim Spirituality in South Asia. State University of New York Press, 1992.

Halim, A. "Mystics and Mystical Movements of the Saiyyad-Lodi Period: 1414 A.D. to 1526 A.D." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan 8 (1963), pp. 71-108.

Graham, James William. "A Treatise on Sufiism, or Mahomedan Mysticism." Transactions of the Literary Society of Bombay 1 (1819), pp. 89-119.

Jackson, Paul. "A History of the Chishti Shaikhs." In Islam in India: Studies and Commentaries, Vol. 2, Religion and Religious Education, edited by Christian W. Troll, pp. 250-60. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1985. A critical review of vol. I of K. A. Nizami's Urdu Tarikh-i mashayikh-i Chisht (1980).

Lawrence, Bruce B. Notes from a Distant Flute: Sufi Literature in Pre-Mughal Literature. Tehran: Imperial Iranian Academy of Philosophy, 1978.

Moinul Haq, S. "Rise and Expansion of the Chishtis in the Subcontinent." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 22 (1974), pp. 157-94, 207-48.

Moinul Haq, S. "Sufi Shaykhs and Sufi Poets in the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 25/ii (1977), pp. 77-124.

Nabi, Mohammad Noor. Development of Muslim Religious Thought in India from 1200 A.D. to 1450 A. D. Faculty of Arts Publications Seris, 10. Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University Press, 1962.

Nizami, K. A. "Cishtiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam, II, 50-56.

----------. Some Aspects of Religion and Politics in India in the Thirteenth Century, IAD Religio-Philosophical Series, 2. 2nd ed., Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1978.

Rizvi, Saiyd Athar Abbas. A History of Sufism in India. 2 vols., Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1978.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Handbuch der Orientalistik IV.3. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1980.

----------. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

Siddiqui, Iqtidar Husain. "Resurgence of Chishti Silsila in the Sultanate of Delhi during the Lodi Period (A.D. 1451-1526)." In Islam in India: Studies and Commentaries, Vol. 2, Religion and Religious Education, edited by Christian W. Troll (Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1985), pp. 58-72.

Wahid Bakhsh Sial Rabbani. Islamic Sufism: The Science of Flight in God, with God, by God and Union and Communion with God, Also showing the Tremendous Sufi Influence on Christian and Hindu Mystics and Mysticism. Lahore: Sufi Foundation, 1984.

II. Biographical Dictionaries A. General Akhtar, Mohd. Saleem. "A Critical Appraisal of the Sufi Hagiographical Corpus of Medieval India." Islamic Culture 52 (1978), pp. 139-50.

Lawrence, Bruce B. "The Chishtiya of Sultanate India: A Case Study of Biographical Complexities in South Asian Islam." In Charisma and Sacred Biography, ed. Michael A. Williams (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1981), pp. 47-67.

----------. "An Indo-Persian Account of the Formation and Organization of the Early Persian Sufi Orders." In Classical Persian Sufism: from its Origins to Rumi, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, 1994), pp. 19-32.

Ernst, Carl W. "From Hagiography to Martyrology: Conflicting Testimonies to a Sufi Martyr of the Delhi Sultanate." History of Religions XXIV (1985), pp. 308-327.

Siddiqui, M. H. The Memoirs of Sufis written in India: Reference to Kashaf-ul-mahjub, Siyar-ul-auliya, and Siyar-ul-arifin. Baroda: Dept. of Persian, Urdu, and Arabic, MSUB, 1979.

B. Studies of Specific Biographical Texts Akhtar, Muhammad Saleem. "The Contemporaries of Mawlana Muhammad Sadiq Kashmiri." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 29/i (1978), pp. 156-97.

----------. The Kalimat al-Sadiqin: A Hagiography of Sufis buried at Delhi until 1614 A.D.. 2nd ed., New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 1990. Cf. Storey, Persian Literature, I, 985.

Haq, S. Moinul. "The Matlub-ut-Talibin (M.U. MS)." Procs. IHRC 1943, pp. 37-39. Cf. Storey, Persian Literature, I, 1014.

Tafhimi, Sajidullah. "Sanawat al-Atqiya', a Rare Work on Biographies of Sufi Shaykhs by Shaykh Badar al-Din Sarhindi." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 29 (1981), pp. 238-58. Cf. Storey, Persian Literature, I, 1002.

C. Translations Ernst, Carl W., trans. "Lives of Sufi Saints." In The Religions of South Asia, ed. Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Princeton Readings in Religions (Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 495-506 [lives of Muhammad ibn Ja`far Makki, from Akhbar al-akhyar, and Burhan al-Din Gharib, from Fath al-awliya'].
III. Individual Biographical Studies (listed alphabetically) A. `Abd al-Quddus Gangohi (d. 1537) Askari, Syed Hasan. "Hazrat Abdul Quddus Gangohi." Patna University Journal (1957).

Digby, Simon. "`Abd al-Quddus Gangohi (1456-1537 A.D.): The Personality and Attitudes of a Medieval Indian Sufi." Medieval India--A Miscellany 3 (1975), pp. 1-66.

Haqq, S. Moinul. "Shaikh Abdul Quddus of Gangoh." Proceedings of the Pakistan Historical Conference 2 (1952), pp. 217-24.

Khan, Iqtidar Alam. "Shaikh `Abdul Quddus Gangohi's Relations with Political Authorities: a Reappraisal." Medieval India: A Miscellany 4 (1977), pp. 73-90.

B. `Abd al-Rahman Chishti (d. 1683) Vassie, Roderic. "`Abd al-Rahman Chishti & the Bhagavadgita: `Unity of Religion' Theory in Practice." In The Legacy of Mediaeval Persian Sufism, ed. Leonard Lewisohn (London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, 1992), pp. 367-78.

Zaki, Mohammad. "Mirat ul Makhluqat of Abdur Rahman Chishti. In Bias in Indian Historiography, ed. Devahuti (Delhi: D. K. Publications, 1980), pp. 352-54.

C. Akhi Siraj al-Din (d. 1357) Rahim, A. "Shaykh Akhi Siraj al-Din `Uthman, a Bengali Saint." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 9 (1961), pp. 23-39. D. Chiragh-i Dihli, Nasir al-Din Mahmud (d. 1356) Nizami, K. A. The Life and Times of Shaikh Nasir-u'd-din Chiragh-i Dehli. Muslim Religious Thinkers of South Asia Series No. 4. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1991.

Habib, Mohammad. "Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmud Chiragh-i Delhi as a great historical personality." Islamic Culture 20 (1946), pp. 129-53.

E. Farid al-Din Ganj-i Shakar (d. 1265) Anand, B. S. Baba Farid. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, 1975.

Chaghatai, Abdullah. "Baba Farid and Pakpattan." Iqbal Review 9 (1968), pp. 116-31.

Gorekar, N. S. "Baba Farid as a Secularist Sufi." Indica 13/1-2 (1976), pp. 59-66.

----------. "Teachings of Baba Farid Ganj-i Shakar." Indo-Iranica 29 (1976), pp. 148-56.

Husain, Mahdi. "Mysticism and Shaikh Farid of the Chishtiyah Sufi Order." Dacca University Studies 22A (1974), pp. 151-62.

Macauliffe, M. A. The Life of Shaikh Farid I, and the compositions of Shaikh Farid II, contained in the Granth Sahib of the Sikhs. Lahore: Artistic Printing Works, 1903.

Mohana Lala, Munshi. "A Brief Account of Mas'ud, known by the name of Shakarganj, or Shakarbar, the Muhammadan Saint." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 5 (1836), pp. 635-38.

Nabi, M. Noor. "Baba Farid Ganj-i Shakar and his mystical philosophy." Islamic Culture 48 (1974), pp. 237-46.

Nizami, K. A. The Life and Times of Shaikh Farid-u'd-Din Ganj-i-Shakar. IAD Religio-Philosophy Series No. 1. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1955; reprint ed., 1973.

Sharma, Ram. "Shaikh Farid and His Times." Punjab University Research Bulletin (Arts) 6/ii (1975), pp. 45-54.

Talib, Gurbachan Singh. Baba Sheikh Farid: his life and teaching. Patiala: Punjabi University, 1973. 60 pp.

----------, ed. Baba Sheikh Farid: life and teachings. Patiala: Baba Farid Memorial Society, 1973. 288 pp.

F. Gisu Daraz (d. 1422) Askari, Syed Hasan. "Tazkira-i Murshidi--Rare Malfuz of the 15th-Century Sufi Saint of Gulbarga." Proceedings of the Indian Historical Records Commission (1952).

Hussaini, Syed Shah Khusro. "Gisudaraz on Wahdat al-Wujud." Studies in Islam 19 (1982), pp. 233-45.

----------. The Life, Works and Teachings of Khwajah Bandahnawaz Gisudiraz. Gulbarga: Sayyid Muhammad Gisudiraz Research Academy, 1986.

----------. Sayyid Muhammad al-Husayni Gisu Daraz: On Sufism. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1985.

----------. "Shuhud vs. Wujud: A Study of Gisudiraz." Islamic Culture 59 (1985), pp. 323-39.

Siddiqi, Mohd. Sulaiman. "Syed Mohd. al-Husaini Gisudaraz." Islamic Culture 52 (1978), pp. 173-84.

G. Husam al-Din Manikpuri (d. 1477) Askari, Syed Hasan. "Hazrat Husamuddin, the 15th century Chishti saint of Manikpur." Current Studies 1 (May 1953), pp. 4-11A; also in Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society (1953), pp. 380-391. H. Shah Mina (d. 1465) Bruinessen, Martin van. "Haji Bektash, Sultan Sahak, Shah Mina Sahib and Various Avatars of a Running Wall." Turcica: Revue d'Études Turcs 21-23 (1991), pp. 55-69.

Digby, Simon. "To Ride a Tiger or a Wall? Strategies of Prestige in Indian Sufi Legend." In According to Tradition: Hagiographical Writing in India, ed. W. N. Callewaert and Rupert Snell (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz Verlag, 1994), pp.

I. Muhammad ibn Ja`far Makki (d. ca. 1451) Blochet, E. "Études sur l'ésoterisme musulmane." Journal Asiatique series 9, vol. 19 (1902), pp. 489-531; series 9, vol. 20 (1902), pp. 49-111. J. Muhibb Allah Ilahabadi (d. 1648) Ali, Hafiz Mohammad Tahir. "Shaikh Muhibbullah of Allahabad--Life and Times." Islamic Culture 47 (1973), pp. 241-56.

----------. "An Important Persian Work on Sufism (Manazir-i akhass al-khawass) by Sh. Muhibbullah of Allahabad (d. 1058/1648)." Islamic Culture 54 (1980), pp. 31-38.

Ernst, Carl W. "Notes on the Correspondence of Dara Shikuh and Shah Muhibb Allah Ilahabadi." Unpublished paper presented at conference of Indian History and Culture Society, New Delhi, February, 1979.

Khan, Yusuf Husain. "Shah Muhibbullah of Allahabad and his Mystical Thought." Islamic Culture 38 (1964), pp. 315-22.

K. Mu`in al-Din Chishti (d. 1236) Begg, Wahiduddin. The Holy Biography of Hazrat Khwaja Muinuddin Hasan Chishti, the Holy Saint of Ajmer. Ajmer: W. E. Begg, 1960. Many photographs.

Currie, P. M. The Shrine and Cult of Mu`in al-Din Chishti of Ajmer. Oxford University South Asian Studies Series. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Ghani, M. A. "Qutb-ul Hind Hazrat Khwajah Mu`inuddin Chishti, Persia's famous Sufi saint at Ajmer. Nagpur University Journal 5 (1939), pp. 23-38.

Khan, M. Ibrahim. "Two Moslem saints and mystics, II: Khwaja Mu`inuddin Chishti." Muslim World 15 (1925), pp. 62-65.

Sabahuddin Abdur Rahman, Sayyed. "A Critical Study of the Dates of Birth and Death of Hadrat Khwájah Mu`inu'd-Din Chishtí of Ajmer." Indo-Iranica 17/i (1964), pp. 29-32.

Salim, Muhammad. The Holy Saint of Ajmer. Bombay: the author, 1949. 85 p.

----------. "A Reappraisal of the Sources on Shaykh Mu`in al-Din Ajmeri." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 16 (1968), pp. 145-52.

Sharab, A. H. The Life and Teachings of Khawaja Moinud-din Hasan Chishti. Ajmer: Khawaja Publications, 1959.

Sharib, Z. H. Khawaja Gharib Nawaz. Available from Sufi Books.

L. Nizam al-Din Awliya' (d. 1325) Azad, Motasim A. "Fawa'id u'l-fu'ad (Hasan-i `Ala Sijzi)." Islamic Culture 53 (1979), pp. 1-13.

Borah, M. I. "Nizamuddin Aulia and his relations with his contemporary sovereigns." Proceedings of the Indian Historical Commission (1939), pp. 649-60.

Das, R. N. "Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Auliya." Islamic Culture 48 (1974), pp. 93-104.

Digby, Simon. "Sufis and travellers in the early Delhi Sultanate: the Evidence of the Fawa'id al-Fu'ad." In Socio-cultural Impact of Islam on India, ed. Attar Singh (Chandigarh: University of the Panjab, 1976), pp. 171-79.

Faruqi, Nisar Ahmed. "Ameer Khusro in the Presence of His Mentor Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia." In Contemporary Relevance of Sufism, ed. Syeda Saiyidain Hameed (New Delhi: Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1993), pp. 59-81.

Hafiz, Syed M. "Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia." Islamic Culture 34 (1960), pp. 264-69.

Haq, S. Moinul. "Shaikh Nizamuddin Aulia." Studies in Indian Culture, Ghulam Yazdani Commeroration Volume, pp. 196-202.

Haq, M. M. "Shaykh Nizam al-Din Awliya (a short life sketch)." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan (1965), pp. 29-48.

Lawrence, Bruce B. "Honoring Women through Sexual Abstinence: Lessons from the Spiritual Practice of a Pre-Modern South Asian Sufi Master, Shaykh Nizam ad-din Awliya." In Festschrift for Annemarie Schimmel, ed. Maria Subtelny, Journal of Turkish Studies 18 (1994), pp. 149-61.

Nizami, K. A. The Life and Times of Shaikh Nizam-u'd-Din Auliya. Muslim Religious Thinkers of South Asia Series No. 3. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1991.

M. Nizam al-Din Thanesari (d. 1626) Moinul Haq, S. "Risala-i Haqqiyah, A Discourse [malfuz] of Shaykh Nizam al-Din." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 19 (1971), pp. 223-230a, plus pp. 1-32 of Persian text. N. Nur Qutb-i `Alam (d. 1415) Latif, S. A. "Munis-ul-Fuqara -- A 15th Century Manual on Mysticism." In Bias in Indian Historiography, ed. Devahuti (Delhi: D. K. Publications, 1980), pp. 347-51. O. Salim Chishti Banerji, S. K. "Shaikh Salim Chishti, the Shaikh-ul-Islam of Fathpur Sikri." Bharata-Kaumudi. Studies in Indology in honour of Dr. Radha Kumud Mookerji. Part 1 (Allahabad: The Indian Press, Ltd., 1945), pp. 69-76.

Husain, Afzal. "The Family of Shaikh Salim Chishti during the Reign of Jahangir." Medieval India, A Miscellany 2 (1972), pp. 61-69.

IV. Discourses (malfuzat) and mystical writings A. Translations 1. Chiragh-i Dihli Ernst, Carl W., trans. "Conversations of Sufi Saints." In The Religions of South Asia, ed. Donald S. Lopez, Jr., Princeton Readings in Religions (Princeton University Press, 1995), pp. 513-17 [from Hamid Qalandar's Khayr al-majalis]. 2. Khwaja Farid Shackle, Christopher, trans. The Teachings of Khwaja Farid. Multan, 1978. 3. Nizam al-Din Awliya' Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan, trans. "Fawa'id-ul-Fu'ad of Khwajah Hasan Dehlawi." Islam and the Modern Age 11 (1980), pp 166-91; 12 (1981), pp. 63-73; 13 (1982), pp. 33-44, 126-41, 169-80, 210-28; 14 (1983), pp. 195-13; 15 (1984), pp. 25-36, 167-92; 16 (1985), pp. 231-42.

----------. Fawa'id al-fu'ad: Spiritual and Literary Discourses of Shaikh Nizamuddin Awliya. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld, 1996.

Nizam Ad-Din Awliya. Morals for the Heart. Recorded by Amir Hasan Sijzi. Trans. Bruce B. Lawrence. Classics of Western Spirituality, 74. New York: Paulist Press, 1992.

B. Studies Azad, Mutasim A. "Mukh al-ma`ani of Hasan-i-Sijzi Dehlavi." Islamic Culture 44 (1970), pp. 234-43.

Chittick, William. "Notes on Ibn al-`Arabi's Influence in the Subcontinent." Muslim World 82 (1992), pp. 218-41.

Ernst, Carl W. "The Interpretation of the Classical Sufi Tradition in India: The Shama'il al-atqiya' of Rukn al-Din Kashani." Sufi 22 (1994), pp. 5-10.

Habib, Mohammad. "Chishti Mystics Records of the Sultanate Period." Medieval India Quarterly 1 (1950), pp. 1-42; reprinted in Politics and Society During the Early Medieval Period, Collected Works of Professor Mohammad Habib, edited by K. A. Nizami, I, 385-433. 2 vols., New Delhi: People's Publishing House, 1974.

Jackson, Paul. "Khair Al-Majalis: An Examination." In Islam in India: Studies and Commentaries, Vol. 2, Religion and Religious Education, edited by Christian W. Troll (Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1985), pp. 34-57.

Latif, S. A. "Munis-ul-Fuqara -- A 15th Century Manual on Mysticism." In Bias in Indian Historiography, ed. Devahuti (Delhi: D. K. Publications, 1980), pp. 347-351.

Lawrence, Bruce B. "Afzal-ul-fawa'id--a reassessment." In Life, Times & Works of Amir Khusrau Dehlavi, Seventh Centenary, edited by Z. Ansari, pp. 119-131. New Delhi: National Amir Khusrau Society, 1976.

Nizami, K. A. "Historical Significance of the Malfuz Literature of Medieval India." In On History and Historians of Medieval India (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1982), pp. 163-197.

----------. "Durrar-i-Nizami: A unique but less-known Malfuz of Shaikh Nizam U'd-din Auliya." In Dr. Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi Memorial Volume II, ed. Hilal Ahmad Zubairi (Karachi: Dr. Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi Academy, 1994), pp. 231-48.

----------. "A Note on Ahsan-al-Aqwal." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 3 (1955), pp. 40-44.

----------. "Sarur al-Sudur." Proceedings of the 13th Indian Historical Congress (1950), pp. 167-69.

V. Regional Studies A. Bengal Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. Comparative Studies on Muslim Societies, 17. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Haq, Muhammad Enamul. A History of Sufi-ism in Bengal. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh Publication, 30. Dacca: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1975.

Rashid, S. A. "Some Chishti Saints of Bengal." Proceedings of the Pakistan Historical Conference 2 (1952), pp. 207-16.

Rasool, Ghulam. Chishti Nizami Sufi Order of Bengal till mid 15th Century and its Socio-religious Contribution. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat- Delli, 1990.

Tamizi, Mohammad Yahya. Sufi Movement in Eastern India. Available from Sufi Books.

B. Deccan Anonymous. "The Durgahs and Mahomedan Saints of Hindostan." The Asiatic Journal (1836), pp. 185-94. Notes on shrines at Burhanpur, Khuldabad, and Aurangabad, with ludicrous confusion of the Sufi Burhan al-Din Gharib with Isma`ili Bohras.

Eaton, Richard M. Sufis of Bijapur 1300-1700: Social Roles of Sufis in Medieval India. Princeton University Press, 1978.

Siddiqi, Muhammad Suleman. The Bahmani Sufis. IAD Religio-Philosophy (Original) Series No. 19. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli, 1989.

----------. "Origin and Development of the Chishti Order in the Deccan, 1300-1538 A.D." Islamic Culture 51 (1977), pp. 209-19.

----------. "Sufi-State Relationship under the Bahmanids (A.D. 1348-1538). Rivista degli Studi Orientali LXIV (1990), pp. 71-96.

C. Gujarat Desai, Ziyaud-Din A. Malfuz Literature: As a source of Political, Social, and Cultural History of Gujarat and Rajasthan. Patna, 1991. Contact Duke South Asia collection. D. Jaunpur Saeed, Mian Muhammad. The Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur: A Political & Cultural History. Karachi: University of Karachi, 1972. Chishti saints are discussed on pp. 223-270. E. Punjab Siddiqi, M. Zameeruddin. "The Resurgence of the Chishti Silsila in the Punjab during the 18th Century." Proceedings of the 32nd Indian Historical Congress (1970), I, 408-12.
VI. Institutional Studies A. The Dargah Ara, Matsuo. Dargahs in Medieval India. A Historical Study on the Shrines of Sufi Saints in Delhi with Reference to the Relationship between the Religious Authority and the Ruling Power. 3 vols., Tokyo: University of Tokyo, Institute of Oriental Culture, 1977. In Japanese with English table of contents. Many photographs.

Census of India. "Beliefs and Practices Associated with Muslim Pirs in Two Cities of India (Delhi and Lucknow." Monograph 1, Monograph Series, Part VII-B. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, 1966.

Chaudhry, Hafeezur Rehman. "The Shrine and Lunger of Golra Sharif." In Pakistan: The Social Sciences' Perspective, ed. Akbar S. Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 190-206.

Eaton, Richard M. "The Political and Religious Authority of the Shrine of Baba Farid in Pakpattan, Punjab." In Moral Conduct and Authority: the Place of Adab in South Asian Islam, edited by Barbara Metcalf, pp. 333-356. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.

Irving, M. "The Shrine of Baba Farid Shakarganj at Pakpattan." Journal of the Panjab Historical Society I (1911-12), pp. 70-76.

Islam, Riazul. "A Comparative Study of the Treatment of Futuh in the Principal Chishti Records." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 40 (1992), pp. 91-96.

----------. "A Note on Zanbil: The Practice of Begging among the Sufis in South Asia (Mainly 14th Century)." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 44 (1996), pp. 5-11.

----------. "Ideas on Kasb in South Asian Sufism." Indian Historical Review 17 (1991), pp. 90-121.

----------. "South Asian Sufis and their Social Linkage (Mainly 14th Century)." In Cultural Interaction in South Asia, ed. S. A. I. Tirmizi (New Delhi: Hamdard Institute of Historical Research, 1993), pp. 90-99.

----------. "Sufism and Economy: A Study in Interrelationship (A Study of the Futuh System in South Asia Mainly during the Fourteenth Century)." Indian Historical Review 18 (1992), pp. 31-58.

Jeffery, Patricia. "Creating a Scene: The Disruption of Ceremonial in a Sufi Shrine." In Ritual & Religion among Muslims of the Sub-continent, edited by Imtiaz Ahmad (Lahore: Vanguard, 1985), pp. 162-94.

Lawrence, Bruce B. "The Diffusion of Hindu/Muslim Boundaries in South Asia: Contrasting Evidence from the Literature and the Tomb Cults of Selected Indo-Muslim Say*s." In Identity and Division in Cults and Sects in South Asia, ed. Peter Gaeffke and David A. Utz, Proceedings of the South Asia Seminar, 1 (Philadelphia: Department of South Asia Regional Studies, 1984), pp. 125-32.

Mala, S. Babs. "The Sufi Convent and its Social Significance in the Medieval Period of Islam." Islamic Culture LI (1977), pp. 31-52.

Nizami, K. A. "Some Aspects of Khanqah Life in Medieval India." Studia Islamica 8 (1957), pp. 51-70.

Pinto, Desiderio. Piri-Muridi Relationship: A Study of the Nizamuddin Durgah. Manohar, 1995.

Rashid, S. Khalid. Wakf Administration in India: A Socio-Legal Study. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1978. Contains information about the current administration of the Ajmer shrine.

Salim, Mohammad. "Jama`at-Khana of Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi." Proceedings of the Pakistan Historical Conference III (1953), pp. 183-189.

Zilli, I. A. "Precepts and Paradox: The Chishti Attitude towards Social Labour." Proceedings of the Indian History Congress (1986), pp. 281-89.

B. Patronage Bilgrami, Rafat. "The Ajmer Wakf under the Mughals." Islamic Culture 52 (1978), pp. 97-103.

----------. "Some Mughal Revenue Grants to Family and Khanqah of Saiyid Ashraf Jahangir [Simnani]." Medieval India, A Miscellany 2 (1972), pp. 298-335.

Husain, Afzal. "The Family of Shaikh Salim Chishti during the Reign of Jahangir." Medieval India, A Miscellany 2 (1972), pp. 61-69.

C. Political Relations Nizami, K. A. "Early Indo-Muslim Mystics and their Attitude towards the State." Islamic Culture 22 (1948), pp. 387-98; 23 (1949), pp. 13-21, 162-70, 312-24; 24 (1950), pp. 60-71.

Qamar Jahan Begam. Princess Jahan Ara Begam, Her Life and Works. Karachi: S. M. Hamid `Ali, 1991.

Salim, Mohammad. "Attitude of Chishti Saints towards Political Power." Proceedings of the Pakistan Historical Conference 2 (1952), pp. 225-29.

----------. "Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya and the Sultans of Delhi." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society 15 (1967), pp. 38-44.

Yazdani, G. "Jahanara." Journal of the Panjab Historical Society 2 (1914), pp. 152-169.

D. Relics and Succession Digby, Simon. "Tabarrukat and Succession among the Great Chishti Shaykhs." In Delhi Through the Ages: Essays in Urban History, Culture and Society, edited by R. E. Frykenberg (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1986), pp. 63-103.

Gilmartin, David. "Shrines, Succession and Sources of Moral Authority in the Punjab." In Pakistan: The Social Sciences' Perspective, ed. Akbar S. Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 146-64.

Zilli, I. A. "Successors of Shaikh Nasiruddin Mahmud and the Disintegration of the Central Chishti Organization." Proceedings of the Indian History Congress (1983), pp. 220-26.

E. Pilgrimage Ernst, Carl W. "An Indo-Persian Guide to Sufi Shrine Pilgrimage." In Manifestations of Sainthood in Islam, edited by Grace Martin Smith and Carl W. Ernst (Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1994), pp. 43-68. F. Practice Valiuddin, Mir. Contemplative Disciplines in Sufism. Ed. Gulshan Khakee. London: East-West Publications, 1980. Ch. 5, "Methods of Dhikr: The Chishtiyya Order," pp. 75-92.
VII. Persian Poetry A. Translations Zetterstéen, Karl V. "Selections from the Diwan of Jamaluddin Hanswi." Islamic Research Association Miscellany I (1948). B. Studies Badar, K. "Amir Khusraw and Contemporary Mysticism." Iqbal Review 17/i (1976), pp. 11-32.

Borah, M. I. "The Life and Works of Amir Hasan Dihlavi." Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Letters VII (1941), pp. 1-59.

Habib, Mohammad. Hazrat Amir Khusrau of Delhi. Lahore: Islamic Book Service, 1979 [reprint of 1927 ed.].

Lawrence, Bruce B. "Thematic Antecedents for the Urdu Ghazal in the Sufi Poetry of the Sultanate Period." In Studies in the Urdu Ghazal and Prose Fiction, ed. Muhammad Umar Memon (Madison WI: 1979), pp. 61-100.

Qadri, Syed Abdul Shakoor. "Diwan-i Mas`ud Bakk." Ph.D. dissertation, Nagpur University, 1972.

VIII. Literature in Modern Indian Languages A. General Asani, Ali S. "Amir Khusraw and Poetry in Indic Languages." Islamic Culture 62 (1988), pp. 50-62.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Islamic Literatures of India. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1973.

Shackle, Christopher. "Early Muslim Vernacular Poetry in the Indus Valley: Its Contexts and its Character." In Islam and Indian Regions, ed. Anna Libera Dallapiccola and Stephanie Zingel-Avé Lallemant, Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut der Universität Heidelberg, 145 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1993), I, 259-89.

B. Punjabi Elahi, M., trans. Couplets of Baba Farid. Lahore: Majlis Shah Hussain, 1967.

Singh, Attar. "Sheikh Farid and the Punjabi Poetic Tradition." In Perspectives on Sheikh Farid, edited by Gurbachan Singh Talib (Patiala: Baba Farid Memorial Society, 1975), pp. 225-233.

C. Hindi Pandey, S. M. "Social Relevance of Mystic Poetry -- Contribution of Hindi Sufi Poet Maulana Daud." Journal of Medieval Indian Literature 1,1 (1977), pp. 28-43.

Vaudeville, Charlotte. "La conception de l'amour divin chez Muhammad Jayasi: virah et `ishq." Journal Asiatique 250 (1962), pp. 351-67.

White, C. S. J. "Sufism in Medieval Hindi Literature." History of Religions 5 (1966), pp. 114-32.

D. Siraiki Shackle, Christopher, trans. Fifty Poems of Khawaja Farid. Multan, 1983. E. English Daruwalla, Keki N. "The Mazars of Amroha." Quest 93 (Jan.-Feb. 1975), pp. 96-98. A poem on the tiger-and-wall-riding Shah Vilayat and Nasiruddin.
IX. Music A. Qawwali and Sama` in South Asia Husaini, Syed Shah Khusro. "Bund Sama." Islamic Culture (1970).

Lawrence, Bruce B. "The Early Chishti Approach to Sama`." In Islamic Society and Culture: Essays in Honour of Professor Aziz Ahmad, ed. M. Israel and N. K. Wagle (Delhi: Manohar, 1983), pp. 69-93.

Qureshi, Regula Burckhardt. "Exploring time cross-culturally: ideology and performance of time in the Sufi `Qawwali.'" The Journal of Musicology 12 (1994), pp. 491-528

----------. "The Mahfil-e-Sama: Sufi Practice in the Indian Context." Islam and the Modern Age 17 (1986), pp. 133-66.

----------. Sufi Music of India and Pakistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. ML 3197 Q74 1987 (UNC).

----------. "Sama` in the Royal Court of Saints: The Chishtiyya of South Asia." In Manifestations of Sainthood in Islam, edited by Grace Martin Smith and Carl W. Ernst (Istanbul: Éditions *sis, 1994), pp. 111-27.

B. Field Studies Sadler, Albert W. "Visit to a Chishti Qawwali." Muslim World (1963).
X. Reformist Adaptations and Critiques of Chishti Sufism A. The Barelvi School Sanyal, Usha. Devotional Islam and Politics in British India: Ahmad Riza Khan Barelwi and his Movement, 1870-1920. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. B. The Deoband School Metcalfe, Barbara. Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860-1900. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982. C. The Tablighi Jama`at Anwarul Haq, M. The Faith Movement of Mawlana Muhammad Ilyas. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1972.

Troll, Christian W. "Five Letters of Maulana Ilyas (1885-1944), the Founder of the Tablighi Jama`at, Translated, Annotated and Introduced." In Islam in India: Studies and Commentaries, Vol. 2, Religion and Religious Education, edited by Christian W. Troll (Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, 1985), pp. 138-76.

D. The Jama`at-i Islami Abul A`la Maududi. A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam. Trans. al-Ash`ari. Lahore: Islamic Publications Limited, 1963; reprint 1972.

----------. Worship in Islam. Riyadh: Presidency of Islamic Research, Ifta and Propagation, 1404/1984.

XI. The Chishtiyya in the Contemporary World and in Diaspora
  A. Zauqi Shah

B. Hazrat Inayat Khan

Köszegi, Michael. "The Sufi Order in the West: Sufism's Encounter with the New Age." In Islam in North America: A Sourcebook, ed. Michael A. Köszegi and J. Gordon Melton (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992), pp. 211-22, 237-40. Contains extensive bibliography of writings by and about Inayat Khan and related figures.

Rawlinson, Andrew. The Book of Enlightened Masters: Western Teachers in Eastern Traditions. Chicago: Open Court, 1997. See esp. "Sufi Movement and the Sufi Order," pp. 543-52.

C. Diaspora Sufism Kinney, Jay. "Sufism Comes to America." Gnosis 30 (Winter 1994), pp. 18-23.

Abu Abdullah Ghulam Moinuddin, Hakim, a.k.a. Hakim Moinuddin Chishti [formerly Robert Thomson]. The Book of Sufi Healing. New York: Inner Traditions International, 1985.


Chishti figures listed in the Encyclopaedia of Islam

Ashraf Djahangir Simnani (A. S. Bazmee Ansari), I:702.

Burhan al-Din Gharib (Mohammad Shafi), I:1328-9.

Ciragh-i Dihli (Mohammad Shafi), II:47-9.

Farid al-Din Mas`ud "Gandj-i Shakar" (K. A. Nizami). II:796-7.

Gangohi, `Abd al-Kuddus (G. Böwering), Suppl. 313.

Gisu Daraz (K. A. Nizami), II:1114-6.

Hamid Kalandar (I. H. Siddiqui), Suppl. 352-3.

Hamid al-Din Sufi Nagawri Siwali (I. H. Siddiqui), Suppl. 353.

Hanswi, Djamal al-Din (J. Burton-Page), III:167.

Hasan Dihlawi (Aziz Ahmad), III:249.

Imdad Allah (A. S. Bazmee Ansari), III:1174-5.

Kalim Allah al-Djahanabadi (A. S. Bazmee Ansari), IV:507-9.

Kutb al-Din Bakhtiyar Kaki (G. Böwering), V:546-7.

Malik Muhammad Djayasi (J. A. Haywood), VI:272.

Nizam al-Din Awliya' (K. A. Nizami), VIII:68.

Nur Kutb-i `Alam (Ed.), VIII:125.

Chishti figures listed in the Encyclopedia Iranica

`Abd al-Quddus Gangohi (Bruce B. Lawrence), I:138-40.

`Abd al-Rahman Cesti (Hameed ud-Din), I:146.

`Abd al-Vahed ibn Zayd (P. Nwyia), I:167-68.

Abdal Cesti, vaja Abu Ahmad (M. Imam), I:175 [260-355/874-966].

Abu `Ali Qalandar (K. A. Nizami), I:258.

Abu Eshaq Sami (Mutiul Imam), I:280.

Ahmad Rodawlawi, `Abd al-Haqq (Bruce B. Lawrence), I:653-53.

Ahmadpuri, Gol Mohammad (K. A. Nizami), I:666.

`Ali Asgar Cesti (K. A. Nizami), I:859-60.

Amir Kosrow Dehlavi (A. Schimmel), I:963-65.

`Aqel, Mohammad (M. Z. Siddiqui), II:193 [d. 1229/1814].

Awrangabadi, Shah Nezam-al-din (M. Z. Siddiqui), III:120-1.

Bahri, Mahmud (R. M. Eaton), III:530 [d. 1130/1717-8].

Cerag-e Dehli (Sharif Husain Qasemi), V:262-63.

Chishti figures listed in the Dictionnaire Biographique des savants et grands figures du monde musulman peripherique, du XIXe siecle a nos jours (1992)

Ashraf `Ali Thanawi (B. Metcalf), 9-10

Hasan Nizami (M. Gaborieau), 11

Imdadu'llah Thanawi (B. Metcalf), 13

Muhammad Ilyas Kandhalawi (M. Gaborieau), 16-7

Muhammad Isma`il Kandhalawi (M. Gaborieau), 17

Muhammad Qasim Nanautawi (B. Metcalf), 17-8

Rashid Ahmad Gangohi (B. Metcalf), 21-22