Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering


Stephen C. Whalen, Associate Chair for Academics, Director of Graduate Studies


Michael D. Aitken (66) Applied Biotechnology, Bioremediation, Waste Treatment

Louise M. Ball (62) Metabolism, Toxicology and Genotoxicity of Xenobiotics

John M. Bane Jr., Marine Sciences, Physical Oceanography

James K. Bartram (12) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Development, Global Health

Gregory W. Characklis (98) Water Resources Engineering, Economics and Management

Carol Folt, Professor and Chancellor

Avram Gold (43) Environmental Chemistry

Ilona Jaspers (99) Health Effects of Air Pollution in the Lung, Associate Director UNC–Chapel Hill Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology

Richard A. Luettich Jr. (68) Director, Institute of Marine Science, Marine Sciences, Coastal Physics, Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

Christopher S. Martens (92) Marine Sciences, Biogeochemistry

Cass T. Miller (59) Porous Medium Systems, Environmental Physics, Environmental Modeling

Rachel T. Noble (110) Marine Microbial Ecology, Water Quality Microbiology, Non-Point Source (e.g., Stormwater) Contamination of Receiving Waters

Leena A. Nylander-French (95) Skin and Inhalation Exposures to Toxicants, Exposure Modeling

Hans W. Paerl (65) Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Marine and Freshwater Nutrient Cycling

Mark D. Sobsey (38) Environmental Health Microbiology; Virology; Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

James A. Swenberg (77) Environmental Toxicology, Chemical Carcinogenesis

Paul B. Watkins, Director, General Clinical Research Center, UNC Hospitals

Stephen C. Whalen (93) Biogeochemistry, Limnology, Greenhouse Gases

Dale Whittington (70) Water Resources Economics, International Development

Professor of the Practice

Pete Kolsky (18) Water Supply Planning and Sanitation

Associate Professors

Rebecca C. Fry (7) Toxicogenomics, Genetic Toxicology

Jacqueline A. MacDonald Gibson (15) Environmental Risk Assessment, Environmental Decision Analysis

Michael C. Piehler (33) Marine Environmental Sciences, Environmental Microbial Ecology

Marc L. Serre (100) Space/Time Statistics, Exposure Assessment, Environmental Modeling, Hydrology, Geostatistics, GIS, Environmental Epidemiology, Risk Assessment, Medical Geography

Jill R. Stewart (26) Water Quality Microbiology, Ecological Assessment and Prediction

William Vizuete (6) Atmospheric Modeling, Air Pollution, Environmental Engineering, Atmospheric Chemistry

Howard S. Weinberg (96) Aquatic Chemistry, Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Drinking Water Treatment, Occurrence, Fate, and Transport of Chemical Pollutants

J. Jason West (16) Air Pollution, Climate Change, Atmospheric Modeling, Global Health, Environmental Policy, Environmental Engineering

Assistant Professors

Orlando Coronell (10) Physico-Chemical Processes for Water Treatment; Characterization, Modeling, and Application of Membrane Technologies

Jason Surratt (030) Atmospheric Chemistry, Secondary Organic Aerosols, Heterogeneous Chemistry, Air Pollution

Research Professors

Michael R. Flynn (61) Exposure Assessment, Industrial Hygiene, Ventilation Systems

William G. Gray (104) Environmental Modeling, Porous Media Transport

Richard M. Kamens Atmospheric Gas-Particle Partitioning, Modeling

David McNelis (102) Conventional, Alternative and Nuclear Energy Systems and Technology; Nuclear Fuel Cycle; Nuclear Nonproliferation and Transmutation; Director, Center For Sustainable Energy, Environment, and Economic Development

Research Associate Professor

Jun Nakamura (108) Genetic Toxicology, DNA Repair

Research Assistant Professors

Wanda M. Bodnar (85) Analytical Chemistry, Mass Spectrometry

Ken Sexton (94) Atmospheric Chemistry

David Singleton (39) Microbial Ecology, Molecular Microbiology

Zhenfa Zhang, Synthetic Organic Chemistry


Courtney Woods (51) Health Equity, Systems Modeling, Environmental Epidemiology, Risk Assessment, Global Health

Adjunct Professors

Gregory Allgood, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Development, Global Health

Francis S. Binkowski, Air Quality, Meteorology

Linda S. Birnbaum (86) Xenobiotic Metabolism, Biochemical Toxicology

Clarissa Brocklehurst, Water Supply and Sanitation

Gaylen R. Brubaker, Remediation

Daniel L. Costa (97) Pulmonary Toxicology

David M. DeMarini (81) Genetic Toxicology

David Dix, Computational Toxicology

Shabbir H. Gheewala, Life Cycle Assessment

M. Ian Gilmour, Immunotoxicology

Chong Kim, Aerosol Science and Health Effects

David H. Leith (56) Air Pollution Control Engineering, Aerosol Technology

R. Wayne Litaker, Coastal Estuaries

Michael Madden (101) Toxicology

David Peden

Terrence K. Pierson, Environmental Risk Assessment

Joseph Pinto (82) Atmospheric Modeling

Joachim Pleil (106) Exposure Assessment

James Samet

Woodhall Stopford (76) Occupational Medicine Physics

Adjunct Associate Professors

Sarav Arunachalam

John M. Dement

Thomas B. Starr, Risk Assessment

Miroslav Styblo (79) Nutritional Biochemistry and Biochemical Toxicology

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Jacky Rosati (29) Exposure Assessment

Roger Sit, Radiation Physics

Adjunct Lecturer

Raymond W. Hackney, Industrial Hygiene

Professors Emeriti

Russell F. Christman

Douglas Crawford-Brown

Francis A. DiGiano

Donald L. Fox

Harvey E. Jeffries

Donald T. Lauria

David H. Moreau

Frederic Pfaender

Morris A. Shiffman

Mark S. Shuman

Philip C. Singer

Charles M. Weiss

Donald Willhoit

Clinical Professor Emeritus

Donald E. Francisco

Courses for Graduate and Advanced Undergraduate Students


400 Seminar Series (1). Presents the results of ongoing research projects in the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering. Topics and presenters are selected from among the departmental graduate students and faculty.

401 Unifying Concepts (3). Unifying concepts of environmental systems, including conservation principles, modeling, economics, and policy with applications from throughout natural, engineered, human systems. Interfaces among scientific, engineering, and policy aspects of the field.

402 Problem-Based Learning (2). Permission of the instructor. A problem common to the field of environmental science will be studied in detail through the use of small groups of students from the various disciplinary areas in the department.

403 Environmental Chemistry Processes (ENEC 403) (3). Required preparation, a background in chemistry and mathematics, including ordinary differential equations. Chemical processes occurring in natural and engineered systems: chemical cycles; transport and transformation processes of chemicals in air, water, and multimedia environments; chemical dynamics; thermodynamics; structure/activity relationships.

411 Laboratory Techniques and Field Measurements (3). Students learn laboratory, field, and analytical skills. Provides a solid introduction to experimental research in environmental sciences and engineering. Students are provided with applications in limnology, aquatic chemistry, and industrial hygiene.

412 Ecological Microbiology (3). Required preparation, one course in general microbiology. A description of microbial populations and communities, the environmental processes they influence, and how they can be controlled to the benefit of humankind.

413 Limnology (3). Required preparation, introductory biology, chemistry, and physics. Basic aspects of freshwater ecosystem function. Emphasis on trophic level interactions and integration of physical, chemical, and biological principles for a holistic view of lake ecosystem dynamics.

416 Aerosol Physics and Chemistry (4). Permission of the instructor for nonmajors. Physical and chemical principles underlying behavior of particles suspended in air. Topics include rectilinear and curvilinear motion of the particles in a force field, diffusion, evaporation, and condensation, electrical and optical properties, and particle coagulation. Three lecture hours a week and two laboratory sessions.

417 Oceanography (BIOL 350, GEOL 403, MASC 401) (3). See MASC 401 for description.

419 Chemical Equilibria in Natural Waters (3). Principles and applications of chemical equilibria to natural waters. Acid-base, solubility, complex formation, and redox reactions are discussed. This course uses a problem-solving approach to illustrate chemical speciation and environmental implications. Three lecture hours per week.

421 Environmental Health Microbiology (3). Required preparation, introductory course in microbiology or permission of the instructor. Presentation of the microbes of public health importance in water, food, and air, including their detection, occurrence, transport, and survival in the environment; epidemiology and risks from environmental exposure. Two lecture and two laboratory hours per week.

422 Air and Industrial Hygiene (3). Problem definition, sources of information, health effects, legislative framework, and control methods for chemical, physical, and biological hazards. Recognition, evaluation, and remediation of hazards associated with community and industrial environments. Three lecture hours per week.

423 Industrial Toxicology (PHNU 423) (3). See PHNU 423 for description.

430 Health Effects of Environmental Agents (3). Required preparation, basic biology, chemistry through organic, calculus. Permission of the instructor for students lacking this preparation. Interactions of environmental agents (chemicals, infectious organisms, radiation) with biological systems including humans, with attention to routes of entry, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and mechanisms of adverse effects. Three lecture hours per week.

431 Techniques in Environmental Health Sciences (2). Required preparation, basic biology, chemistry through organic, math through calculus; permission of the instructor for students lacking this preparation. A practical introduction to the measurement of biological end-points, emphasizing adverse effects of environmental agents, using laboratory and field techniques. Two laboratory hours per week.

432 Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (PHNU 786, PUBH 786) (3). Fundamentals of occupational safety and ergonomics with emphasis on legislation and organization of industrial safety and ergonomic programs, including hazard recognition, analysis, control, and motivational factors pertaining to industrial accident and cumulative trauma disorder prevention.

433 Health Hazards of Industrial Operation (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 422. An introduction to the health hazards associated with the various unit operations of industry. Field trips to local industries planned.

434 Theory and Practice of Exposure Evaluation (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 416. Methodology and philosophy of evaluating exposures to air contaminants in the workplace. Course is divided into lectures, case-study analyses, and a hands-on term project. Three lecture hours per week.

442 Biochemical Toxicology (BIOC 442, TOXC 442) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 430. Required preparation, one course in biochemistry. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Biochemical actions of toxicants and assessment of cellular damage by biochemical measurements. Three lecture hours per week.

449 Ecology of Wetlands (MASC 449) (4). Required preparation, one year of biology, one year of chemistry, one semester of ecology, and permission of the instructor. An introduction to the functioning of freshwater and estuarine marsh and swamp ecosystems, with emphasis on systems of the southeastern United States.

450 Principles and Applications of Environmental Engineering (3). Principles that govern the behavior of contaminants in air and water. Application of these principles to engineered processes that control air and water quality. Three lecture hours per week.

451 Elements of Chemical Reactor Engineering (3). Focuses on chemical reaction rates and reaction mechanisms. Covers mole balances, rate laws, chemical kinetics, and reactor design. Principles are applied to any environmental system where chemical transformations must be described. Three lecture hours per week.

452 Fluid Dynamics (GEOL 560, MASC 560, PHYS 660) (3). See MASC 560 for description.

453 Groundwater Hydrology (3). Required preparation, math through differential equations and some familiarity with fluid mechanics. Conservation principles for mass, momentum, and energy developed and applied to groundwater systems. Scope includes the movement of water, gas, and organic liquid phases, the transport and reaction of contaminants. Three lecture hours per week.

462 Geostatistics for Spatial/Temporal Environmental Phenomena (3). Required preparation, statistics. Stochastic analysis of space-time environmental phenomena. Random field modeling of physical laws. Geostatistical estimation and simulation. Natural heterogeneity. Stochastic PDE of groundwater flow and solute transport.

463 Random Field Modeling of Physical Processes (3). Recommended preparation, calculus through differential equations is desirable. Science of the probable. Random fields. Physical significance and methodological theses. Spatial and spatiotemporal variability. Ordinary and generalized fields of natural processes. Transport-type models. Bayesian/Maximum maximum entropy estimation. Three lecture hours per week.

468 Advanced Functions of Temporal GIS (ENEC 468) (3). Overview of geographical information systems (GIS) using the Arc GIS software, and introduction to advanced geostatistical functions for temporal GIS describing environmental and health phenomena distributed across space and time. Application to the spatiotemporal mapping of environmental water quality.

470 Environmental Risk Assessment (ENEC 470) (3). Required preparation, one course in probability and statistics. Use of mathematical models and computer simulation tools to estimate the human health impacts of exposure to environmental pollutants. Three lecture hours per week.

472 Quantitative Risk Assessment in Environmental Health Microbiology (3). Recommended preparation, microbiology, epidemiology, and infectious diseases. Survey of alternative approaches, frameworks, and decision-making tools for quantitative risk assessment of microbial pathogens that infect humans and cause disease by the exposure routes of water, food, air, and other vehicles.

480 Modeling of Marine and Earth Systems (MASC 480) (1–3). Prerequisite, MATH 232 or permission of the instructor. Mathematical modeling of dynamic systems, linear and nonlinear. The fundamental budget equation. Case studies in modeling transport, biogeochemical processes, population dynamics. Analytical and numerical techniques; chaos theory; fractal geometry.

505 Chemical Oceanography (GEOL 505, MASC 505) (4). See MASC 505 for description.

514 Measurement of NOx, O3, and Volatile Organic Compounds (3). This course is intended to develop a student's ability to operate the primary instruments for measuring these important pollutants, collect and process samples where necessary, record data, and process instrument data into final air concentration data.

520 Biological Oceanography (BIOL 657, MASC 504) (4). See MASC 504 for description.

522 Environmental Change and Human Health (ENEC 522) (3). See ENEC 522 for description.

552 Organic Geochemistry (MASC 552) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 261 or MASC 505, or permission of the instructor. Sources, transformations, and fate of natural organic matter in marine environments. Emphasis on interplay of chemical, biological, and physical processes that affect organic matter composition, distribution, and turnover.

570 Methods of Environmental Decision Analysis (3). Required preparation, one course in probability and statistics. Use of quantitative tools for balancing conflicting priorities (such as costs versus human health protection) and evaluating uncertainties when making environmental decisions.

575 Global Climate Change: Science, Impacts, Solutions (3). This class addresses the importance of climate change in its entirety. The first half of the course addresses climate science, followed by climate change impacts, energy and mitigation technologies, economics, and international politics. Improving communication and quantitative skills is emphasized through homework, in-class presentations, and a research paper.

585 American Environmental Policy (ENEC 585, PLAN 585, PLCY 585) (3). Intensive introduction to environmental management and policy, including environmental and health risks, policy institutions, processes, and instruments, policy analysis, and major elements of American environmental policy. Lectures and case studies. Three lecture hours per week.

593 Undergraduate Practicum in Environmental Health Sciences (1–3). A practical experience in a setting relevant to environmental health.

600 Environmental Health (3). This course examines the relationship between environmental quality, human health and welfare, with particular attention to contamination in human environment; physical, biological, and social factors; trade-offs regarding prevention and remediation measures. Satisfies core School of Public Health requirement. Three lecture hours per week.

601 Epidemiology for Environmental Scientists (3). An introduction to relevant epidemiologic concepts that inform environmental science research. Learning objectives include discussing basic epidemiologic concepts and measures of disease occurrence in populations, explaining epidemiological study designs for studying associations between risk factors or exposures in populations, evaluating epidemiologic evidence, and comprehending basic ethical principles.

610 Global Perspectives on Environmental Health Inequalities (3). Students will learn about how social, economic, and political factors impact environmental health outcomes and will be introduced to theories and methods for incorporating social determinants frameworks into environmental health research, as well as the role of environmental justice movements.

630 Systems Biology in Environmental Health (3). Required preparation, one year of biology. Environmental systems biology examines how environmental stressors influence the components of a biological system, and how the interactions between these components result in changes in the function and behavior of that system.

640 Environmental Exposure Assessment (3). Permission of the instructor for nonmajors. The course material introduces the general concepts of assessing environmental exposures to chemicals in human populations. This includes the design of ecologic and personal monitoring studies, the techniques and equipment used for sampling and analysis, and interpretation of data.

650 Principles of Chemical Carcinogenesis (2). Required preparation, organic chemistry. Bioactivation of carcinogens; interaction of activated metabolites with DNA, and their effects on DNA structure, replication, repair, and the control of these processes during development of chemically induced carcinogenesis. Two lecture hours per week.

661 Scientific Computation I (MATH 661) (3). See MATH 661 for description.

662 Scientific Computation II (COMP 662, MATH 662) (3). See MATH 662 for description.

666 Numerical Methods (3). Prerequisites, COMP 116 and MATH 383. Numerical methods for solving problems arising in sciences and engineering. Solution of linear equations using direct and iterative approaches, solution of nonlinear systems of algebraic equations, solution of ordinary differential equations including single and multistep methods, and methods for stiff systems of ODEs and collocation methods for linear and nonlinear PDEs.

668 Methods of Applied Mathematics I (MATH 668) (3). See MATH 668 for description.

669 Methods of Applied Mathematics II (MATH 669) (3). See MATH 669 for description.

671 Environmental Physics I (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 461. A first graduate-level course in physical principles relevant to environmental systems. Topics include dimensional analysis, tensor calculus, conservation of mass and momentum. Applications are considered from natural and engineered systems and across all relevant media. Focus is on the development of mechanistic representation of environmental systems.

672 Environmental Physics II (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 671. Second part of a graduate-level sequence in physical principles relevant to environmental systems. Topics include turbulence, conservation of energy, multiscale methods, and thermodynamics. Applications are considered from natural and engineered systems and across all relevant media. Focus is on development of mechanistic representation of environmental systems.

675 Air Pollution, Chemistry, and Physics (3). This class is designed for graduate students planning for research in air pollution, emphasizing chemical kinetics and engineering approaches to problem solving in addition to atmospheric structure, meteorology, and modeling. We address problems of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, particulate matter, and acid rain. We emphasize quantitative problem solving in homework.

682 Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Global Health (3). Builds on an understanding of infectious and toxic hazards, disease causation, and environmental transmission. Deals with hazard and disease classification; safety, risk, and vulnerability; interventions and their health impact; approaches in different settings; distal factors (e.g., water scarcity, climate change); and approaches to studying unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene.

685 Water and Sanitation Planning and Policy in Less Developed Countries (PLAN 685) (3). See PLAN 685 for description.

686 Policy Instruments for Environmental Management (ENEC 686, PLAN 686, PLCY 686) (3). See PLCY 686 for description.

691H Honors Research (3). Permission of the instructor. Directed readings or laboratory study of a selected topic. A written report is required in the form of an honors thesis (ENVR 692H).

692H Honors Thesis (3). Students complete honors research projects.

695 Undergraduate Research (1–3). Directed readings or laboratory study. Written reports are required. May be taken more than once for credit. Three to nine hours per week.

698 Capstone: Analysis and Solution of Environmental Decisions (ENEC 698) (3). See ENEC 698 for description.

Courses for Graduate Students


701 Ecology of Aquatic Plants and Wetland Ecosystems (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101, CHEM 101, 102. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Adaptations of aquatic plants and microorganisms of land-water interface regions of lakes and rivers, their nutrition, growth, population dynamics, competition, herbivory, productivity, physiological control measures. Wetlands functions, values to humans. Three lecture hours per week.

707 Advanced Toxicology (PHCO/TOXC 707) (3). See TOXC 707 for description.

710 Environmental Process Biotechnology (3). Required preparation, a previous or concurrent course in microbiology. Theory and practice of biological processes used to remove contaminants from environmental media, including water, wastewater, soil, and air.

722 Toxicology Seminar III (TOXC 722) (1). See TOXC 722 for description.

724 Current Topics in Environmental Analytical Chemistry (1). Students will select, critically review, and discuss current research papers for content, relevance, innovation, and clarity. Papers can be from any aspect of the environmental sciences. Two lecture hours per week, every other week.

725 Environmental Physical-Organic Chemistry (3). The physical chemistry of the partitioning, exchange, and chemical transformation of organic contaminants in the water, air, and soil environments.

726 Instrumental Methods for the Chemical Analysis of Environmental Samples (3). Required preparation, basic or general chemistry. Emphasis on acquiring laboratory skills and hands-on experience with instrumentation including chromatography and mass spectrometry; sample handling and preparation; quality assurance and control. Three lecture hours or one lecture hour and four laboratory hours per week.

727 Chemistry of Humic Substances (3). Required preparation, organic or physical chemistry. Permission of the instructor. Critical analysis for Ph.D. students of the chemistry, role, and function of refractory organic matter in aquatic environments. Three lecture hours per week.

728 Analysis of Trace Organics (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 261, 262, 481, 482; PHYS 104 and 105. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Basic principles of isolation, separation, and identification of trace organic chemicals in environmental and/or biological samples, including solvent extraction, liquid and gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Three lecture hours per week.

729 Redox Processes (3). Required preparation, physical chemistry. Redox processes in the aquatic environment. Includes thermodynamics and kinetics; photochemical process in aquatic systems; oxidation processes for treatment of natural and anthropogenic organics, using ozone, peroxides, and UV radiation. Three lecture hours per week.

732 Health Effects of Outdoor and Indoor Air Pollution (3). Required preparation, knowledge of basic human physiology and biochemistry helpful. Assessing health effects of air pollutants on normal and diseased human populations, including children. Physiology, cellular and molecular biology, immunology, genetics, dosimetry will be integrated. Three lecture hours per week.

740 Principles of Chemical Carcinogenesis (2). Required preparation, organic chemistry. Bioactivation of carcinogens; interaction of activated metabolites with DNA, and their effects on DNA structure, replication, repair, and the control of these processes during development of chemically induced carcinogenesis. Two lecture hours per week.

742 Theory and Practice of Evaluating Human Health Risks of Chemicals (2). Prerequisites, ENVR/TOXC/BIOC 442 or ENVR 430. ENVR/TOXC 707 and ENVR 470 are highly recommended. This course will provide students who already have good knowledge of the basic principles of toxicology and environmental health with real-life examples of how the information is integrated for the purpose of judging what chemical exposures may pose risk to human health.

750 Principles of Industrial Ventilation (3). Required preparation, calculus and physics. Permission of the instructor. Principles of industrial ventilation for contaminant control and design of such systems. Basic laboratory exercises. Two lecture and one laboratory hour per week.

751 Ventilation Design Problem (1). Corequisite, ENVR 750. Permission of the instructor. Design problem for industrial operation. One seminar hour per week.

755 Analysis of Water Resource Systems (3). Permission of the instructor for nonmajors. Use of mathematical models to design and evaluate regional water supply and treatment systems. Engineering and economic methods are incorporated into quantitative analyses of regional scenarios. Social and political aspects also discussed. Three lecture hours per week.

756 Physical/Chemical Treatment Processes (3). Prerequisites, ENVR 419 and 451. Principles of disinfection, oxidation, coagulation, precipitation, sedimentation, filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane processes; applications to water and wastewater treatment. Three lecture hours per week.

757 Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Design (3). Prerequisites, ENVR 710 and 756. The application of the theory of water and wastewater treatment to the design of municipal facilities. The course includes the principles of design and modern design practices. Design and analysis of design of specific works for water and wastewater treatment.

758 Environmental Engineering Project (3). Permission of the instructor. Ad hoc project designed for a student team in addressing a current problem in environmental engineering. Projects may include laboratory or pilot-scale studies, collection and analysis of data from full-scale systems, or comprehensive analysis of relevant problems in environmental engineering practice. Three lecture hours per week.

759 Multiphase Transport Phenomena (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 453. Continuum mechanical approach to formulating mass, momentum, energy, and entropy equations to describe multiphase transport phenomena. Three lecture hours per week.

761 Numerical ODE/PDE I (MASC 781, MATH 761) (3). See MATH 761 for description.

762 Numerical ODE/PDE II (MASC 782, MATH 762) (3). See MATH 762 for description.

763 Mathematical Modeling I (MASC 783, MATH 768) (3). See MATH 763 for description.

764 Mathematical Modeling II (MASC 784, MATH 769) (3). See MATH 764 for description.

765 Space/Time Exposure Mapping and Risk Assessment (3). Prerequisite, MATH 233 and 547. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Theory and numerical implementation of linear geostatistics (simple/ordinary/universal kriging) and modern geostatistics (Bayesian Maximum Entropy) to map environmental and health processes varying across space and time. Applications in environmental epidemiology, medical geography, and exposure and risk assessment.

766 Stochastic Environmental Health Modeling (3). Required preparation, statistics. A holistic/stochastic perspective, spatiotemporal random field modeling of environmental exposure and biological variabilities. Uncertainty in environmental exposure. Biomarkers and population damage indicators for epidemiological analysis. Cell-based stochastic differential equations. Three lecture hours per week.

767 Modeling for Environmental Risk Analysis (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 470. Mathematical methods for development of advanced models in environmental risk assessment, including exposure assessment and exposure-response assessment, are developed and applied. Three lecture hours per week.

768 Microenvironmental Air Flow Modeling (3). Required preparation, fluid mechanics. Permission of the instructor. Applications of finite element and vortex methods for modeling air flows of significance in industrial hygiene applications. Three lecture hours per week.

769 Quantitative Methods for Exposure Science (3). Prerequisite, BIOS 511. SAS regression and statistics, two ENVR courses (e.g. 430, 470, 707, 740, 770, 890), or permission of the instructor. Mathematical approaches for assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to chemicals in human populations using stochastic (group) statistics, regression analysis and modeling, and pharmacokinetic modeling; focus on human biomarker data.

770 Biological Monitoring (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 430. This course provides both practical and theoretical information on biological monitoring of chemical exposures and how to evaluate and interpret exposure data. Three lecture hours per week and a term paper (three credit hours).

771 Exposure Analysis (3). This course is intended for students interested in research involving exposure to environmental contaminants. The course focuses on the integration of engineering principles, with statistical tools to enhance inference. Statistical models based on the Johnson system of distributions are explored for the analysis data including exposure-biomarker relationships.

773 Modeling Atmospheric Chemistry (3). Air pollution is formed through thousands of chemical reactions. Computer models are used to simulate this complex chemistry and used to make policy. Current computational restraints force a simplified representation of atmospheric chemistry in these models, and the focus of this course is the implications of this on predictions.

780 Urban Water Services Planning and Design (3). Prerequisite, ENVR 673. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This course helps students learn and apply principles of water supply sewerage and drainage planning and design, work collaboratively on real-world problems with insufficient data, and present technical findings in a clear and convincing way.

781 Water Resources Planning and Policy Analysis (PLAN 781) (3). See PLAN 781 for description.

783 Setting Environmental Priorities (3). This course is intended to develop a student's ability to estimate the relative merits of research and policy actions in several broad environmental areas, with attention to the associated uncertainty. Criteria to be included are both quantitative and qualitative, with an emphasis on public health, environmental, and economic metrics.

784 Environmental Law (PLAN 784) (3). Permission of the instructor. An examination of the law of resource use and development, its administration, and underlying policies. Particular attention to water resources law, regulatory law, and natural resource administration. Regulatory aspects of pollution control programs are covered. Three lecture hours per week.

785 Public Investment Theory (PLAN 785) (3). See PLAN 785 for description.

786 Environmental Quality Planning (PLAN 786) (3). See PLAN 786 for description.

793 Writing Scientific Papers for WaSH Peer-Reviewed Journal Publication (2). A two-credit, fall course open to graduate students with a complete data set with results to communicate to other scientist as a scientific paper or manuscript submission to peer-reviewed journals on an aspect of water and health. Undergraduate honors students admissible at discretion of the instructor.

850 Systems Analysis in Environmental Planning (3). Required preparation, calculus. Applications of systems analysis techniques to the management of environmental quality.

885 Current Applications in Environmental Management (4). Interdisciplinary group project. Analysis of a current environmental management problem. Topic changes each year. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour per week.

890 Problems in Environmental Sciences and Engineering (1–21). Permission of the department. For students outside the department who wish to undertake individual study of a specific problem in environmental sciences and engineering. The subject and requirements of the project are arranged with the faculty in each individual instance. One or more hours per week.

892 Ph.D. Seminar in Environmental Management and Policy (PLAN 892, PLCY 892) (1). See PLCY 892 for description.

899 Seminar in Environmental Sciences and Engineering (1–21). Permission of the instructor for nonmajors. Readings and discussions to provide opportunity to develop new concepts and topics in various aspects of environmental sciences and engineering.

981 Environmental Sciences Practicum (1–9). A practical experience in public health/environmental health sciences.

990 Practicum in Environmental Management and Policy (3). Students are organized into research teams to work on a year-long project with an external client providing research and professional experience in environmental management and policy.

991 Research in Environmental Sciences and Engineering (1–9). Consultation with the faculty and approval of subject and proposed program required. Permission of the instructor. May be repeated. Hours and credits to be arranged.

992 Master's Technical Report (3). The technical report requirement for M.S.P.H., M.P.H., and M.S.E.E. candidates is satisfied by the extensive study of a problem in environmental sciences and engineering.

993 Master's Research and Thesis (3).

994 Doctoral Research and Dissertation (3).