Department of Sociology
HOWARD E. ALDRICH, Chair
Howard E. Aldrich (42) Formal Organizations, Race and Ethnic Relations, Inequality, Evolutionary Theory, Social Networks
Kenneth T. Andrews (68) Social Movements, Political Sociology, Organizations, Race and Ethnic Relations, Environment
Kenneth A. Bollen (47) Comparative Political Structures, Statistics, International Development
Barbara Entwisle (48) Social Demography, Methods, Community, Environment
Guang Guo (51) Biosocial Interactions, Social Statistics, Demography
Jacqueline Hagan (72) Migration, Religion, Race and Ethnicity
Kathleen M. Harris (6) Social Demography, Family and Child Well-Being, Poverty, Public Policy
Arne L. Kalleberg (49) Work, Organizations, Occupations, Social Stratification, Economic Sociology
Sherryl Kleinman (38) Social Psychology; Qualitative Research; Sociology of Emotions; Race, Class and Gender
Charles Kurzman (57) Political Sociology, Social Movements, International Development, Comparative and Historical, Social Theory, Islamic Studies
S. Philip Morgan (82) Social Demography, Sociology of the Family, Research Methods
François Nielsen (43) Comparative and Historical, Methods, Sociobiology
Michael J. Shanahan (66) Social Psychology, Life Course Studies, Sociology of Childhood and Adolescence, Transition to Adulthood
Peter Uhlenberg (20) Demography, Family, Aging
Glen H. Elder Jr. (46) Life Course, Social Change, Family, Human Development
Ronald R. Rindfuss (34) Demography, Family, Environment
Neal Caren (73) Social Movements/Collective Action
Ted Mouw (58) Social Stratification, Demography, Economic Sociology
Lisa D. Pearce (65) Family, Demography, Religion
Andrew J. Perrin (64) Political Sociology, Sociology of Culture, Sociology of Work, Social Theory, Social Movements
Karolyn Tyson (62) Sociology of Education, Qualitative Methods, Social Inequality, Social Psychology
Yang Yang (78) Population, Sociology of Health and Medicine, Methods and Models, and Stratification
Christopher Bail (79) Economic, Cultural, Political and Comparative-Historical Sociology
Yong Cai (77) Social Demography, Sociology of Health, Chinese Society, Comparative Historical Sociology, Research Methodology
Mosi Ifatunji, Race and Ethnic Identities, Immigration
Laura Lopez Sanders (80) Immigration, Economic Sociology, Inequality and Work
Anthony Perez (76) Race and Ethnic Identities, Poverty and Inequality, Quantitative Methods, Stratification
Liana J. Richardson (81) Health/Medical Sociology, Race and Ethnicity
M. Richard Cramer, Intergroup Relations and Religion
Douglas Lauen, Associate Professor, Education Policy
Anne S. Hastings, Senior Lecturer, Family, Race and Ethnicity, Social Stratification
Gail Henderson, Medical Sociology (including Social and Economic Determinants of Health and Health Services Utilization), Health and Health Care in China, Social Contexts and Factors Related to Research Ethics
James Johnson, Public Policy, Urban Sociology, Social Geography
John D. Kasarda (32) Human Ecology, Urban Sociology, Public Policy
Robert Miles, Comparative Sociology/Historical Sociology, Racialized and Minority Relations, Migration and Immigration
John Calvin Scott, Social Policy, Population Aging, Pensions and Benefits, Politics and Lobbying Contentious Politics and Social Movements, Social Networks
John D. Stephens, Political Sociology, Political Economy, Comparative and Historical
Zeynep Tufekci, Social Impacts of Technology, Privacy and Surveillance, Inequality, Research Methods and Complex Systems
Paul Voss, Spatial Analysis and Spatial Regression
Catherine Zimmer, Quantitative Methodology, Formal Organizations and Sociology of Work
Henry A. Landsberger
Victor W. Marshall
John Shelton Reed
Richard L. Simpson
The Department of Sociology offers the master of arts and doctor of philosophy degrees in sociology. Students receive training that equips them for careers in both teaching and research. All sociology students take basic course work in sociological theory, research methods and statistics, and substantive areas. The program emphasizes balanced training and the integration of theory, method and substantive knowledge. Detailed information on graduate degree procedures is available online at www.unc.edu/depts/soc. For further information, including information about financial aid for students, contact the department's administrative assistant for student services.
The department's main concentrations of faculty research interest and graduate training are in cultural and political sociology, demography, research methods and social statistics, labor force and industrial relations, stratification and complex organizations.
A large proportion of first-year students (as well as more advanced students) receive financial assistance. Sources of aid include teaching assistantships, research assistantships, and nonservice fellowships.
The department works closely with the Carolina Population Center, the Odum Institute for Research in Social Science, and the University Computation Center. The department maintains the Odum Computer Laboratory for training and research. Computer programming assistance, consultation and computing services are available without charge for student research. The department also sponsors and edits Social Forces, a national sociological journal.
Courses for Graduate and Advanced Undergraduate Students
410 Formal Organizations and Bureaucracy (SOCI 410) (3). See SOCI 410 for description.
412 Social Stratification (SOCI 412) (3). See SOCI 412 for description.
415 Economy and Society (SOCI 415) (3). See SOCI 415 for description.
427 The Labor Force (SOCI 427) (3). See SOCI 427 for description.
691H Honors Fall Course (3). Directed independent research under the supervision of a faculty advisor.
692H Honors Spring Course (3). Prerequisite, MNGT 691H. Preparation of an honors thesis and an oral examination on the thesis.
Courses for Graduate and Advanced Undergraduate Students
410 Formal Organizations and Bureaucracy (MNGT 410) (3). Varieties of organizational forms, their structures and processes; creation, persistence, transformation, and demise; role of organizations in contemporary society.
411 Social Movements and Collective Behavior (3). Study of nonroutine collective actions such as demonstrations, strikes, riots, social movements, and revolutions, with an emphasis on recent and contemporary movements. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 411 and SOCI 413.
412 Social Stratification (MNGT 412) (3). Analysis of social structure and stratification in terms of class, status, prestige, and rank. Attention to social roles of elites, professionals, the middle class, and the working class and to comparative topics.
413 Social Movements and Collective BehaviorExperiential (3). Study of nonroutine collective actions such as demonstrations, strikes, riots, social movements, and revolutions, with an emphasis on recent and contemporary movements. Substantial field work for experiential education. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 411 and SOCI 413.
414 The City and Urbanization (3). The city as a social, spatial, and political-economic phenomenon in the modern world. Analysis of urban demographic trends, spatial characteristics and economic functions. Substantive topics include segregation, social turmoil, unemployment, fiscal problems, suburbanization, and urban public policy. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 414 and SOCI 417.
415 Economy and Society (MNGT 415) (3). Examination of the structure and operation of institutions where economy and society intersect and interact, such as education, industrial organizations, on-the-job training, labor markets, and professional associations. Emphasis on the contemporary United States, with selected comparisons with Western Europe and Japan.
416 Comparative Perspectives on Contemporary International Migration and Social Membership (34). This course provides a special focus on international migration and social membership/citizenship across a number of advanced industrial immigrant-receiving states.
417 The City and Urbanization, Experiential Education (3). The city as a social, spatial, and political-economic phenomenon in the modern world. Analysis of urban demographic trends, spatial characteristics, and economic functions. Substantive topics include segregation, social turmoil, unemployment, fiscal problems, suburbanization, and urban public policy. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 414 and SOCI 417.
418 Contemporary Chinese Society (3). Designed to help students read complex pictures of contemporary China and to understand how China's rise affected people's lives, both inside and outside of China, from a sociological perspective. The course does not assume any background in Chinese studies.
419 Sociology of the Islamic World (3). Investigates issues such as tradition and social change, religious authority and contestation, and state building and opposition in Muslim societies in the Middle East and around the world.
420 Political Sociology (3). Analysis of the reciprocal influences of state and social organizations upon each other; the social bases of political authority and stability, of revolution and counterrevolution.
422 Sociology of Health and Mental Illness (3). Course examines uniqueness of the sociological perspective in understanding mental health and illness. It draws upon various fields to explain mental illness in as broad a social context as possible. Attention focuses on how social factors influence definitions and perceptions of illness.
423 Sociology of Education, Experiential Education (3). An overview of theory and research on education and schooling, with an emphasis on inequalities in educational opportunities, education as a social institution, and the changing context of schools and schooling. Substantial field work for experiential education. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 423 and SOCI 426.
424 Law and Society (3). A sociological analysis of comparative legal systems, the role of law in social change and in shaping social behavior. Topics may include the legal profession, property distribution, and the role of law in achieving racial and sexual justice.
425 Family and Society, Junior/Senior Section (3). A special version of SOCI 130 for juniors, seniors, and beginning graduate students. Students may not receive credit for both this course and SOCI 130.
426 Sociology of Education (3). An overview of theory and research on education and schooling, with an emphasis on inequalities in educational opportunities, education as a social institution, and the changing context of schools and schooling. Students may not receive credit for both SOCI 423 and SOCI 426.
427 The Labor Force (MNGT 427) (3). Supply and characteristics of labor and of jobs, including industrial and occupation changes, education and mobility of labor, and changing demography of the workforce.
428 Sociology of Art (3). Connections between artworks, art theory, and social theory are examined. Approaches in the fine arts and the social sciences are examined.
429 Religion and Society (RELI 429) (3). Sociological analysis of group beliefs and practices, both traditionally religious and secular, through which fundamental life experiences are given coherence and meaning.
431 Aging (3). The process of aging from birth to death, with a concentration on the later years of life, examined from a broad perspective. Topics include individual change over the life-course, the social context of aging, and the aging of American society.
433 Immigration in Contemporary America (3). This course introduces students to reasons why people migrate, how citizens respond to that migration, how the federal government regulates migration, and how local communities manage the settlement of newcomers. By the end of the course students should have a solid understanding of major debates in the study of immigration.
442 Conflict and Bargaining (PWAD 442) (3). Conflict and conflict-resolution behavior. Applications to labor-management relations, family, sports, community politics, international relations.
444 Race, Class, and Gender (WMST 444) (3). Conceptualizations of gender, race, and class and how, separately and in combination, they are interpreted by the wider society. Emphasis on how black and working-class women make sense of their experiences at work and within the family.
445 Sociology of Emotions (3). The course examines how emotions are organized within social groupings and institutions. Differences in socialization by gender, ethnicity, social class, and age will be explored.
450 Theory and Problems of Developing Societies (3). Theories concerning the development process (motivational vs. institutional economics vs. political and social development; similarity of sequential states and outcomes) will be related to policy problems facing the developing nations.
453 Social Change in Latin America (3). Introduction to Latin American ideologies and values; economic and demographic changes; major pressure groups (old elites, entrepreneurs, peasants and working classes, military, and intellectuals); and relations with the United States.
460 Contemporary Social Theory (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 250. Analysis of current problems in general social theory; action and structure, justice and equity, social change and reproduction. Contrast and evaluation of leading approaches to solutions.
468 United States Poverty and Public Policy (3). This course examines issues of poverty and social policy, single-mother families, the welfare debate, and homelessness.
469 Medicine and Society (3). This course explains why and how particular social arrangements affect the types and distribution of diseases and how the medical care system is organized and responds. The course focuses on three topics: social factors in disease and illness; health care practitioners and patients; and changes in the health care system.
470 Human Rights (3). Human rights are inherent in the advance of peace, security, prosperity, and social equity. They are shared by the global community, yet require local embedding.
481 Managing International Conflict (3). This course introduces the principles of international cooperation and conflict resolution; theories of how international agreements develop or break down; and the logic of mediation, arbitration, and negotiation.
620 Aging and Cohort Analysis in Social and Epidemiologic Research: Models, Methods, and Innovations (3). Required preparation, basic statistics courses. This seminar introduces guidelines for conducting aging and cohort analysis in social and epidemiologic research in which time and change are concerns. Uses three common research designs with an emphasis on new analytic models and methods.
688 Society, Human Behavior, and Genomics (3). The course focuses on how molecular genetics can enrich the social sciences. Topics include a brief overview of genetics and how genetic and social factors combine to predict behavior. We also consider the ethical, legal, and social issues that sometimes complicate the use of genetic data to study human behavior.
691H Senior Honors Research and Seminar (3). Permission of the department. 691H is required of senior honors candidates. Individual student research (under supervision of an advisor). Weekly seminar to discuss work on honors thesis, as well as special topics in sociology.
692H Senior Honors Research and Seminar (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 691H. Permission of the department. Individual student research (under supervision of an advisor). Weekly seminar to discuss work on honors thesis, as well as special topics in sociology.
696 Undergraduate/Graduate Study in Sociology (34). Permission of the instructor. Graduate study in sociology for undergraduate students. Undergraduate students taking a 700- or 800-level course in sociology register via this course and complete all requirements for the associated graduate course.
Courses for Graduate Students
700 History of Social Thought (3). Graduate standing in sociology or permission of the instructor. Historic social ideas of Western culture are considered against a background of general cultural analysis in terms of systematic theory. Required of all graduate degree candidates in sociology.
707 Measurement and Data Collection (4). Provides an introduction to measurement theory and a review of various methods of data-gathering. Gaining experience with a variety of techniques of measurement and preparing a pretested research proposal are required for all students.
708 Statistics for Sociologists (4). Provides an introduction to probability theory, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and the algebra of expectations. Emphasis is on elements useful to research sociologists, including bivariate regression and correlation.
709 Linear Regression Models (4). The course presents regression analysis and related techniques. The major topics are the assumptions of the regression model, dummy variables and interaction terms, outlier diagnostics, multicollinearity, specification error, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. The final section introduces path analysis, recursive models, and nonrecursive systems.
711 Analysis of Categorical Data (3). Permission of the instructor. Introduction to techniques and programs for analyzing categorical variables and nonlinear models. Special attention is given to decomposition of complex contingency tables, discriminant function analysis, Markov chains, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling.
715 Seminar on Social Networks (3). Permission of the instructor. Theoretical and substantive issues in social network analysis. Focus is on models of social structure.
717 Structural Equations with Latent Variables (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 708. Permission of the instructor. This course examines models sometimes referred to as LISREL models. Topics include path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement error, model identification, nonrecursive models, and multiple indicators.
718 Longitudinal and Multilevel Data Analysis (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 709 or 711. This course provides an introduction to event history analysis or survival analysis, random effects and fixed effects models for longitudinal data, multilevel models for linear and discrete multilevel data and growth curve models.
720 Participant Observation and In-Depth Interviewing (3). Students will learn the methods of participant observation and in-depth interviewing. Each student will collect data (provide detailed field notes and transcriptions of interviews) in one group or setting for the duration of the course. Such topics as gaining access, ethics of research, and analysis of data will be covered.
753 Experimental Design in Sociology (3). Permission of the instructor. Statistical aspects of experimental designs, with emphasis on applied problems involved in executing a statistically sound design.
754 Survey Sampling (3). Permission of the instructor. The different sampling techniques are discussed. Major emphasis on planning of large-scale sample surveys rather than on statistical theory.
760 Data Collection Methods (3). Reviews alternative data collection techniques used in surveys, concentrating on the impact these techniques have on the quality of survey data. Topics covered include errors associated with nonresponse, interviewing, and data processing.
761 Questionnaire Design (3). Examines the stages of questionnaire design including developmental interviewing, question writing, question evaluation, pretesting, questionnaire ordering, and formatting. Reviews the literature on questionnaire construction. Provides hands-on experience in developing questionnaires.
762 Case Studies in Surveys (3). A number of external speakers from government and industry will describe various problems they encounter in surveys. Students will be challenged to develop proposals for addressing the problems, citing the literature as appropriate.
763 Survey Computing (1). Introduces basic statistical concepts and practices emphasizing the analysis of real data. Provides training in the use of the SAS statistical analysis system and the practical problems of stratification, clustering, and weighting in survey analysis.
800 Current Issues in Social Theory (3). An examination of selected recent work of general significance in sociology. Themes vary.
801 Evolutionary Theory (3). Introduction to the new evolutionary theory and associated research.
802 Social Psychological Theory (3). Introduction to basic theoretical approaches in social psychology, including social learning, social exchange, symbolic interaction, cognitive consistency, and affect control.
803 Human Ecology (3). Examination of how human populations adapt to their environments. Emphasis on linkages among population, organization, environment, and technology. Research applications of this approach to urban communities and organizations.
804 Marx and Marxism (2). Brief exposition and evaluation of Marx's theory of human nature, societal change and evolution, class, the state, family and other institutions. Summary of dependency theory and critical theory.
806 Principles of Theorizing (3). This course in metatheory analyzes methods of theorizing. It examines the criteria for constructing and evaluating scientific theories developed by philosophers of science and applies them to social theorizing. The hypothetico-deductive model of theorizing is contrasted with other theoretical approaches.
807 Major Sociological Theories (0.521). Examination of selected writing, concepts, and issues of a major sociological theory or theoretical approach.
808 Macrosociological Theory (3). The objective of the course is to illustrate three aspects of macrosociological theory: 1) the conception of macrosociology, 2) the structural approach in sociology and 3) hypothetico-deductive theorizing. A hypothetico-deductive macrostructural theory developed by the instructor is analyzed, and extensive empirical tests of the theory are presented.
810 Social Movements (3). The structure and dynamics of social movements and their societal environment, with special reference to sociopolitical movements of minority and low status groups in industrialized and third world societies.
811 Seminar in Political Sociology (POLI 811) (3). The relationships between social structure and political decisions. Regimes and social structure; bureaucracies, political associations and professions; science and politics; closed and open politics; political movements and change.
812 Civil Society (13). Under the conditions of globalization, civil society takes on new and different meanings. Course examines what the term means and how it is applied.
813 Comparative Welfare States (POLI 813) (3). See POLI 813 for description.
814 Comparative and Historical Analysis Exploration (3). Exploration and use of techniques for the comparative study of social processes and historical events. Special attention is devoted to methodologies that facilitate the collection, analysis, and interpretation of historical and/or comparative phenomena.
816 Influential Works in Democracy (POLI 816) (3). The course covers the major traditions of democratic theory from ancient Greece to the present, ethnographies on political organization and 19th- and 20th-century observations on democracy.
820 Seminar in Marriage and the Family (3). Introduces students to a wide range of studies in the sociology of family, to develop familiarity with the empirical, theoretical and methodological foundations of family research in sociology. Examines demographic trends; marriage and family relationships; race/ethnicity; poverty and social class; work/family issues; childbearing and rearing; and mate selection.
821 The Life Course (3). Provides an intense introduction to the life course as a theoretical orientation and methodology (logic of inquiry).
822 Sociological Theories of Aging and the Adult Life Course (3). Overview and critical assessment of sociological theory applied to aging, including explicit theories of aging. The course examines the historical development of the field and considers the nature of theory development.
824 Aging and Health (DENT 604I, EPID 620I, HMSC 904I, MEDI 604I, NURS 782I, PHCY 604I, PHYT 904I, PSYC 904I, SOWO 604I) (3). See SOWO 604I for description.
830 Demography: Theory, Substance, Techniques, Part I (3). A basic introduction to the discipline of demography. Materials covered include population history, data sources, mortality and fertility trends, and differentials and techniques of analysis.
831 Demography: Theory, Substance, Techniques, Part II (3). A continuation of SOCI 830. Materials covered include population growth and stable population theory, migration and distribution, population policy, and population estimates and projections.
832 Migration and Population Distribution (3). Treats migration trends, patterns, and differentials and their effects on population distribution in continental and regional areas. Attention is given to theoretical and methodological problems in the study of population movement.
833 Socioeconomic Factors in Fertility (3). Study of fertility differentials by social and economic factors, changes over time, the manner in which these factors affect fertility and the implications thereof for fertility-control programs.
835 Mortality: Social Demographic Perspectives (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 830. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This advanced seminar covers mortality date and measurement, the inequality of death, trends in morbidity and mortality and explanations of mortality decline. Social demographic perspectives receive primary emphasis.
836 Social Gerontology (3). Permission of the instructor. The study of the aged in our society.
840 Social Attitudes (3). Basic theories and methods in attitude research, with special attention to attitude dynamics and social relations.
841 Social Structure and Personality (3). The generic processes by which individuals become members of a society, with emphasis on the influence of social structure on socialization and the patterning of personality.
842 Seminar in Socialization and Group Process (3). Permission of the instructor. Analysis of theoretical issues and empirical research relevant to socialization. Special emphasis upon group process effects on the evolution of the social self, the "fit" between personality and role, and other issues.
843 Seminar in Social Control and Deviance (3). Permission of the instructor. The relation of social norms to conforming and deviant behavior. Types of social and personal controls. Theoretical and research problems are reviewed.
850 Social Stratification (3). Analysis of major theories of and approaches to the study of social inequality, with attention to how the various theories and approaches are operationalized. Focus on recent research in labor markets and worldwide inequality.
851 Sociology of Gender (WMST 851) (3). Reviews theory on variation in men's and women's gender roles, with emphasis on industrialized societies and women's roles.
852 Ethnicity, Race and Education (121). Emerging new theory and research paradigms in the sociology of education are reviewed. The course covers the following: racial and ethnic variation, parenting, contextual variation, peer influence, and school variation.
853 Justice and Inequality: Selected Topics (121). Permission of the instructor. Examination of selected issues regarding societal, economic, and political inequality and questions of justice in the United States and Western Europe.
854 Seminar in Urban Sociology (3). Theory and research in the study of the location and growth of urban areas, the effect urban areas have upon behavior, and the study of social behavior in different urban subareas. Each member of the seminar completes a project interrelating theory and research.
855 Poverty in America (3). This graduate seminar will study trends, causes, and consequences of poverty in America, covering the topics of single-mother families, child poverty, low-wage work, immigrant families, and welfare reform and social policy.
860 Sociology of Organizations (3). Permission of the instructor. Structural features of organizations. Behavior in organizations. Organizational career patterns. Comparative analysis of structure, behavior and careers in different types of organizations. Interorganization and organization-environment relations.
861 Occupations and Work (3). The changing occupational system. Structural types of labor markets. Occupational organization, role sets, power relations, careers and satisfaction in different types of labor markets and occupations.
862 Health Organizations and Occupations (3). Considers various treatment settings, socialization and job performance of health workers, patienthood, the relation between organizational structure and effectiveness, and professional self-regulation.
863 Medical Sociology: Health, Illness, and Healing (3). Presents a conceptual and substantive overview of fundamental and salient issues in medical sociology. Focuses on continuity and change in health and healthcare. Examines social causation of disease, medicalization of social problems, medicine as a profession, treatment systems and organization of care, politics and the changing medical care system.
870 Sociology of Culture (3). Focuses on substantive and theoretical issues in this field and their intellectual origins. Topics include organizations, art, religion, science, class, and politics. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are examined.
871 Sociology of Religion (3). An introductory, graduate-level survey of the sociology of religion as a field of study, reviewing literature on important theoretical approaches and key problems and issues in the field.
872 The Sociology of Science: Science as a Social and Cultural Activity (3). This course examines the production of scientific knowledge. The focus is on the processes by which scientific knowledge and technological artifacts are constructed through cultural practices and the organization of scientific work.
901 Field Research (3). Permission of the instructor.
905 Survey Practicum (1). Applied workshop in sample survey design and implementation. The student works in a data collection center under the guidance of the instructor. Course focuses on real world problems in data collection and their practical, cost-effective solutions.
950 Seminar in Selected Topics (16). Permission of the instructor. The course description for a particular semester is available in the departmental office.
960 Training Program Seminars (1). Continuing seminars in selected topics.
961Reading and Research (16). Permission of the instructor.
962 Advanced Reading (3). Library research or field research on a selected topic under guidance of the instructor.
970 Reading and Research in Methodology (3). Permission of the instructor. Special work on selected problems of research methodology.
971 Reading and Research in Methodology (3). Permission of the instructor. Special work on selected problems of research methodology.
979 Publishing in Sociology (3). Permission of the instructor. This seminar exposes students to a variety of issues related to journal publication in sociology, such as types of journals and collaboration, the experience of writing an article for submission to a journal, reviewing articles for journals, and responding to editorial decisions.
980 Seminar on the Teaching of Sociology (3). Doctoral candidacy in sociology or permission of the instructor. Examines the teacher's role and the teaching process, planning a course and constructing syllabi, testing for teaching or grading, evaluating teacher performance and the needs of different student populations.
993 Master's Research and Thesis (3). Individual research in a selected field under the direction of a member of the department.
994 Doctoral Research and Dissertation (3). Individual research in a selected field under the direction of a member of the department.