Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations
 Where is the Middle East?
Valentine Chirol, 1903

A month after Mahan’s 1902 National Review article, the term "Middle East" was picked up by Valentine Chirol, a correspondent for The Times, thus broadcasting the new coinage more broadly. In 1903, Chirol published The Middle Eastern Question, in which he defined the Middle East as "those regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India, and which are consequently bound up with the problems of Indian political as well as military defense."

Source: Valentine Chirol, The Middle Eastern Question, or Some Political Problems of Indian Defense (London: John Murray, 1903), 5.

"Middle East"
Eastern coast of Arabia
Iraq
Persia
Afghanistan
Kashmir
Nepal
Bhutan
Chinese Turkestan
Tibet

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