A month after Mahan’s 1902 National Review article,
the term "Middle East" was picked up by Valentine Chirol,
a correspondent for The Times, thus broadcasting the new
coinage more broadly. In 1903, Chirol published The Middle Eastern
Question, in which he defined the Middle East as "those
regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command
the approaches to India, and which are consequently bound up with
the problems of Indian political as well as military defense."
Source: Valentine Chirol,
The Middle Eastern Question, or Some Political Problems of Indian
Defense (London: John Murray, 1903), 5.