Department of Biology

bio.unc.edu

VICTORIA L. BAUTCH, Chair

Professors

Albert S. Baldwin Jr., Victoria L. Bautch, Kerry S. Bloom, John F. Bruno, Jeffrey L. Dangl, Robert J. Duronio, Patricia G. Gensel, Robert P. Goldstein, Albert K. Harris, Alan M. Jones, Joseph J. Kieber, William M. Kier, Joel G. Kingsolver, Jason D. Lieb, Kenneth J. Lohmann, William F. Marzluff, A. Gregory Matera, Steven W. Matson, Ann G. Matthysse, Robert K. Peet, Mark A. Peifer, Charles H. Peterson, David W. Pfennig, Patricia J. Pukkila, Edward D. Salmon, Jeff J. Sekelsky, Darrel W. Stafford, Peter S. White.

Associate Professors

Shawn Ahmed, Christina L. Burch, Sabrina E. Burmeister, Gregory P. Copenhaver, Corbin D. Jones, Laura Miller, Charles E. Mitchell, Karin S. Pfennig, Jason W. Reed, Stephen L. Rogers, Lillie L. Searles, Maria R. Servedio, Keith W. Sockman, Todd J. Vision.

Assistant Professors

Lauren B. Buckley, Mara C. Duncan, Terrence S. Furey, Tyson L. Hedrick, Allen H. Hurlbert, Alain Laederach, Elizabeth A. Shank, Kevin C. Slep.

Master Lecturer

Jean S. DeSaix.

Senior Lecturer

Kelly A. Hogan.

Lecturers

Jennifer S. Coble, Corey S. Johnson, Catherine M.F. Lohmann, Gideon Shemer.

Affiliated Faculty

Frank L. Conlon, Stephen T. Crews, Sarah R. Grant, Punita Nagpal, Barbara D. Stegenga, James A. Umbanhower, Alan S. Weakley, Christopher S. Willett, Elaine Y. Yeh.

Professors Emeriti

Edward G. Barry, Aristotle Domnas, J. Alan Feduccia, Lawrence I. Gilbert, Max H. Hommersand, Gustavo P. Maroni, Donald W. Misch, Helmut C. Mueller, Clifford R. Parks, Seth R. Reice, Tom K. Scott, Alan E. Stiven, R. Haven Wiley.

Introduction

Biology is the study of life from both basic and applied perspectives across a broad range of analytical levels, from the molecule and cell to the organism and ecosystem. The bachelor of science and bachelor of arts degrees with a major in biology provide a liberal education directed toward an appreciation of the complexity of nature and prepare students for careers in the biological, environmental, and medical sciences. The B.S. and B.A. majors in biology train students for careers in the health professions (including medical, dental, and veterinary) and in research, teaching, or medical practice in institutions of higher education, government, and private industry. Professional (M.D., D.V.M., D.D.S., and D.D.M.) and advanced academic (M.A., M.S., and Ph.D.) degree programs in the health and life sciences usually require knowledge of biological processes provided by the degree programs in biology.

Departmental majors gain a firm foundation in essential areas of biology through the core curriculum and have ample opportunity to specialize in animal behavior, biomechanics, botany, cell biology, developmental biology, ecology, evolutionary biology, genetics, genomics, marine biology, microbiology, molecular biology, neurobiology, organismal biology, physiology, and plant biology. There are many opportunities for mentored undergraduate research and internships.

Programs of Study

The degrees offered are the bachelor of arts with a major in biology and the bachelor of science with a major in biology. A quantitative biology track in the bachelor of science with a major in biology is also offered for those students who are interested in mathematical and computer analyses of biological phenomena. A minor in biology is offered.

Majoring in Biology: Bachelor of Science

This program is designed for students who intend to continue graduate study in biological or health sciences.

Core Requirements

• BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101)

• BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses)

• One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 474/474L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L, or 579

• Four biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, and 495), at least two of them with a laboratory (a total of six hours from BIOL 295, 395, and/or 691H count as a laboratory course requirement)

• At least two courses out of the five courses (four electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H).

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 102/102L, 241/241L, 261, 262/262L

• PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117

• A choice of two allied sciences electives selected from the following: additional biology courses numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 294, 296, and 495), other natural sciences, or mathematics

• Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, and Connections) with these restrictions and additions:

º Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231 or 241, and one of the following: MATH 232 or 283; COMP 110, 116; STOR 155 or 215

º Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101/101L. A grade of C or better in CHEM 101 or 102 is required for BIOL 201 and 202.

• Enough free electives to accumulate 123 academic hours

Suggested Program of Study for B.S. Majors

First Year

• BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 105; language levels 2 and 3; MATH 231 or 241 plus a second course in mathematics, computer science, or statistics/operations research; lifetime fitness

Sophomore Year

• Two of the three biology core courses (BIOL 201, 202, 205); CHEM 241/241L, 261, 262/262L; Approaches (one course)

Junior Year

• Remaining biology core course, organismal biology course, biology electives (three courses); PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117; Approaches and Connections (three courses)

Senior Year

• Biology electives (two courses); natural science or biology electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (two courses); free electives as needed to complete 123 academic hours

B.S. Major in Biology: Quantitative Biology Track

This program is designed for students with a strong interest in a multidisciplinary approach to biological problems in preparation for graduate study in biological or health sciences.

Core Requirements

• BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101)

• BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (core courses for biology majors)

• Two laboratory courses. One must be a quantitative laboratory chosen from BIOL 452, 525, 526, 527/527L, or 528. The other can be any biology laboratory course, including two semesters of BIOL 395.

• A choice of three biology electives, of which at least two quantitative electives must be chosen from BIOL 431, 452*, 454, 465, 525*, 526*, 527*, 528*, 542, 551, 562, 563, or 642 (*asterisked courses cannot count as both a quantitative laboratory and a quantitative elective). (A total of six hours from BIOL 295, 395, and/or 691H count as a laboratory course requirement.)

Additional Requirements

• BIOS 600 or STOR 155

• CHEM 102/102L and 261

• COMP 116 or 401

• MATH 233

• PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117

• A choice of two allied sciences electives or additional biology courses numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 294, 296, and 495). Premedical students are encouraged to take CHEM 241/241L and 262/262L.

• Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, and Connections) with these restrictions and additions:

º Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231 or 241 and MATH 232 or 283

º Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101/101L. A grade of C or better in CHEM 101 or 102 is required for BIOL 201 and 202.

º Enough free electives to accumulate 127 academic hours

Suggested Program of Study for the Quantitative Track

First Year

• BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 105; language levels 2 and 3; MATH 231 or 241, 232 or 283; lifetime fitness; Approaches (two courses)

Sophomore Year

• Two of three biology core courses (BIOL 201, 202, 205); BIOS 600 or STOR 155; CHEM 261, 262/262L if premed; COMP 116 or 401; MATH 233; Approaches (one course)

Junior Year

• Remaining biology core course; biology electives including one quantitative laboratory (three courses); PHYS 104 and 105, or 116 and 117; Approaches and Connections (three courses)

Senior Year

• Second laboratory course; biology electives (two courses); allied sciences elective (CHEM 241/241L if premed); Approaches and Connections; electives to accumulate 127 academic hours

Majoring in Biology: Bachelor of Arts

This program is designed to provide greater flexibility than the B.S. in meeting broad student interests.

Core Requirements

• BIOL 101/101L (gateway course, with a C grade or better in BIOL 101)

• BIOL 201, 202, and 205 (the core courses)

• One organismal structure and diversity course chosen from 271, 272, 273, 274, 277/277L, 278/278L, 279/279L, 471, 472, 473/473L, 474/474L, 475, 476/476L, 478, 479/479L, or 579

• Three biology electives numbered above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, and 495), at least one with a laboratory (a total of six hours from BIOL 295, 395, and/or 691H count as a laboratory course requirement)

• At least one course out of the four courses (three electives and one organismal course) must be numbered above 400 (not including 501, 691H).

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 102/102L

• Four additional courses in biology above 205 (not including 213, 291, 292, 294, 296, and 495), other natural sciences, or mathematics (these courses should also complete the Approaches physical and life sciences requirement)

• Students must fulfill all General Education requirements (Foundations, Approaches, Connections, and Supplemental General Education) with these restrictions and additions:

º Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: one of COMP 110, 116; MATH 130, 152, 231, 241; STOR 155 or 215

º Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101/101L. A grade of C or better in CHEM 101 or 102 is required for BIOL 201 and 202.

º General electives to complete the 120 academic hours required for graduation

Suggested Program of Study for B.A. Majors

First Year

• BIOL 101/101L; CHEM 101/101L, 102/102L; ENGL 105; language levels 2 and 3; Foundations quantitative reasoning requirement as specified above; lifetime fitness

Sophomore Year

• Two of the three biology core courses (BIOL 201, 202, 205); natural sciences electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (four courses)

Junior Year

• Remaining biology core course, organismal biology course, biology electives (two courses); natural sciences electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (two courses); Supplemental General Education requirement or free electives (two courses)

Senior Year

• Biology electives (two courses); Approaches and Connections (one course); Supplemental General Education requirement and free electives as needed to complete 120 academic hours and other requirements

Minoring in Biology

A student may minor in biology by taking four biology courses beyond BIOL 101/101L distributed as follows:

• Two of the three core courses: BIOL 201, 202, and 205

• One course with a laboratory

• One course numbered above 400

Honors in Biology

Candidates for honors or highest honors must secure approval from the departmental honors advisor. They must have three hours of BIOL 395, take BIOL 691H, and maintain an overall grade point average of 3.2 and a grade point average in biology courses (exclusive of BIOL 395 and 691H) of at least 3.4 (for honors) or 3.85 (for highest honors) at the end of the semester preceding the semester in which they graduate. Other requirements are detailed at bio.unc.edu/undergraduate/honors-info.

Advising

The biology department offers intensive advising services for our undergraduate students. The departmental advisor, Dr. Gidi Shemer (bishemer@email.unc.edu), will be happy to assist you with course planning, career development, finding research opportunities, and any other question or concern with regards to the major. Biology majors interested in study abroad should contact Dr. Elaine Yeh (yeh@email.unc.edu) to learn about opportunities and transfer credits. For general assistance with registration to courses and various forms, please contact our biology undergraduate student services registrar, Ms. Summer Montgomery at Coker Hall 213 (sundance@unc.edu).

Special Opportunities in Biology

Students are encouraged to speak with their advisor about opportunities to serve as peer advisors in the biology or health professions advising office, or to join Tri-Beta, the national biological sciences honor society.

Experiential Education

After completing BIOL 201 or 202, students are encouraged to consider how they plan to meet the experiential education requirement. BIOL 293 Undergraduate Internship in Biology, BIOL 295 Undergraduate Research in Biology, and BIOL 395 Undergraduate Research all fulfill this requirement and also connect students’ academic coursework to current biological research and inquiry.

UNC–BEST

The UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) Program is a collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences and is designed to allow undergraduate science majors interested in teaching high school science the opportunity to earn their science degree and obtain licensure as a North Carolina high school science teacher in four years. UNC–BEST students meet all the degree requirements for their biology degree using BIOL 410 as one of their upper-level biology courses. UNC–BEST students also fulfill teaching licensure coursework requirements as well as many General Education and elective requirements as they complete 10 credit hours in teaching and learning including EDUC 403, 516 or 689, 532, 533, and 601. During their final semester, students engage in a full-time student teaching internship (EDUC 593) and participate in an education leadership seminar (EDUC 503). For more details on admission requirements, application deadlines, and submitting an online application, visit the School of Education Web site: soe.unc.edu/services/apply/ug.

Laboratory Teaching Internships and Assistantships

Opportunities exist for assisting graduate instructors (and for instruction in undergraduate laboratories). Interested students should contact the instructor of the course or obtain approval from either the departmental director of undergraduate studies or the department chair.

Undergraduate Awards

All awards include a personal plaque, a monetary gift, and a place on Coker Hall’s list of department honorees. The awards include

• The Henry Van Peters Wilson Award, given annually to the senior honors student in biology whose research in molecular-cellular biology is judged by a faculty committee to be the most outstanding

• The Robert Ervin Coker Award, given annually to the senior honors student in biology whose research in organismal biology and ecology is judged most outstanding by a faculty committee

• The John N. Couch Award, given annually to the senior honors student with interests in plant biology who has demonstrated the highest ideals of scholarship and research

• The Irvine R. Hagadorn Award, given annually to the junior in biology with the highest overall scholastic average

• The Francis J. LeClair Award, given annually to the outstanding member of the graduating class for academic excellence in biology with an emphasis in plant sciences

Undergraduate Research

An undergraduate research experience is extremely valuable to a student who intends to pursue postgraduate work in the biological sciences. Undergraduates may participate directly in the research of faculty in the Department of Biology. This research opportunity allows students to put their knowledge of biology into practice through participation in a biological research program and is encouraged by faculty. Students’ participation in research can begin as early as their second year by registration in BIOL 395.

Undergraduates with a 3.0 or higher grade point average in biology courses are encouraged to enroll in BIOL 395. Information concerning the procedure for enrolling in a research course can be obtained from the chair of the department’s undergraduate honors research program. Additional information can be found at bio.unc.edu/undergraduate/research.

Facilities

The Department of Biology occupies parts of four buildings: Wilson Hall and its annex, Coker Hall, Fordham Hall, and the Genome Sciences Building. The department is served by the Kenan Science Library, located in Venable Hall and Wilson Annex, which provides research information services and resources for the basic sciences. In addition, the department has greenhouses on the fifth floor of the Genome Sciences Building, a microscopy facility that contains three confocal microscopes and associated support facilities, a P3 laboratory, a small-mammal facility, insect culturing rooms, marine aquaria, and a microarray facility.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Those who plan careers in health sciences, including dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, should consult with the Health Professions Advising Office in Hanes Hall. Those interested in science teaching can take the educational coursework required for a high school science teaching license through the UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) program (unc.edu/uncbest). Special courses in marine science are offered through the Department of Biology and the Department of Marine Sciences at the Institute of Marine Sciences, Morehead City, NC.

Contact Information

Abbey Fellow, biology advising. Biology majors may contact Dr. Elaine Y. Yeh, Research Associate Professor, Department of Biology, CB# 3280, 603 Fordham Hall, (919) 962-2331, yeh@email.unc.edu.

Ms. Summer Montgomery, Assistant for Undergraduate Services, Department of Biology, CB# 3280, 213 Coker Hall, (919) 962-3390, fax: (919) 962-1625, sundance@email.unc.edu.

Dr. Ann G. Matthysse, Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Biology, CB# 3280, 103 Coker Hall, (919) 962-6941, ann_matthysse@unc.edu.

Dr. Gideon Shemer, Lecturer and Departmental Advisor, Department of Biology, CB# 3280, G41 Wilson Hall, bishemer@email.unc.edu.

Web site: bio.unc.edu.

Course List and Description

Stated prerequisites are understood to mean “or equivalent” and may be waived by the course instructor for students who are adequately prepared. BIOL 101/101L is the prerequisite for most advanced work in biology. Entering first-year students may earn By-Examination (BE) credit for BIOL 101/101L by either 1) scoring 3 or higher on the Biology Advanced Placement examination or 2) taking and passing the Department of Biology placement test offered several times during the year. Sophomores, juniors, and seniors can earn only placement credit (PL, 0 hours) for passing the departmental examination. Additional information is available on the Web at courses.bio.unc.edu/Biol101/placement.htm.

Course numbers in the Department of Biology have been assigned according to the following principles:

First Digit

Under 100: first-year seminars

100 to 199: first-year courses

200 to 299: second-year courses

300 to 399: advanced undergraduates only

400 to 599: courses for advanced undergraduates and graduate students

600 to 699: courses for graduate students that are open to exceptionally well-prepared undergraduates

700 and above: courses for graduate students only

Second Digit

0–1 general topics courses

2 genetics and molecular genetics

3 molecular biology and biochemistry

4 cell and developmental biology

5 organismal and ecological courses

6 ecology courses

7 courses that fulfill the organismal biology requirement

8 special courses

9 special topics and research

BIOL

53 First-Year Seminar: Biotechnology: Genetically Modified Foods to the Sequence of the Human Genome (3). Restricted to first-year students. Introduction, in a first-year seminar, to recent advances in genetics and cell biology, and discussion and debate concerning how these advances are changing medicine, agriculture, and other aspects of our lives.

55 First-Year Seminar: The Roots and Flowering of Civilization: A Seminar on Plants and People (3). Restricted to first-year students. The focus of this first-year seminar will be on the transition from hunter–gatherer, the interchange of crops, medicinal and psychoactive plants, and organic vs. industrial farming methods.

57 First-Year Seminar: Detecting the Future: Human Diseases and Genetic Tests (3). Restricted to first-year students. A first-year seminar focusing on the future of human diseases and genetic tests.

61 First-Year Seminar: Sea Turtles: A Case Study in the Biology of Conservation (3). Restricted to first-year students. An examination of the biology and conservation of sea turtles, with an emphasis on how current scientific research informs conservation practices.

62 First-Year Seminar: Mountains beyond Mountains: Infectious Disease in the Developing World (3). Restricted to first-year students. In this course we will examine the challenges of treating infectious disease in the developing world, and explore the root causes of global health care inequity.

65 First-Year Seminar: Pneumonia (3). Restricted to first-year students. Pneumonia will be a lens to examine a thread of history of biology and medicine. Current research to understand the condition, discover treatment, and enact prevention options will be examined.

81 First-Year Seminar: Intuition, Initiative, and Industry: Biologists as Entrepreneurs (3). Successful biologists are necessarily entrepreneurs. This course will explore the parallels between biology and entrepreneurship. We follow these steps: generating ideas, marketing those ideas, testing them, and producing a product.

89 First-Year Seminar: Special topics (3). Restricted to first-year students. This is a special topics course; content will vary.

101 Principles of Biology (3). Open to all undergraduates. This course is the prerequisite to most higher courses in biology. An introduction to the fundamental principles of biology, including cell structure, chemistry, and function; genetics; evolution; adaptation; and ecology. (See department concerning Advanced Placement credit.) Three lecture hours a week.

101L Introductory Biology Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 101. An examination of the fundamental concepts in biology with emphasis on scientific inquiry. Biological systems will be analyzed through experimentation, dissection, and observation. Three laboratory hours a week.

113 Issues in Modern Biology (3). For students not majoring in biology. Students who have taken any other course in the Department of Biology may not register for this course. Recent advances in the understanding of major principles in biology. Emphasis on genetics and medicine. Does not count as a course in the major. Three lecture hours a week.

128 Biology of Human Disease (PATH 128) (3). Open to all undergraduates. An overview of basic human molecular and cellular biology in the setting of common human diseases. The course emphasizes how an understanding of disease mechanisms provides the knowledge base for informed use of modern health care. Does not count as a course in the major.

159 Prehistoric Life (GEOL 159) (3). See GEOL 159 for description. Does not count as a course in the major.

190 Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level (3). Special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.

190L Laboratory in Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level (1). Laboratory in special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.

195 Introduction to Research (1). The research work must involve at least four hours per week of mentored research in a campus research laboratory. Does not count as a course in the major.

201 Ecology and Evolution (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102. A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 required. Principles governing the ecology and evolution of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including speciation, population genetics, population regulation, and community and ecosystem structure and dynamics. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week.

202 Molecular Biology and Genetics (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102. A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 is required. Structure and function of nucleic acids, principles of inheritance, gene expression, and genetic engineering. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week.

205 Cellular and Developmental Biology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 202. Fundamentals of cell structure and activity in relation to special functions, metabolism, reproduction, embryogenesis, and with an introduction to the experimental analysis of cell physiology and development. Three lectures and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week.

211 Introduction to Research in Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202. Not open to seniors. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Seminar based on current investigations at UNC. Students examine sources of scientific information, explore the logic of investigation, and develop proposals. Students with BIOL 211 credit may take a maximum of three hours of BIOL 395.

213 Evolution and Life (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 101. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. For students not majoring in biology. Introduction to the scientific study of biological evolution and its applications. The mechanisms that cause evolution and general patterns of evolution during the history of life. Does not count as a course in the major.

251 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology (3). This course relates the way in which the human body is constructed to the way in which it functions and is controlled. Credit for only one of BIOL 251 and 252. Only offered through Continuing Studies.

251L Human Physiology Virtual Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 251. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This is a course of simulated laboratory measurements exercises using typical data derived from actual physiological measurements on human subjects. Only offered though continuing education. May not be taken in addition to 252.

252 Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. One biology course over 200 recommended. An introductory course emphasizing the relationship between and function of the body’s organ systems. Three lecture and three laboratory hours each week.

253 Mountain Biodiversity (ENST 404) (4). See ENST 404 for description.

271 Plant Biology (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Designed for students with an interest in natural sciences. An introduction to the principles of botany including structure, function, reproduction, heredity, environmental relationships, evolution and classification of plants. Three lectures and three laboratory hours a week.

272 Local Flora (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Open to all undergraduates. North Carolina’s flora: recognition, identification, classification, evolution, history, economics, plant families, ecology, and conservation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

273 Horticulture (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 101. The cultivation, propagation, and breeding of plants, with emphasis on ornamentals. Control of environmental factors for optimal plant growth. Laboratory exercises include plant culture, propagation, pruning, and identification of common ornamentals. Two lecture, one recitation, and three laboratory hours a week.

274 Plant Diversity (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Survey of major groups of plants emphasizing interrelationships and comparative morphology. Culturing techniques and field work included. Two lecture and four laboratory hours a week.

277 Vertebrate Field Zoology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Introduction to the diversity, ecology, behavior, and conservation of living vertebrates. Three lecture hours a week.

277L Vertebrate Field Zoology Laboratory (1). Corequisite, BIOL 277. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the corequisite. Study of the diversity of vertebrates in the field. Three laboratory and field hours a week, including one or two weekend trips.

278 Animal Behavior (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Introduction to animal behavior with emphases on the diversity and adaptation of behavior in natural conditions. Three lecture hours a week.

278L Animal Behavior Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 278. Techniques of observation and experiments in animal behavior. Three laboratory hours a week.

279 Seminar in Organismal Biology (2–3). Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected organismal biological discipline.

279L Topics in Organismal Biology Laboratory (1–2). Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific organismal biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.

290 Special Topics in Biology (1–3). Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate seminar course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected biological discipline.

290L Special Topics in Biology Laboratory (1–2). Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.

291 Teaching Apprentice in Biology (1). Permission required. 3.0 or higher in course taught. Experience includes preparations, demonstrations, assistance, and attendance at weekly meetings. Apprentices will not be involved in any aspects of grading. May be repeated for credit.

292 Teaching Assistant in Biology (2). Permission required. 3.0 in course taught. Experience includes weekly meetings, preparations, demonstrations, instruction, and grading. May be repeated for credit. Six hours per week.

293 Undergraduate Internship in Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202. Permission of the instructor. Biology majors only. The sponsored, off-campus work must involve at least 135 hours. Does not count as a course in the major.

294 Service Learning in Biology: APPLES (1–2). Permission of the instructor. APPLES service-learning component for students enrolled in biology courses. Does not count as a course in the major.

295 Undergraduate Research in Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202. Permission of the instructor. Junior and senior biology majors only. The work must involve at least 135 hours of research effort in which students learn to ask appropriate questions and place results in a suitable framework.

296 Directed Reading in Biology (1–3). Permission of the instructor. Extensive and intensive reading of the literature of a specific biological field directly supervised by a member of the biology faculty. Written reports on the readings, or a literature review paper will be required. Cannot be used as a course toward the major.

321 Introduction to Immunology (MCRO 321) (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course provides a general overview of the evolution, organization, and function of the immune system. Instruction will be inquiry-based with extensive use of informational and instructional technology tools.

324 Molecular Basis of Disease (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course covers the molecular mechanisms of human diseases, including genetic diseases, infectious diseases, immunodeficiencies, nutritional disorders, cancer, metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders.

350 Oceanography (ENVR 417, GEOL 403, MASC 401) (3). See MASC 401 for a description.

395 Undergraduate Research (1–3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202. Permission of the instructor. Majors only. Overall 3.0 GPA required. Laboratory study addressing biological questions. Requires final written report. Repeatable for six credit hours. One through five hours counts as a lecture course. Six hours (or BIOL 211 and three hours of BIOL 395) counts as a lecture/laboratory course.

402 Infectious Disease in the Developing World (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205. We will explore the challenges of infectious disease in the developing world, focusing on tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria. We will also examine the economics of different approaches to health care.

410 Principles and Methods of Teaching Biology (4). Prerequisites, two of the three biology core courses: BIOL 201, 202, and/or 205. This course will develop the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry-based biology instruction: rich, conceptual knowledge of biology and mastery of inquiry-based teaching methods.

421L Microbiology Laboratory with Research (2). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422. Sterile technique, bacterial growth, physiology, genetics and diversity, and bacteriophage, and research in bacterial genetics.

422 Microbiology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Bacterial form, growth, physiology, genetics, and diversity. Bacterial interactions including symbiosis and pathogenesis (animal and plant). Use of bacteria in biotechnology. Brief introduction to viruses.

422L Microbiology Laboratory (1–2). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422. Sterile technique, bacterial growth and physiology, bacterial genetics, bacteriophage, and bacterial diversity.

423L Laboratory Experiments in Genetics (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Experiments using a range of organisms—from bacteria to Drosophila, higher plants, and man—to sample organismal and molecular genetics. One lecture hour, four laboratory hours.

425 Human Genetics (GNET 425) (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Pedigree analysis, inheritance of complex traits, DNA damage and repair, human genome organization, DNA fingerprinting, the genes of hereditary diseases, chromosomal aberrations, cancer and oncogenes, immunogenetics and tissue transplants. Three lecture hours a week.

426 Biology of Blood Diseases (PATH 426) (3). See PATH 426 for description.

427 Human Diversity and Population Genetics (3). Pre- or corequisites, BIOL 201 and 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course investigates the facts, methods, and theories behind human population genetics, evolution, and diversity. Specifically, it addresses questions of human origins, population structure, and genetic diversity.

430 Introduction to Biological Chemistry (CHEM 430) (3). See CHEM 430 for description.

431 Biological Physics (PHYS 405) (3). See PHYS 405 for description.

434 Molecular Biology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and CHEM 261. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Advanced studies in molecular biology from an experimental approach.

439 Introduction to Signal Transduction (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course presents an introduction to signal transduction pathways used by higher eukaryotes. Several signaling paradigms will be discussed to illustrate the ways that cells transmit information. Three lecture hours per week.

441 Vertebrate Embryology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205 or 252. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Principles of development with special emphasis on gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, germ layer formation, organogenesis, and mechanisms, with experimental analysis of developmental processes. Three lecture hours a week.

441L Vertebrate Embryology Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 441. Descriptive and some experimental aspects of vertebrate development. Three laboratory hours a week.

443 Developmental Biology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 261. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An experimental approach to an understanding of animals and plants. The approach covers developmental processes, molecular, genetic, cell biological and biochemical techniques, with an emphasis on the molecules involved in development.

445 Cancer Biology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205. Selected examples will be used to illustrate how basic research allows us to understand the mechanistic basis of cancer and how these insights offer hope for new treatments.

446 Unsolved Problems in Cellular Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A survey of areas of current interest in cytology, embryology, and genetics with concentration on problems that remain unsolved but that appear to be near solution. Three lecture and discussion hours a week.

447 Laboratory in Cell Biology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Required preparation, a grade of C or better in BIOL 205. Modern methods to study cells, technical skills necessary for research in cell and molecular biology, knowledge of good lab practice, operation of technical instrumentation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

448 Advanced Cell Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An advanced course in cell biology, with emphasis on the biochemistry and molecular biology of cell structure and function. Three lecture hours a week.

450 Introduction to Neurobiology (3). Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. Survey of neurobiological principles in vertebrates and invertebrates, including development, morphology, physiology, and molecular mechanisms. Three lectures a week.

451 Comparative Physiology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L, and either PHYS 104 or 116 and either PHYS 105 or 117. An examination of the physiology of animals using a comparative approach. Both invertebrate and vertebrate animals are discussed in order to elucidate general principles.

451L Comparative Physiology Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 451. The fundamental principles of physiology are explored using physical models, animal experiments, and noninvasive experiments on humans, reinforcing the understanding of concepts presented in lecture.

452 Mathematical and Computational Models in Biology (MATH 452) (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202, MATH 231, and either MATH 232 or STOR 155. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course will introduce analytical, computational, and statistical techniques, such as discrete models, numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and likelihood functions, to explore various fields of biology. Laboratory is included.

453 Animal Societies and Communication (3). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 278. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the pre- or corequisite. Comparative review of animal societies; diversity of social structure, social dynamics, communication, ecology, and evolution of social organization. Three lecture hours a week.

454 Evolutionary Genetics (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. The roles of mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection in the evolution of the genotype and phenotype. Basic principles are applied to biological studies. Three lecture hours a week.

455 Behavioral Neuroscience (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. The neurobiological basis of animal behavior at the level of single cells, neural circuits, sensory systems, and organisms. Lecture topics range from principles of cellular neurobiology to ethological field studies.

457 Marine Biology (MASC 442) (3). See MASC 442 for description.

458 Sensory Neurobiology and Behavior (3). Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. An exploration of sensory systems and sensory ecology in animals. Topics range from neurophysiological function of sensory receptors to the role of sensory cues in animal behavior.

459 Field Biology at Highlands Biological Station (1–4). Prerequisite, BIOL 101. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Content varies. Summer field biology at the Highlands Biological Station focuses on the special faunal and floristic processes and patterns characteristic of the southern Appalachian mountains. Five lecture and three to five laboratory and field hours per week, depending on credit.

461 Fundamentals of Ecology (ECOL 461, ENST 461) (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the field of ecology, including modern and emerging trends in ecology. They will develop literacy in the fundamental theories and models that capture ecological processes; emphasis will also be placed on the relevance of ecology and ecological research for human society.

462 Marine Ecology (MASC 440) (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 475. Survey of the ecological processes that structure marine communities in a range of coastal habitats. Course emphasizes experimental approaches to addressing basic and applied problems in marine systems.

463 Field Ecology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Application of ecological theory to terrestrial and/or freshwater systems. Lectures emphasize quantitative properties of interacting population and communities within these systems. Required laboratory teaches methodology applicable for analysis of these systems. Projects emphasize experimental testing of ecological theory in the field. Two lecture and six field hours a week.

464 Global Change Ecology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Responses of plants, animals, and communities to climate and other global changes, emphasizing ecology, physiology, behavior, and evolution. Investigation of past responses and tools for predicting future responses.

465 Global Biodiversity and Macroecology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. We will explore global patterns of diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microbes, and the insights gained by taking a statistical approach to describing these and other broad-scale ecological patterns.

469 Behavioral Ecology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. BIOL 278 recommended but not required and can be taken concurrently. Behavior as an adaptation to the environment. Evolution of behavioral strategies for survival and reproduction. Optimality and games that animals play. Three lecture hours a week.

471 Evolutionary Mechanisms (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to mechanisms of evolutionary change, including natural selection, population genetics, life history evolution, speciation, and micro- and macroevolutionary trends. Three lecture hours plus two hours of laboratory/recitation per week.

472 Introduction to Plant Taxonomy (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 271 and/or 272. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to the taxonomy of vascular plants. Principles of classification, identification, nomenclature, and description. Laboratory and field emphasis on phytography, families, description, identification, and classification of vascular plant species. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

473 Mammalian Morphology and Adaptation (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 252 or 276. An in-depth examination of the morphological adaptations of mammals. Particular attention will be given to osteology, the locomotor system, and craniofacial structures.

473L Mammalian Morphology Laboratory (1–2). Prerequisite, BIOL 252 or 276L. Laboratory includes a detailed dissection of a representative mammal, emphasizing the common structure of mammals. Opportunity for independent investigation of specific functional adaptations of specialized forms.

474 Evolution of Vertebrate Life (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Evolutionary history of the vertebrates. Emphasis on anatomical, physiological, behavioral adaptations accompanying major transitions: the move from water to land, the development of complex integrating systems.

474L Vertebrate Structure and Evolution Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 474. Vertebrate comparative anatomy of organ systems and their evolution with emphasis on human anatomy. Three laboratory hours a week.

475 Biology of Marine Animals (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Required preparation, one additional course in biology. An introduction to the major animal phyla emphasizing form, function, behavior, ecology, evolution, and classification of marine invertebrates. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.

476 Avian Biology (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L; corequisite, BIOL 476L. A study of avian evolution, anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, behavior, biogeography, and ecology. Three lecture hours a week.

476L Avian Biology Laboratory (1). Corequisite, BIOL 476. Techniques for the study of avian evolution, ecology, and behavior with emphasis on North Carolina birds. Three laboratory or field hours a week, including one or two weekend field trips.

478 Invertebrate Paleontology (GEOL 478) (4). See GEOL 478 for description.

479 Topics in Organismal Biology at an Advanced Level (3). Topics in organismal biology at an advanced undergraduate or graduate student level.

479L Laboratory in Organismal Biology: Advanced Topics (1–2). Laboratory in special topics in organismal biology for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.

490 Advanced Topics in Biology (3). Permission of the instructor. Content will vary. Three lecture and discussion hours per week by visiting and resident faculty.

495 Undergraduate Research (1–3). Prerequisite, BIOL 395. Permission of the instructor. Majors only. An overall 3.0 grade point average required. Laboratory study on a selected topic and directed readings. A final written report is required each term. May be repeated. This course is offered for pass/fail credit only.

501 Ethical Issues in Life Sciences (3). Permission of the instructor. A consideration and discussion of ethical issues in life sciences including cloning humans, genetic engineering, stem cell research, organ transplantation, and animal experimentation. Counts as a course numbered below 400 for biology major requirements.

514 Evolution and Development (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 201, 202, and 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. The course examines the mechanisms by which organisms are built and evolve. In particular, it examines how novel and complex traits and organisms arise from interactions among genes and cells.

522 Bacterial Genetics (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 422. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Genetics of eubacteria with emphasis on molecular genetics including regulation of gene expression, transposons, operons, regulons, plasmids, transformation, and conjugation. Computer analysis of DNA sequences.

524 Strategies of Host–Microbe Interactions (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. There is great variety in how microbes colonize and live with their hosts. The course will summarize strategies of pathogenicity, symbiosis, commensalism and mutualism. Evolutionary, cellular, and molecular aspects will be analyzed.

525 Computational Analyses and Resources in Genomics (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 116, and STOR 155. Permission of the instructor for graduate students. Computational techniques for the analysis of large-scale genomics data. Databases and online genomic resources. Programming for standard file processing and development of analysis pipelines. Course includes a computational laboratory.

526 Computational Genetics (4). Pre- or corequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 116, and STOR 155. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Graduate enrollment allowed with permission of the instructor. Introduction to computational principles underlying sequence alignment and phylogenetics, genome assembly and annotation, analysis of gene function, and other bioinformatics applications. Includes a one-hour computer laboratory.

527 Seminar in Quantitative Biology (3). Prerequisites, COMP 114, and MATH 232 or 283. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Seminar in quantitative biology for advanced students. The course counts as a quantitative biology course for the major.

527L Laboratory in Quantitative Biology (1). Laboratory in quantitative biology for advanced students. The laboratory will involve mathematical analysis and modeling of biological systems and processes.

528 Systems Biology of Genetic Regulation (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 116, and MATH 232 or 283. The course will focus on mathematical and informatics approaches to modeling biological systems in particular gene networks. Students are expected to have some experience with programming.

529 Clinical and Counseling Aspects of Human Genetics (GNET 635) (3). See GNET 635 for description.

531 Senior Seminar in Basic Research Leading to Drug Discovery in HIV Treatment or Prevention (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This course will explore basic science approaches and primary scientific literature addressing the development of therapeutics or prevention of HIV infection or symptoms.

535 Molecular Biology Techniques (4). Permission of the instructor. Recommended preparation, BIOL 434. Experiments with bacterial phage, nucleic acid isolation and properties, recombinant DNA techniques, and DNA sequencing. Additional hours in laboratory will be necessary to complete assignments.

542 Light Microscopy for the Biological Sciences (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205 for undergraduates. Permission of the instructor. Introduction to various types of light microscopy, digital and video imaging techniques, and their application in biological sciences.

551 Comparative Biomechanics (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L, and PHYS 104 or PHYS 116. Recommended preparation, PHYS 105. The structure and function of organisms in relation to the principles of fluid mechanics and solid mechanics.

552 Behavioral Endocrinology (3).Undergraduates need permission of the instructor to enroll. The study of the interactions among hormones, the brain, and behavior from how hormones shape the development and expression of behaviors to how behavioral interactions regulate endocrine physiology.

555 Paleobotany (GEOL 555) (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L, and BIOL 271 or 272. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An introduction to the morphology, stratigraphic occurrence, and evolutionary relationships of fossil plants. Both macrofossils and microfossils will be considered. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

556 Seminar on the Evolution of Animal Flight (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and PHYS 104 or 116. Additional required preparation, a 400-level BIOL course or permission of the instructor. An examination of the origin and evolution of animal flight and how scientific understanding of this topic has changed from the mid-1800s to the present day.

561 Ecological Plant Geography (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 101 or GEOG 110. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Description of the major vegetation types of the world including their distribution, structure, and dynamics. The principal causes for the distribution of plant species and communities, such as climate, soils, and history will be discussed.

562 Statistics for Environmental Scientists (ECOL 562, ENST 562) (4). See ECOL 562 for description.

563 Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution (ECOL 563, ENST 563) (4). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and STOR 151. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Application of modern statistical analysis and data modeling in ecological and evolutionary research. Emphasis is on computer-intensive methods and model-based approaches. Familiarity with standard parametric statistics is assumed.

565 Conservation Biology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. The application of biological science to the conservation of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including rare species management, exotic species invasions, management of natural disturbance, research strategies, and preserve design principles.

567 Evolutionary Ecology (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 471. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Advanced consideration of the evolution of form and function. May include issues in life-history evolution, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary morphology, and the evolution of complexity. Three lecture hours per week.

568 Disease Ecology and Evolution (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Recommended preparation, one course above 400 in ecology or evolution. An advanced class covering the causes and consequences of infectious disease at the levels of whole organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.

579 Organismal Structure and Diversity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (4). Permission of the instructor. An examination of the field biology of selected fungi, plants, or animals of the Appalachian Mountains. The morphology, taxonomy, ecology, life history, and behavior of the organisms will be explored both in the laboratory and in the field.

590 Advanced Special Topics in Biology (3). Special topics in biology for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students.

590L Laboratory in Advanced Special Topics in Biology (1). Laboratory at an advanced level in special topics in biology. Students should have had considerable previous laboratory experience.

602 Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists (ECOL 602) (3). The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.

621 Principles of Genetic Analysis I (GNET 621) (3). Prerequisite for undergraduates, BIOL 202. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic principles of genetic analysis in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes.

622 Principles of Genetic Analysis II (GNET 622) (4). See GNET 622 for description.

624 Developmental Genetics (GNET 624) (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic and molecular control of plant and animal development. Extensive reading from primary literature.

625 Seminar in Genetics (GNET 625) (2). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Current and significant problems in genetics. May be repeated for credit.

631 Advanced Molecular Biology I (BIOC 631, GNET 631, MCRO 631) (3). See GNET 631 for description.

632 Advanced Molecular Biology II (BIOC 632, GNET 632, MCRO 632) (3). See GNET 632 for description.

639 Seminar in Plant Molecular and Cell Biology (1). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. May be repeated for credit. Current and significant problems in plant molecular and cell biology are discussed in a seminar format.

642 Advanced Studies of Cell Division (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An advanced course in cell and molecular biology integrating genetic, biochemical, and structural aspects of the cell cycle. Principles derived from a variety of biological systems. Extensive reading of classic papers as well as recent literature.

643 Molecular Mechanisms of the Cytoskeleton (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 430. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This seminar examines the cytoskeletal systems of eukaryotes and prokaryotes via primary literature. Architectures of cytoskeletal components are compared and contrasted along with their regulators, nucleators, and molecular motors.

648 Palynology (5). Permission of the instructor. A consideration of various aspects of palynology, including the morphology, structure, development, systematics, evolution, preparation techniques, and analysis of living and fossil pollen grains, spores, and other palynomorphs. Two lecture and six laboratory hours a week.

649 Seminar in Cell Biology (2). Prerequisite, BIOL 205. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. May be repeated for credit.

657 Biological Oceanography (ENVR 520, MASC 504) (4). See MASC 504 for description.

659 Seminar in Evolutionary Biology (2). Permission of the instructor. Advanced studies in evolutionary biology.

661 Plant Ecology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Consideration of terrestrial, vascular plant ecology including environmental physiology, population dynamics, and community structure. Laboratory stresses collection and interpretation of field data. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

662 Field Plant Geography (2). Prerequisite, BIOL 561 or 661. Permission of the instructor. Intensive literature and field study of the plant geography and ecology of a selected region. Weekly seminar-style discussion followed by approximately nine days’ field experience. May be repeated for credit.

669 Seminar in Ecology (ECOL 669) (1–3). Prerequisite, BIOL 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. May be repeated for credit.

691H Senior Honors Thesis in Biology (3). Permission of a faculty research director and three credit hours of BIOL 395 in the same laboratory required. Must be taken in the final semester of senior year. Fall and Spring only.