Department of Chemistry

www.chem.unc.edu

VALERIE S. ASHBY, Chair

Professors

Nancy L. Allbritton, Valerie S. Ashby, Tomas Baer, Max L. Berkowitz, Maurice S. Brookhart, Michael T. Crimmins, Joseph M. DeSimone, Dorothy A. Erie, Malcolm D.E. Forbes, Michel R. Gagnι, Gary L. Glish, Jeffrey S. Johnson, James W. Jorgenson, Harold L. Kohn, Paul J. Kropp, David S. Lawrence, Wenbin Lin, Thomas J. Meyer, Royce W. Murray, Gary J. Pielak, J. Michael Ramsey, Matthew R. Redinbo, Michael Rubinstein, Edward T. Samulski, Mark H. Schoenfisch, Sergey S. Sheiko, Linda L. Spremulli, Joseph L. Templeton, Nancy L. Thompson, Marcey L. Waters, Kevin M. Weeks, R. Mark Wightman, Richard V. Wolfenden.

Associate Professors

John M. Papanikolas, Cindy K. Schauer.

Assistant Professors

Erik J. Alexanian, James F. Cahoon, Jillian L. Dempsey, Christopher J. Fecko, Yosuke Kanai, Simon J. Meek, Alexander J.M. Miller, Andrew M. Moran, David A. Nicewicz, Wei You.

Research Assistant Professors

Todd L. Austell, Brian P. Hogan, Domenic J. Tiani.

Lecturers

Carribeth L. Bliem, Jennifer R. Krumper, Carolyn J. Morse.

Introduction

Chemistry is the scientific study of the composition and properties of matter and the investigation of the laws that govern them. Classically, chemistry is divided into several subdisciplines. Organic chemistry deals primarily with carbon compounds; inorganic chemistry, with compounds of the other elements. Physical chemistry seeks to describe relationships between the chemical and physical properties of all substances. Analytical chemistry studies the analysis of the chemical composition of all substances. Biological chemistry pursues the chemistry of living organisms. At the borders of these subdisciplines are many hybrid areas of study: physical organic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and others. At the interface of chemistry with other sciences, there are active fields fueled by insights gained from two ways of thinking about things: for example, chemical physics, chemical biology, organic geochemistry, and the extensive chemical problems in biotechnology, nanotechnology, material sciences, and molecular medicine. In all of these areas the chemist’s approach may be theoretical, experimental, or both.

All chemists have a common core of knowledge, learned through a highly structured sequence of undergraduate courses in which the content is divided into the classical subdisciplines. Toward the end of students’ progress through their four years of undergraduate study, they may choose to concentrate in one or more areas of chemistry through the courses selected to fulfill the chemistry elective requirements and through undergraduate research.

Programs of Study

The degrees offered are the bachelor of arts with a major in chemistry and the bachelor of science with a major in chemistry, which includes tracks in biochemistry and polymer chemistry. A minor in chemistry also is offered.

Majoring in Chemistry: Bachelor of Arts

Core Requirements

• CHEM 101 and 101L (gateway)

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L

• CHEM 251, 430, 480 or 481, and 550L

• CHEM 261

• CHEM 262, 262L or 263L

• One course from the following list: CHEM 395, 410, 420, 421, 441, 450, 451, 460, 482. Other courses numbered above 420 may be substituted with the permission of the instructor.

Additional Requirements

• MATH 231, 232; PHYS 104 or 116, 105 or 117

The recommended course sequence for the bachelor of arts degree:1

First Year

• Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231, 2328

• Foundations: English composition and rhetoric: ENGL 105

• Foundations: Foreign language through level 3

• Foundations: Lifetime fitness: one hour

• Approaches: Physical and life sciences: CHEM 101/101L and an additional PL or PX course (e.g., BIOL 101)

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

Sophomore Year

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L, 251, 261, 262, 262L or 263L

• PHYS 104 or 116, 105 or 1172

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

Junior and Senior Years

• CHEM 430

• CHEM 480 or 481

• One course from CHEM 395, 410, 420, 421, 441, 450, 451, 460, 482.3 Other courses numbered above 420 may be substituted with permission of the instructor.

• CHEM 550L

• Other Connections; Supplemental General Education; three courses, nine hours

Majoring in Chemistry:4 Bachelor of Science

Core Requirements

• CHEM 101 and 101L (gateway)

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L

• CHEM 251, 430, 441, 441L, 450, 481, 481L, 482, 482L, and 550L

• CHEM 261

• CHEM 262, 262L or 263L

• Ten hours of advanced chemistry elective courses (one must be a laboratory) from the following list: CHEM 395 or 396 (not both), CHEM 410, and any course numbered 420 or higher

Additional Requirements

• BIOL 101

• MATH 232, 233, 383;8 PHYS 116, 117

The recommended course sequence for the bachelor of science degree:1

First and Sophomore Years

• Foundations: English composition and rhetoric: ENGL 105

• Foundations: Foreign language through level 3

• Foundations: Lifetime fitness: one hour

• Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231

• Approaches: Physical and life sciences: BIOL 101, CHEM 101/101L

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L, 251, 261, 262 or 262H, 262L or 263L

• MATH 232, 233, 383;8 and PHYS 116, 117

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

Junior and Senior Years

• CHEM 430 and 450

• CHEM 441 and 441L

• CHEM 481, 481L, 482, and 482L

• CHEM 550L

• Advanced chemistry electives (10 hours, one must be a laboratory)5

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

B.S. Major in Chemistry: Biochemistry Track4

Core Requirements

• CHEM 101 and 101L (gateway)

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L

• CHEM 251, 430, 431, 432, 481, 481L, 482, 530L, and 550L

• CHEM 261

• CHEM 262, 262L or 263L

• One advanced chemistry elective course from the following list: BIOC 601, 650; BIOL 422; CHEM 395, 396, 410; or any two- or three-credit chemistry course numbered 420 or higher

Additional Requirements

• BIOL 101, 101L, 202 and 205

• MATH 232, 233, 383;8 PHYS 116, 117

The recommended course sequence for the bachelor of science (biochemistry track) degree:1

First and Sophomore Years

• Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231

• Foundations: English composition and rhetoric: ENGL 105

• Foundations: Foreign language through level 3

• Approaches: Physical and life sciences: BIOL 101/101L, CHEM 101/101L

• Foundations: Lifetime fitness: one hour

• BIOL 202 and 205

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L, 251, 261, 262, and 262L or 263L

• MATH 232, 233, and 3838

• PHYS 116 and 117

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

Junior and Senior Years

• CHEM 430, 481, 481L, 482, and 530L

• CHEM 431 and 432

• CHEM 550L

• Advanced chemistry elective: three hours5, 6

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

B.S. Major in Chemistry: Polymer Track4

Core Requirements

• CHEM 101 and 101L (gateway)

• APPL 150 or CHEM 470

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L

• CHEM 251, 430, 481, 481L, 482, 482L, 520L, and 550L

• CHEM 261

• CHEM 262, 262L or 263L

• Three advanced polymer chemistry electives from CHEM 420, 421, 422, 423, 425

• One advanced chemistry elective from CHEM 395, 396, 410, or any chemistry course numbered higher than 420

Additional Requirements

• BIOL 101, 101L

• MATH 232, 233, 383;8 PHYS 116, 117

The recommended course sequence for the bachelor of science (polymer track) degree:1

First and Sophomore Years

• Foundations: Quantitative reasoning: MATH 231

• Foundations: English composition and rhetoric: ENGL 105

• Foundations: Foreign language through level 3

• Approaches: Physical and life sciences: BIOL 101/101L, CHEM 101/101L

• Foundations: Lifetime fitness: one hour

• CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L

• CHEM 241, 241L or 245L, 251, 261, 262, and 262L or 263L

• MATH 232, 233, and 3838

• PHYS 116 and 117

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

Junior and Senior Years

• APPL 150 or CHEM 470

• CHEM 430, 481, 481L, 482, 482L, 520L, and 550L

• Polymer electives: three courses from CHEM 420, 421, 422, 423

• Advanced chemistry elective: three hours5, 7

• Approaches: three courses, nine hours

• Other Connections

Minoring in Chemistry

The undergraduate minor in chemistry consists of the following seven courses: CHEM 102 or 102H, 102L, 241, 241L or 245L, 261, 262, 262L or 263L.

Course Sequencing

Careful attention should be given to prerequisites and course timing when planning a long-term schedule. A C- or better grade in CHEM 101 is required to continue into CHEM 102/102L. CHEM 102 is a prerequisite for CHEM 241/241L, 251, and 261. A C- or better grade in CHEM 102 is required to continue into ANY higher-level chemistry course. A C- or better grade in CHEM 261 is a prerequisite for CHEM 262, and CHEM 241L is a prerequisite for CHEM 262L. Students intending to take pregraduate or preprofessional exams (such as the GRE or MCAT) should plan accordingly.

Notes

1. At least 18 semester hours of credit in chemistry courses above CHEM 101/101L with individual grades of C or better are required. Grades of C- do not satisfy this requirement. Courses in chemistry and other courses specifically required (and designated by number) may not be taken Pass/D+/D/Fail.

2. PHYS 116 and 117 are encouraged for those students considering careers as professional chemists or those students that want the option to switch from the B.A. program to the B.S. program.

3. With the permission of the course instructor, CHEM 420 or other chemistry courses numbered above 420 may be substituted for the listed courses.

4. This program meets the requirements of the American Chemical Society for the training of professional chemists.

5. CHEM 395 and 396 may be taken for credit as many times as desired but may be counted for no more than nine hours of total credit toward fulfillment of graduation requirements. Additionally, CHEM 395 may not be counted more than once as an advanced chemistry elective in the B.S. chemistry degree, B.S. chemistry degree (biochemistry track), or B.S. chemistry degree (polymer track). Only one of CHEM 395 or 396 (not both) may be counted as an advanced chemistry elective.

6. One course must be taken from the following list: BIOC 601, 650; BIOL 422; CHEM 395; or any two- or three-credit chemistry lecture course numbered 420 or above that is not already required.

7. CHEM 395 or 396 and chemistry courses numbered 420 or higher.

8. Placement (PL) credits (zero hours) for MATH 232, 233, or 383 do not satisfy chemistry major requirements.

Honors in Chemistry

Upon the recommendation of the Department of Chemistry, the B.A. or B.S. degree with a major in chemistry may be awarded with honors in chemistry or highest honors in chemistry.

Highest honors in chemistry is a distinction bestowed on a truly exceptional student who has excelled in coursework and who has completed a research project of considerable depth and significance. To attain this distinction the candidate must have nominally satisfied the following guidelines:

• B.A. candidates must have achieved a grade point average of 3.85 or higher; B.S. candidates, a grade point average of 3.75 or higher

• Have completed at least five courses in chemistry numbered 420 or above. For B.A. candidates one of these may be a laboratory course; for B.S. candidates they must all be lecture courses

• Have completed or be about to complete a research project certified to be of publishable quality by the research advisor and two faculty members appointed by the vice chair for undergraduate studies

Honors in chemistry is a distinction bestowed on an outstanding student who has demonstrated marked competence in the coursework and who has completed a research project of considerable merit. To attain this distinction the candidate must have nominally satisfied the following guidelines:

• Have achieved a grade point average of 3.40 or higher

• Have received no grade below B- in junior- or senior-level chemistry courses

• Have completed at least three lecture courses in chemistry numbered 420 or above

• Have completed or be about to complete a research project certified to be of honors quality by the research advisor and two faculty members appointed by the vice chair for undergraduate studies

Students who wish to qualify for either of these awards should begin planning their course programs and research activities in the junior year so that ample time and effort may be devoted to succeeding in upper-level courses and research.

Advising

Faculty advisors are available in the Department of Chemistry for both walk-in meetings and scheduled advising appointments. The departmental advisors assist students with a variety of areas: course planning for the chemistry major, career/graduate school planning, study abroad opportunities, undergraduate research opportunities, and how to deal with academic difficulties. Chemistry majors are required to meet with a departmental advisor by appointment prior to registering for any semester beyond the fourth term in residence. The faculty advisors also schedule many external events for the majors.

Special Opportunities in Chemistry

Departmental Involvement

Majors are encouraged to participate in AXE (chemistry fraternity) and the undergraduate advisory board.

Laboratory Teaching Internships and Assistantships

Undergraduates have the opportunity to serve as laboratory teaching assistants for entry level undergraduate laboratory courses.

Special Topics

Special topics not offered through the normal course sequence may be pursued through directed reading and registration in CHEM 396 with the approval of the supervising faculty member, advisor, and vice chair for undergraduate studies.

Undergraduate Awards

Excellent performances by undergraduates in chemistry are recognized by the department through the following awards:

• Francis P. Venable Medal: A medallion and cash award are presented to the two most outstanding graduating seniors majoring in chemistry in honor of Dr. Francis P. Venable, who was chairman of the department, president of the University from 1900 to 1914, and president of the American Chemical Society.

• Emmett Gladstone Rand Premedical Scholarship: A scholarship is presented to an exceptionally talented graduating senior intending to pursue a career in medicine.

• Jason D. Altom Memorial Award for Undergraduate Research: This cash award recognizes research potential of an undergraduate chemistry major.

• J. Thurman Freeze Scholarship: This scholarship serves to fund summer research between a student’s junior and senior years.

• E.C. Markham Summer Research Fund: The department chair selects the recipient of this award, who will use the salary to perform research between the junior and senior years.

• Carrie Largent Summer Research Fellowship: This fellowship provides summer salary for independent laboratory research for an outstanding UNC–Chapel Hill chemistry major.

• Carrie Largent Award for Research Excellence: This award is given annually to a graduating senior who has excelled in research.

• David L. Stern Scholar: Top students from upper-division laboratory courses are chosen for this cash award.

• Undergraduate Award for Excellence in Physical Chemistry: This cash award is given to the top student in physical chemistry courses.

• AXE Sophomore Chemist Award: A cash award and certificate are presented to an outstanding sophomore chemistry major.

• James H. Maguire Memorial Award: This award goes to an outstanding and academically gifted junior honors student majoring in chemistry.

• Tanya R. Ellison Scholarship: A female, junior or senior B.S. chemistry major is selected for this cash award on the basis of character and academic commitment.

• Merck Index Awards: A copy of the Merck Index is presented annually to outstanding graduating seniors majoring in chemistry.

• Hypercube Scholar Award: An outstanding senior majoring in chemistry is given this chemical software package.

Undergraduate Research

Almost every undergraduate chemistry major who has undertaken a research project has found it to be an exciting and rewarding experience. The reasons are many. One certainly is that it affords an opportunity to make pioneering discoveries at the forefront of science, using instrumentation and techniques far more sophisticated than those usually encountered in standard laboratory courses.

More than 80 students are involved in undergraduate research projects in chemistry each year. Although successful completion of an undergraduate research project is a requirement for graduation with honors or highest honors (see above), it is not necessary to be a participant in Honors Carolina to undertake a research project.

The usual mechanism for getting involved in a research project is to register for CHEM 395. This process begins well in advance of a preregistration or registration period with a visit to the Chemistry Student Services office, where a student may obtain a list of undergraduate research opportunities and a form titled Request for Registration in CHEM 395.

Most students begin research during the spring semester of their junior year and continue throughout their senior year. CHEM 395 Research in Chemistry for Undergraduates and 396 Special Problems in Chemistry together may be taken for credit as many times as desired but may be counted for no more than nine hours total credit toward graduation in either the B.A. or B.S. traditional and polymer tracks and for no more than six hours in the B.S. biochemistry track. In the B.S. curriculum CHEM 395 may be counted no more than once as an advanced chemistry elective.

UNC–BEST

The UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) Program is a collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences and is designed to allow undergraduate science majors interested in teaching high school science the opportunity to earn their science degree and obtain licensure as a North Carolina high school science teacher in four years. UNC-BEST students meet all the degree requirements for their chemistry degree using CHEM 410 as one of their upper level chemistry courses. UNC-BEST students also fulfill teaching licensure coursework requirements as well as many General Education and elective requirements as they complete 10 credit hours in teaching and learning including EDUC 403, 516 or 689, 532, 533, and 601. During their final semester, students engage in a full time student teaching internship (EDUC 593) and participate in an education leadership seminar (EDUC 503). For more details on admission requirements, application deadlines, and how to submit an online application, visit the School of Education Web site: soe.unc.edu/services/apply/ug.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

An undergraduate degree tailored according to the student’s interests can open doors to graduate programs in many academic disciplines: chemistry, environmental science, materials science, polymer science, chemical engineering, geochemistry, chemical physics, and several disciplines at the interface between biology and chemistry. A technically oriented administrator in the chemical industry might choose to obtain a master’s degree in business administration. More than 100 schools in the United States offer graduate programs in chemistry and related areas, and it is the usual practice to take graduate education at a different institution from the undergraduate institution. It is necessary to specialize in graduate study, either within one of the branches previously mentioned or at the interface between two of them. A student admitted to a graduate program in chemistry in the United States is usually offered a teaching assistantship or fellowship.

Chemists have a wide choice of academic, governmental, or industrial positions. By far the greatest percentage accept industrial positions, mostly in the chemical manufacturing or the petroleum, food, and pharmaceutical industries, where they may be developing new products to benefit humanity or assessing the level of risk in the processes for some proposed production methods, for example. Most government chemists are employed in agriculture, health, energy, environmental, and defense-related areas. In the academic field, with such a broad spectrum of colleges and universities in this country, chemists can set career goals with varying levels of emphasis on training students in research and teaching in the classroom and instructional laboratory.

Contact Information

Donnyell Batts and Jill Fallin, Chemistry Student Services Coordinators, Department of Chemistry, CB# 3290, C140 Kenan Labs, (919) 843-7827 or (919) 843-7826, chemus@unc.edu.

Dr. R. Mark Wightman, Associate Professor and Vice Chair for Undergraduate Studies, Department of Chemistry, CB# 3290, 339 Caudill Laboratories, (919) 962-1472, rmw@email.unc.edu.

Web site: www.chem.unc.edu.

CHEM

70 First-Year Seminar: You Don’t Have to Be a Rocket Scientist (3). The goal of this seminar is to develop tools for extracting information from or finding flaws in news reports and popular science writing. Group work on such issues as biomass fuels, the hydrogen economy, and other alternative energy sources will develop an understanding of their economic and environmental impact.

71 First-Year Seminar: Foundations of Chemistry: A Historical and Modern Perspective (3). Students will learn about ways in which scientists think. They will explore how new knowledge is generated and examine the impact of science on society. Topics to be considered include the nature of gases, atomic structure and radioactivity, and molecules and the development of new materials.

72 First-Year Seminar: From Imagination to Reality: Idea Entrepreneurism in Science, Business, the Arts (3). Bringing ideas to fruition is a multistep process. In the present knowledge economy, high value is placed on individuals who both formulate new concepts and bring them to reality. This process requires a number of important skills that will be explored in this course.

73 First-Year Seminar: From Atomic Bombs to Cancer Treatments: The Broad Scope of Nuclear Chemistry (3). A course engaging the topic of nuclear chemistry on the introductory chemistry course level (e.g., CHEM 101/102). Atomic structure, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion processes will be introduced to provide the background necessary to understand applications of the processes. Applications discussed will include power generation, medical treatments, weapons, and more.

101 General Descriptive Chemistry I (3). Prerequisite, MATH 110. The first course in a two-semester sequence. See also CHEM 102. Atomic and molecular structure, stoichiometry and conservation of mass, thermochemical changes and conservation of energy.

101L Quantitative Chemistry Laboratory I (1). Pre- or corequisite, CHEM 101. Computerized data collection, scientific measurement, sensors, thermochemistry, spectroscopy, and conductometric titration. Laptop computer required. One four-hour laboratory each week.

102 General Descriptive Chemistry II (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 101 and 101L. C- or better required in CHEM 101. The course is the second in a two-semester sequence. See also CHEM 101. Gases, intermolecular forces, solutions, reaction rates, chemical equilibria including acid-base chemistry, thermochemistry, electrochemistry.

102H Advanced General Descriptive Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, placement credit for CHEM 101 and 101L; pre- or corequisite, MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. One semester course for first-year students with strong backgrounds in chemistry and mathematics. By-examination credit for CHEM 101 and 101L is awarded upon satisfactory completion of CHEM 102H.

102L Quantitative Chemistry Laboratory II (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 101L; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 102 or 102H. Computerized data collection, gas laws, intermolecular forces, redox reactions, chemical kinetics, and acid-base titrations. Laptop computer required. One four-hour laboratory each week.

190 Special Topics in Chemistry (3). An undergraduate seminar course that is designated to be a participatory intellectual adventure on an advanced, emergent, and stimulating topic within a selected discipline in chemistry. This course does not count as credit towards the chemistry major.

200 Extraordinary Chemistry of Ordinary Things (3). Prerequisite, MATH 110. Coregistration in CHEM 200 and 101L fulfills the physical and life science with a laboratory requirement (PL). This course helps students understand the chemistry behind important societal issues and the consequences of actions aimed at addressing the issues. Students who have taken CHEM 200 cannot take CHEM 101 for credit.

241 Modern Analytical Methods for Separation and Characterization (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 102 or 102H. C- or better required in prerequisite. Analytical separations, chromatographic methods, spectrophotometry, acid-base equilibria and titrations, fundamentals of electrochemistry.

241L Laboratory in Separations and Analytical Characterization of Organic and Biological Compounds (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 102L; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 241 or 241H. Applications of separation and spectrophotometric techniques to organic compounds, including some of biological interest. One three-hour laboratory each week.

245L Honors Laboratory in Separations and Analytical Characterization of Organic and Biological Compounds (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 102L; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 241H. Applications of separation and spectrophotometric techniques to samples from the real world, including some of biological interest. Final portion of course consists of group research projects presented to the Department of Chemistry in poster session format. Honors equivalent of CHEM 241L. One three-hour laboratory each week.

251 Introduction to Inorganic Chemistry (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 102 or 102H. C- or better required in prerequisite. Chemical periodicity, introductory atomic theory and molecular orbital theory, structure and bonding in solids, descriptive nonmetal chemistry, structures and reactions of transition metal complexes, applications of inorganic complexes and materials.

261 Introduction to Organic Chemistry I (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 102 or 102H. C- or better required in prerequisite. Molecular structure and its determination by modern physical methods, correlation between structure and reactivity and the theoretical basis for these relationships, classification of reaction types exhibited by organic molecules using as examples molecules of biological importance.

262 Introduction to Organic Chemistry II (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 261 or 261H. C- or better required in prerequisite. Continuation of CHEM 261, with particular emphasis on the chemical properties of organic molecules of biological importance.

262L Laboratory in Organic Chemistry (1). Prerequisites, CHEM 102L, and CHEM 241L or 245L; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 262 or 262H. Continuation of CHEM 241L or 245L with particular emphasis on organic chemistry synthesis protocols, separation techniques, and compound characterization using modern spectroscopic instrumentation. This course serves as an organic chemistry laboratory for premedical and predental students. One three-hour laboratory each week.

263L Honors Laboratory in Organic Chemistry (1). Prerequisites, CHEM 102L, and CHEM 241L or 245L; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 262H. Permission of the instructor for students lacking CHEM 262H. Continuation of CHEM 245L with particular emphasis on organic chemistry synthesis protocols, separation techniques, and compound characterization using modern spectroscopic instrumentation. An organic chemistry laboratory for premedical and predental students. Honors equivalent of CHEM 262L. One three-hour laboratory each week.

395 Research in Chemistry for Undergraduates (3). Required preparation, one CHEM course 420 or higher and permission of the instructor. For advanced chemistry and applied sciences majors conducting on-campus research. Students prepare a report for their faculty supervisor and present their work at a poster session. May count only once as a chemistry elective.

396 Special Problems in Chemistry (1–3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Literature or lab work equivalent of one to three hours each week.

397H Honors Colloquium in Chemistry (1). Corequisite, CHEM 395H. Weekly meetings complement research carried out under CHEM 395H. Expands students’ exposure to specialized areas of research through guided readings and seminars with invited speakers. Aids students in preparing their research for evaluation. CHEM 395H and 397H together can contribute no more than nine total hours toward graduation.

410 Instructional Methods in the Chemistry Classroom (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 241, 251, 262, and 262L. Permission of the instructor. This course explores secondary school chemical education through current chemical education theory and classroom teaching. Students will develop a comprehensive approach to teaching chemistry content through student-centered activities.

420 Introduction to Polymer Chemistry (APPL 420) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 261 or 261H; pre- or corequisites, CHEM 262 or 262H, and 262L or 263L. Chemical structure and nomenclature of macromolecules, synthesis of polymers, characteristic polymer properties.

421 Synthesis of Polymers (APPL 421, MTSC 421) (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 251, and 262 or 262H. Synthesis and reactions of polymers; various polymerization techniques.

422 Physical Chemistry of Polymers (APPL 422, MTSC 422) (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 420 and 481. Polymerization and characterization of macromolecules in solution.

423 Intermediate Polymer Chemistry (APPL 423, MTSC 423) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 422. Polymer dynamics, networks and gels.

425 Polymer Materials (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 421 or 422. Solid-state properties of polymers; polymer melts, glasses and crystals.

430 Introduction to Biological Chemistry (BIOL 430) (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101, CHEM 262 or 262H, and 262L or 263L. The study of cellular processes including catalysts, metabolism, bioenergetics, and biochemical genetics. The structure and function of biological macromolecules involved in these processes is emphasized.

431 Macromolecular Structure and Metabolism (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and CHEM 430. Structure of DNA and methods in biotechnology; DNA replication and repair; RNA structure, synthesis, localization and transcriptional reputation; protein structure/function, biosynthesis, modification, localization, and degradation.

432 Metabolic Chemistry and Cellular Regulatory Networks (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 430. Biological membranes, membrane protein structure, transport phenomena; metabolic pathways, reaction themes, regulatory networks; metabolic transformations with carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides; regulatory networks, signal transduction.

433 Transport in Biological Systems (1). Prerequisites, CHEM 430 and MATH 383. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Diffusion, sedimentation, electrophoresis, flow. Basic principles, theoretical methods, experimental techniques, role in biological function, current topics.

434 Biochemical Kinetics (1). Prerequisites, CHEM 430 and MATH 383. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Kinetics of biochemical interactions. Basic principles, theoretical methods, experimental techniques, current topics.

435 Protein Biosynthesis and Its Regulation (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 430; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 431. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Protein biosynthesis mechanism in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; emphasis on structures of the macromolecular machinery; translational regulation mechanisms including autogenous regulation, metabolic and developmental signals; viral control of host protein synthesis.

436 The Proteome and Interactome (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 430. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Methods for and role of bioinformatics in proteomic analysis; proteomics in the analysis of development, differentiation and disease states; the interactome—definitions, analysis, methods of protein-protein interactions in complex systems.

437 DNA Processes (2). Prerequisites, CHEM 431 and either 480 or 481. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Elucidation of the mechanisms of these processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes from experiments. Experimental results ranging from in vivo studies to structural studies to kinetics.

438 Macromolecular Structure and Human Disease (1). Prerequisite, CHEM 431. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Impact of protein and macromolecular structure on the development and treatment of human disease, with emphasis on recent results. Examination of relevant diseases, current treatments, and opportunities for improved therapies.

439 RNA Processing (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 431. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. RNA processing, structure and therapeutics; in-depth exploration of examples from the contemporary literature. Topics include RNA world hypothesis, RNA structure and catalysis, and nucleic acid-based sensors and drug design.

441 Intermediate Analytical Chemistry (2). Prerequisites, CHEM 241 (or 241H), 241L (or 245L) and 262 (or 262H) and 480 (or 481). Spectroscopy, electroanalytical chemistry, chromatography, thermal methods of analysis, signal processing.

441L Intermediate Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (2). Corequisite, CHEM 441. Experiments in spectroscopy, electroanalytical chemistry, chromatography, thermal methods of analysis, and signal processing. One four-hour laboratory and one one-hour lecture each week.

444 Separations (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 441 and either 480 or 481. Theory and applications of equilibrium and nonequilibrium separation techniques. Extraction, countercurrent distribution, gas chromatography, column and plane chromatographic techniques, electrophoresis, ultra-centrifugation, and other separation methods.

445 Electroanalytical Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 480 or 481. Basic principles of electrochemical reactions, electroanalytical voltammetry as applied to analysis, the chemistry of heterogeneous electron transfers, and electrochemical instrumentation.

446 Analytical Spectroscopy (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 441 and 482. Optical spectroscopic techniques for chemical analysis including conventional and laser-based methods. Absorption, fluorescence, scattering and nonlinear spectroscopies, instrumentation and signal processing.

447 Bioanalytical Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 441. Principles and applications of biospecific binding as a tool for performing selective chemical analysis.

448 Mass Spectrometry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 480 or 481. Fundamental theory of gaseous ion chemistry, instrumentation, combination with separation techniques, spectral interpretation for organic compounds, applications to biological and environmental chemistry.

449 Microfabricated Chemical Measurement Systems (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 441. Introduction to micro and nanofabrication techniques, fluid and molecular transport at the micrometer to nanometer length scales, applications of microtechnology to chemical and biochemical measurements.

450 Intermediate Inorganic Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 251. Introduction to symmetry and group theory; bonding, electronic spectra, and reaction mechanisms of coordination complexes; organometallic complexes, reactions, and catalysis; bioinorganic chemistry.

451 Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 251 and 262 or 262H. Chemical applications of symmetry and group theory, crystal field theory, molecular orbital theory. The first third of the course, corresponding to one credit hour, covers point symmetry, group theoretical foundations and character tables.

452 Electronic Structure of Transition Metal Complexes (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 451. A detailed discussion of ligand field theory and the techniques that rely on the theoretical development of ligand field theory, including electronic spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and magnetism.

453 Physical Methods in Inorganic Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 451. Introduction to the physical techniques used for the characterization and study of inorganic compounds. Topics typically include nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inorganic electrochemistry.

460 Intermediate Organic Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 262 or 262H. Modern topics in organic chemistry.

465 Mechanisms of Organic and Inorganic Reactions (4). Prerequisite, CHEM 450. Kinetics and thermodynamics, free energy relationships, isotope effects, acidity and basicity, kinetics and mechanisms of substitution reactions, one- and two-electron transfer processes, principles and applications of photochemistry, organometallic reaction mechanisms.

466 Advanced Organic Chemistry I (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 262 or 262H; pre- or corequisites, CHEM 450 and 481. A survey of fundamental organic reactions including substitutions, additions, elimination, and rearrangements; static and dynamic stereochemistry; conformational analysis; molecular orbital concepts and orbital symmetry.

467 Advanced Organic Chemistry II (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 466. Spectroscopic methods of analysis with emphasis on elucidation of the structure of organic molecules: 1H and 13C NMR, infrared, ultraviolet, ORD-CD, mass, and photoelectron spectroscopy. CHEM 446 and 467 may not both be taken for academic credit.

468 Synthetic Aspects of Organic Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 466. Modern synthetic methods and their application to the synthesis of complicated molecules.

469 Organometallics and Catalysis Organometallics (3). Pre- or corequisites, CHEM 262 or 262H, and 450. Structure and reactivity of organometallic complexes and their role in modern catalytic reactions.

470 Fundamentals of MTSC (APPL 470) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 482; or prerequisite, PHYS 128 and pre- or corequisite, PHYS 341. Crystal geometry, diffusion in solids, mechanical properties of solids, electrical conduction in solids, thermal properties of materials, phase equilibria.

471 Mathematical Techniques for Chemists (3). Prerequisite, MATH 383. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Knowledge of differential and integral calculus. Chemical applications of higher mathematics.

472 Chemistry and Physics of Electronic Materials Processing (APPL 472, MTSC 472, PHYS 472) (3). See PHYS 472 for description.

473 Chemistry and Physics of Surfaces (APPL 473, MTSC 473) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 470. The structural and energetic nature of surface states and sites, experimental surface measurements, reactions on surfaces including bonding to surfaces and adsorption, interfaces.

480 Introduction to Biophysical Chemistry (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 261 or 261H, MATH 232, and PHYS 105. Does not carry credit toward graduate work in chemistry or credit toward any track of the B.S. degree with a major in chemistry. Application of thermodynamics to biochemical processes, enzyme kinetics, properties of biopolymers in solution.

481 Physical Chemistry I (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102 or 102H, PHYS 116; pre- or corequisites, MATH 383 and PHYS 117. C- or better required in chemistry course prerequisites. Thermodynamics, kinetic theory, chemical kinetics.

481L Physical Chemistry Laboratory I (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 482. Experiments in physical chemistry. Solving thermodynamic and quantum mechanical problems using computer simulations. One three-hour laboratory and a single one-hour lecture each week.

482 Physical Chemistry II (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 481. Introduction to quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics.

482L Physical Chemistry Laboratory II (2). Prerequisite, CHEM 482; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 481L. Experiments in physical chemistry. One four-hour laboratory each week.

484 Thermodynamics and Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics (1–21). Prerequisite, CHEM 482. Thermodynamics, followed by an introduction to the classical and quantum statistical mechanics and their application to simple systems. The section on thermodynamics can be taken separately for one hour credit.

485 Chemical Dynamics (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 481 and 482. Experimental and theoretical aspects of atomic and molecular reaction dynamics.

486 Introduction to Quantum Chemistry (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 481 and 482. Introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics. Approximation methods, angular momentum, simple atoms and molecules.

487 Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 486. Interaction of radiation with matter; selection rules; rotational, vibrational, and electronic spectra of molecules; laser based spectroscopy and nonlinear optical effects.

488 Quantum Chemistry (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 486. Applications of quantum mechanics to chemistry. Molecular structure, time-dependent perturbation theory, interaction of radiation with matter.

489 Statistical Mechanics (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 484. Applications of statistical mechanics to chemistry. Ensemble formalism, condensed phases, nonequilibrium processes.

520L Polymer Chemistry Laboratory (APPL 520L) (2). Pre- or corequisite, CHEM 420 or 421 or 425. Various polymerization techniques and characterization methods. One four-hour laboratory each week.

530L Laboratory Techniques for Biochemistry (3). Pre- or corequisite, CHEM 430. An introduction to chemical techniques and research procedures of use in the fields of protein and nucleic acid chemistry. Two four-hour laboratories and one one-hour lecture each week.

541 Analytical Microscopy (3). Introduction to microscopy techniques utilized in the analysis of chemical and biological samples with a focus on light, electron, and atomic force microscopy. Permission of instructor required for those missing prerequisites.

550L Synthetic Chemistry Laboratory I (2). Prerequisites, CHEM 241L (or 245L), 251, and 262L (or 263L). A laboratory devoted to synthesis and characterization of inorganic complexes and materials. A four-hour synthesis laboratory, a characterization laboratory outside of the regular laboratory period, and a one-hour recitation each week.

560L Synthetic Organic Laboratory (2). Prerequisites, CHEM 241L, 245L, 262L, 263L. An advanced synthesis laboratory focused on topics in organic chemistry. A four-hour synthesis laboratory, a characterization laboratory outside of the regular laboratory period, and a one-hour recitation each week.