Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology

3301 Venable Hall, CB# 3275; (919) 962-1270


Amy E. Cooke, Director of Undergraduate Studies


The Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology offers diverse and multidisciplinary undergraduate degree programs in environmental science (B.S.) and environmental studies (B.A.). Faculty throughout the University, including the College of Arts and Sciences and the schools of business, government, law, and public health, mentor our students through courses, internships, and research opportunities. This unique approach provides students an opportunity to explore the knowledge base needed to understand the environment and its relationship to society, as well as the applications of that knowledge in areas such as environmental modeling; aquatic systems; environmental behavior and decisions; environmental change and human health; ecology, conservation, and biodiversity; and population and the environment. The degrees combine traditional classroom teaching with extensive use of interdisciplinary, team-based projects, internships, study abroad opportunities, and research.

Environmental Studies Major, B.A.

The environmental studies major is appropriate for students seeking rigorous preparation in the social sciences and humanities needed to understand how society affects the environment, how it organizes itself to respond to environmental problems, and how understanding of the environment is transmitted through culture. All students gain a sufficient base of scientific and mathematical expertise to allow them to work effectively with environmental scientists and engineers. The major also provides strong preparation for graduate and professional training, especially in environmental policy, journalism, education, and law.

Core Requirements

Ecology and Society

ANTH 226, 318, 320, 439; ANTH/ENEC 238, 460; BIOL 201, 272, 277, 402, 427, 461, 463, 464, 465, 469, 561, 565, 567; BIOL/ENEC 256, 461, 562; ENEC 222, 304, 352, three hours of 395, three hours of 396, 462, 479, 489, 491, 693H or 694H; ENEC/GEOG 264; ENEC/GEOL 324; ENEC/GEOL/MASC 450; ENEC/MASC 441, 444, 448, 471; ENEC/PLCY 372, 520; ENEC/POLI 254; GEOG 228, 232, 261, 423, 434, 444, 470, 597; PLAN 641

Energy and Sustainability

BUSI 507; ENEC 208, 306, 325, 350, 370, 393, 395, 396, 482, 485, 491, 492, 581, 586, 685, 693H or 694H; ENEC/ENVR/PLAN/PLCY 585, 686; ENEC/GEOL 324; ENEC/JOMC 565; ENEC/PLAN 330, 420; ENEC/PLCY 480; GEOG 237, 414, 441; PHYS 131; PLAN 246, 247, 547, 641

Environmental Behavior and Decision Making

ANTH 422, 539; BIOL/MATH 452; BUSI 507; COMM/ENEC 375; ENEC 305, 306, 309, 312, 325, 350, 351, 380, 395, 396, 462, 474, 485, 580, 581, 586, 491, 492, 675, 685, 693H or 694H; ENEC/ENVR 470; ENEC/ENVR/PLAN/PLCY 585; ENEC/GEOL 324; ENEC/JOMC 565; ENEC/PLCY 372, 480; ENEC/POLI 254; GEOG 237, 435, 470; PLAN 547, 641; PLCY 475

Population, Environment, and Development

ANTH 318, 319, 439, 459, 539; ANTH/ENEC 238; ENEC 266, 325, 350, 351, 370, 380, 395, 396, 485, 491, 492, 580, 693H or 694H; ENEC/GEOL 324; ENEC/PLCY 520; ENVR 600; GEOG 237, 269, 445, 450, 452, 457, 470; PLCY 475

All General Education requirements must be satisfied, some with specific courses:

Environmental Science, B.S.

The environmental science major is appropriate for students interested in solving complex environmental and energy resource-related problems. The major includes preparation in the basic sciences related to environmental study and the application of those principles to the analysis of environmental processes and problems. It focuses on such topics as how material and energy are moved and transformed in complex environmental systems, the role of society in perturbing those processes, and scientific techniques which might be used to improve environmental quality. The degree provides strong preparation for graduate or professional training as well as for jobs in government, consulting, and industry.

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

All General Education requirements must be satisfied, some with specific courses:

Dual Bachelor's–Master's Degree Program

The dual bachelor's–master's program in environmental and science communication is a collaboration between the Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology and the School of Media and Journalism. The program is designed for students to earn their bachelor of arts degree with a major in environmental studies and complete a master's degree in journalism in as little as five years. Students must complete the undergraduate requirements for the B.A. degree and the graduate requirements for the M.A. degree as separate degrees. Students may begin taking courses for the graduate degree while in the undergraduate program, and up to nine credit hours of approved graduate coursework may be transferred into their graduate degree program. Courses taken as an undergraduate for graduate credit may not be counted as part of the undergraduate degree if the intent is to transfer them. Early advising is essential to success in navigating this dual-degree program. Advisors are available in both units to help students prepare and select courses appropriately to get the most from their education.

Applying for the program is a two-step process. It is highly recommend that first- and second-year students interested in the dual-degree program speak to an advisor early in their college program. Students must submit a conditional application to the program no later than their junior year to ensure they will receive preference in registering for courses. Students must formally apply to the program through the UNC Graduate School in their senior year. We do not require the GRE for this application if you are an existing UNC student. For complete information on the application process and curriculum requirements, please go to

Environmental Science and Studies Minor

The minor is designed for students wishing to remain in another discipline but having an interest in the environment as an area of application. Students in the minor in environmental science and studies must take two core courses designed as preliminary courses in the scientific and societal dimensions of environmental issues and problems and in the tools for their solution.

Students must see an ENEC advisor to discuss potential courses. Depending on the courses selected, the minor would require between 17 and 20 credit hours.

Sustainability Studies Minor

The program provides an understanding of sustainability, a unifying approach to human and environmental problems. Sustainable businesses, communities, and other organizations seek to design systems in ways that optimize material and energy use to decrease environmental and health problems and to bolster economic vitality and social equity. A growing number of scholars are framing problems and solutions in the language of sustainability, which balances growth and development with justice and environmental stewardship in order to meet today's needs without undermining the ability of future generations to do the same.

The minor requires a minimum of 16 credit hours. Students who major in the curriculum's B.A. or B.S. degree programs are not allowed to minor in sustainability studies.


The Curriculum in the Environment and Ecology maintains an advising system for students with an environmental interest. Students are encouraged to contact the director of undergraduate studies as early as they wish in their academic plan to discuss options and be assigned to a faculty advisor. Students may use the advising system from the time they enter UNC–Chapel Hill, obtaining advice from specialists in the various environmental fields. This advising system includes opportunities to meet with professionals from government, industry, and consulting to learn about the skills needed to work effectively in those fields if students are interested. In addition we routinely schedule seminars and host visitors who showcase career opportunities by their example in their respective fields.

Special Opportunities in Environmental Science and Studies

Honors in Environmental Science or Studies

Students in either the B.S. or B.A. degree program may participate in honors research leading to graduation with honors or highest honors. This distinction is earned by participation in honors research (ENEC 693H) and culminates in ENEC 694H thesis writing and defense. Students should follow the guidelines established by Honors Carolina and meet with the faculty honors advisor, Dr. Geoff Bell, to ensure that appropriate requirements are fulfilled ( Honors students can use three credit hours of ENEC 693H (research) or 694H (thesis), but not both courses, to fulfill a concentration requirement.

Departmental Involvement

The Carolina Environmental Student Alliance (CESA) is an interdisciplinary organization dedicated to uniting the environmental interests of students across campus. Participation is open to all students and community members with an interest in the environment. The Epsilon Eta Environmental Honors Fraternity is an organization dedicated to excellence in environmental education. Interested students are nominated for membership.

Experiential Education

Possibilities for experiential education include APPLES service-learning courses (ENEC 593), Coral Reef Ecology and Management (ENEC 259), Sierra Nevada Program (ENEC 208), Internships (ENEC 393, 493), and Research (ENEC 395, 396, 698) and Honors Research (ENEC 693H, 694H). Additionally, a series of experiential education field sites is available in North Carolina and around the world where students may take coursework and conduct research for a semester. Fall semester field sites are offered at Highlands Biological Station (mountain/ecology), the Institute for Marine Sciences (marine ecology/geology), and the Coastal Studies Institute/Outer Banks (coastal policy and economics). Spring semester field sites are offered on the UNC campus (Sustainable Triangle field site), in Thailand (energy and pollution), and Ecuador (ecology or sustainable development). The Ecuador and Thailand field site experiences incorporate part of the following summer as well. Summer programs are offered at Cambridge, England (energy policy), and in the Galapagos (ecology). Contact our advisors about other opportunities. Faculty members often arrange Burch Program summer educational trips to such locations as Siberia, Russia (ecology and anthropology), the Sierra Nevadas (ecology and physical geography), and northern Europe (energy and sustainability).


Students are encouraged to apply for paid or unpaid internships in local, state, national, and international environmental organizations. Internship opportunities can be found through the following Web site: These internships provide valuable practical experience, and some may be conducted for academic credit.

Study Abroad

Exchange and other study abroad programs are available through the UNC Study Abroad Office. At some locations, students may take courses for UNC credit, such as some field sites listed above. Students may take courses at other universities during study abroad and apply for transfer credit as well. We encourage students to participate in study abroad during their career at Carolina.

Undergraduate Awards

Undergraduates may be considered for the Watts and Betsy Carr Awards, Mary and Watts Hill Jr. Awards, and Robert Alonzo Winston Scholarships.

Undergraduate Research

All students are encouraged (but not required) to complete an independent or team research project. Such projects introduce students to the tools needed for graduate study. They also provide an important opportunity for working directly with the world-class environmental faculty and graduate students at UNC–Chapel Hill, as well as in the many environmental organizations in the Research Triangle. The Triangle area contains one of the largest collections of environmental organizations and expertise in the world, providing unique opportunities for students to conduct research on an immense range of topics from fundamental scientific research to policy applications.


Curriculum faculty and staff occupy offices and laboratories in Venable/Murray Halls (third floor) and the facilities in Manteo, Morehead City, and Highlands, NC.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

A major in environmental science or studies prepares students for a variety of career options, including marine scientist, ecologist, environmental modeler, environmental policy maker, conservation advocate, land-use planner, and environmental educator. Combining either major with other studies at the undergraduate or graduate level can lead to possibilities as an environmental lawyer, epidemiologist, or environmental geneticist, to cite a few examples.


Affiliated Professors

Richard Andrews (Public Policy), Carol Arnosti (Marine Sciences), Larry Band (Geography), Larry Benninger (Geological Sciences), Jaye Cable (Marine Sciences), Joe Carter (Geological Sciences), Jim Costa (Western Carolina University), Barbara Entwisle (Sociology), Pat Gensel (Biology), Donald Hornstein (School of Law), Rich Kamens (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Andrew Keeler (East Carolina University), Joel Kingsolver (Biology), Jonathan Lees (Geological Sciences), Paul Leslie (Anthropology), Richard Luettich (Institute for Marine Sciences), Doug MacLean (Philosophy), Christopher Martens (Marine Sciences), Brent McKee (Marine Sciences), Timothy McKeown (Political Science), Rachel Noble (Institute for Marine Sciences), Hans Paerl (Institute for Marine Sciences), Robert Peet (Biology), Charles Peterson (Institute for Marine Sciences), David Pfennig (Biology), Jose Rial (Geological Sciences), Daniel Rodriquez (City and Regional Planning), Al Segars (Kenan–Flagler Business School), Maria Servedio (Biology), Andreas Teske (Marine Sciences), Stephen Walsh (Geography), Peter White (Biology), Dale Whittington (City and Regional Planning), Haven Wiley (Biology).

Affiliated Associate Professors

Marc Alperin (Marine Sciences), John Bruno (Biology), Chip Konrad (Geography), Charles Mitchell (Biology), Aaron Moody (Geography), Karin Pfennig (Biology), Michael Piehler (Institute for Marine Sciences), Keith Sockman (Biology), Conghe Song (Geography), Donna Surge (Geological Sciences), Stephen Whalen (Environmental Sciences and Engineering).

Affiliated Assistant Professors

Todd Bendor (City and Regional Planning), Karl Castillo (Marine Sciences), Xiaodong Chen (Geography), Clark Gray (Geography), Allen Hurlbert (Biology), Pamela Jagger (Public Policy), Nikhil Kaza (City and Regional Planning), Adrian Marchetti (Marine Sciences), Benjamin Mirus (Geological Sciences), Laura J. Moore (Geological Sciences), Tamlin Pavelsky (Geological Sciences), Lauren Persha (Geography), Jill Stewart (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Jason Surratt (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Colin West (Anthropology), Jason West (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Erika Wise (Geography), Andrew Yates (Economics).

Research Faculty

Dick Bilsborrow (Biostatistics), Elizabeth Dickinson (Kenan–Flagler Business School), Lindsay Dubbs (Coastal Studies Institute), David McNelis (Institute for the Environment), Johnny Randall (NC Botanical Gardens), Elizabeth Shay (North Carolina Department of Transportation), James Umbanhower (Biology), Alan Weakley (NC Botanical Gardens); Gary Wein (Highlands Trust).

Senior Lecturer

Greg Gangi.


Geoffrey Bell, Amy Cooke, Karen Kandl (Western Carolina University), Thomas Martin (Western Carolina University).

Contact Information

Violet Anderson, Student Services Manager, Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology, CB# 3275, 3202 Murray Hall,


ENEC–Environment and Ecology

ENEC 51 First-Year Seminar: Balancing the Environment: Science, Human Values, and Policy in North Carolina (3). This course examines the ways in which scientific information, human values, and the policy process interact to produce environmental change, economic growth, and social justice in North Carolina.

ENEC 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

ENEC 108 Our Energy and Climate Crises: Challenges and Opportunities (PWAD 108) (4). Students quantify global depletion of energy resources and accompanying environmental degradation, hence discovering the profound changes in attitudes and behavior required to adjust to diminished fossil fuels and modified climate.

ENEC 191 Peoples of Siberia (ANTH 191) (3). See ANTH 191 for description.

ENEC 201 Introduction to Environment and Society (4). Human-environment interactions are examined through analytical methods from the social sciences, humanities, and sciences. The focus is on the role of social, political, and economic factors in controlling interactions between society and the environment in historical and cultural contexts. Three lecture hours and one recitation hour a week.

ENEC 202 Introduction to the Environmental Sciences (4). Examines fundamental processes governing the movement and transformation of material and energy in environmental systems. Focuses on the role of these processes in environmental phenomena and how society perturbs these processes. Integrates methods from a range of scientific disciplines. Three lecture hours and three computer laboratory hours a week.

ENEC 203 Introduction to Environmental Science Problem Solving (3). Prerequisite, MATH 231; corequisite, MATH 232. A quantitative introduction to selected topics in environmental sciences with an emphasis on developing and solidifying problem-solving skills.

ENEC 204 Environmental Seminar (1–3). This course will provide an intellectual focus on the interface between environment and society by examining the relationship among science, policy, and actual management practices on a chosen topic.

ENEC 208 New Frontiers: Environment and Society in the United States (3–4). By employing a multidisciplinary approach, this class will give students a sense of the role that the environment has played in shaping United States society and the role that our society plays in producing environmental change at the national and global level.

ENEC 210 Energy in a Sustainable Environment Seminar (1). This seminar series will provide a general introduction to energy sources, resources, technologies, and societal use from a sustainability perspective.

ENEC 211 Environmental Geology (GEOL 211) (3). See GEOL 211 for description.

ENEC 213 Earth's Dynamic Systems (GEOL 213) (3). See GEOL 213 for description.

ENEC 220 North Carolina Estuaries: Environmental Processes and Problems (3). Natural processes and human impacts on estuarine systems using the Neuse River estuary as a case study. Course includes one week of intensive field work based at the Institute of Marine Sciences. A student may not receive credit for this course after receiving credit for ENEC 222.

ENEC 222 Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science (4). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and either CHEM 101 or PHYS 114. Introduction to the estuarine and coastal environment: geomorphology, physical circulation, nutrient loading, primary and secondary production, carbon and nitrogen cycling, benthic processes, and sedimentation. Consideration given to human impact on coastal systems with emphasis on North Carolina estuaries and sounds. Includes a mandatory weekend field trip and laboratory.

ENEC 238 Human Ecology of Africa (ANTH 238) (3). See ANTH 238 for description.

ENEC 241 Energy and Culture Seminar for the Thailand Field Site (1). This one credit hour course meets the semester before UNC students go to study abroad at the Institute for the Environment Thailand Field Site. The course will prepare students for the research portion of the program. Student should be applying to the field site when taking this course.

ENEC 242 Ecology and Culture Seminar for Ecuador Field Site (1). This one credit hour seminar is only open to students who are planning to participate in the spring research semester in Ecuador. The main purpose of this seminar is to prepare students for this six-month experience in Ecuador by discussing both research methods and Ecuadorian society.

ENEC 253 Introduction to Atmospheric Processes (GEOG 253) (4). See GEOG 253 for description.

ENEC 254 International Environmental Politics (POLI 254) (3). See POLI 254 for description.

ENEC 256 Mountain Biodiversity (BIOL 256) (4). Introduction to the new field of biodiversity studies, which integrates approaches from systematics, ecology, evolution, and conservation.

ENEC 259 Coral Reef Ecology and Management (1). The course familiarizes students with the natural history, ecology, and physical and chemical characteristics of the coral reef environment. Policy and management issues are also examined.

ENEC 263 Environmental Field Studies in Siberia (GEOG 263) (4). This course explores the biogeography of Siberia and gives students practical training on how to do field work in field ecology and physical geography.

ENEC 264 Conservation of Biodiversity in Theory and Practice (GEOG 264) (3). Prerequisite, ENEC 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This course will give students a multidisciplinary introduction to growing field of biodiversity preservation.

ENEC 266 Contemporary Africa: Issues in Health Population, and the Environment (3). A seminar that introduces students to non-Western perspectives and comparative study of ecological, social, and economic factors that influence the welfare of contemporary African communities. Examination of famine, population growth, and health issues within the context of African cultural and social systems.

ENEC 304 Restoration Ecology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or ENEC 202. Explores ecological theory and its application to the restoration of terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Requires 30 hours of service to a local restoration project in which students will collect ecological data for a final case study project.

ENEC 305 Data Analysis and Visualization of Social and Environmental Interactions (4). Prerequisite, ECON 400, ENEC 201, MATH 231, or STOR 155. Principles of spatial and temporal data analysis are applied to issues of the role of society in producing environmental change. Methods include statistical analysis, model development, and computer visualization. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 306 Business and the Environment (3). Introduction to the methods for selecting management practices in business and industry in ways that optimize environmental quality and economic prosperity. Three lecture hours a week.

ENEC 307 Energy and Material Flows in the Environment and Society (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231, ENEC 201 and 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Examines the regional to global flow of materials and energy through materials extraction, processing, manufacturing, product use, recycling, and ultimate disposition, including its relevance in policy development. Reviews natural cycles in the environment, basic physics, and the technology of energy production.

ENEC 308 Environmental History (3). Historical development of the system of beliefs, values, institutions, etc. underlying societal response to the environment in different cultures is analyzed. The approach is interdisciplinary, drawing on methods from history, philosophy, psychology, etc. Three lecture hours a week.

ENEC 309 Environmental Values and Valuation (3). Introduction to the methods for assigning value to aspects of the environment and to interhuman and human-environment interactions. The approach is interdisciplinary, drawing on methods from philosophy, ecology, psychology, aesthetics, economics, religion, etc. Three lecture hours a week.

ENEC 312 Risk-Based International Environmental Decisions (ENVR 312) (3). A Web-based course on the methods and roles of risk assessment in the international setting, with a primary focus on United States-European Union applications in environmental policy decisions.

ENEC 324 Water in Our World: Introduction to Hydrologic Science and Environmental Problems (GEOL 324) (3). This introductory course will cover two broad themes: the physical processes of the hydrologic cycle and how human use (and abuse) of freshwater resources can lead to major environmental problems.

ENEC 324L Water in Our World Laboratory (GEOL 324L) (1). Pre- or corequisite, ENEC/GEOL 324. Students will conduct laboratory and field experiments to reinforce the topics covered in ENEC/GEOL 324. PX credit for ENEC/GEOL 324 + 324L.

ENEC 325 Water Resource Management and Human Rights (3–4). This course explores logistical, political, social, and economic challenges in supplying every human with adequate access to clean water, the most basic human right.

ENEC 330 Principles of Sustainability (PLAN 330) (3). An overview of science, social science, and humanities perspectives on community sustainability.

ENEC 350 Environmental Law and Policy (3). This course gives students an overview of environmental law and some practical experience in environmental policy making.

ENEC 351 Coastal Law and Policy (3). The utilization of common coastal resources, the management of fisheries, and coastal zone management guide an examination of coastal laws, policies, and regulations at the federal, state, and local levels.

ENEC 352 Ecology and Management of Marine Fisheries (3). Prerequisite, MASC 101 or 401. Survey of the ecological processes that influence populations of economically important fish and shellfish, the various fisheries management tools/techniques used to achieve sustainable fish stocks, and the impacts of fishing practices on marine ecosystems.

ENEC 368 Environmental Ethics (PHIL 368) (3). See PHIL 368 for description.

ENEC 370 Agriculture and the Environment (3). Introduction to the ecology of agricultural practices and the impact of food production on the environment. Particular attention will be paid to the constraints on agriculture which must be overcome to feed the planet's growing population.

ENEC 372 Global Environment: Policy Analysis and Solutions (PLCY 372) (3). See PLCY 372 for description.

ENEC 375 Environmental Advocacy (COMM 375) (3). See COMM 375 for description.

ENEC 380 Environmental Economics (3). Prerequisite, ECON 101 This course develops a set of core principles that are essential to understand and evaluate environmental policy and renewable resource use. These principles are primarily economic, but our discussion will also include insights from politics and ethics.

ENEC 393 Internship in Sustainability (3). Permission of the instructor. This course provides an internship with an organization on sustainability topics and public engagement. Pass/Fail only.

ENEC 395 Research in Environmental Sciences and Studies for Undergraduates (1–12). Permission of the instructor. Research in an area of environmental science or environmental studies.

ENEC 396 Directed Readings (1–4). Permission of the instructor. A specialized selection of readings from the literature of a particular environmental field supervised by a member of the Carolina Environmental Faculty group. Written reports on the readings or a literature review paper will be required. Cannot be used as a course toward the major.

ENEC 403 Environmental Chemistry Processes (ENVR 403) (3). See ENVR 403 for description.

ENEC 405 Mountain Preservation (4). Introduces students to approaches used to preserve the natural and cultural heritage of the Southern Appalachians.

ENEC 406 Atmospheric Processes II (GEOG 406) (4). Principles of analysis of the atmosphere are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. The link between the atmosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through environmental case studies.

ENEC 410 Earth Processes in Environmental Systems (GEOL 410, MASC 410) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 102, GEOL 213, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of geological and related Earth systems sciences are applied to analyses of environmental phenomena. The link between the lithosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 411 Oceanic Processes in Environmental Systems (GEOL 411, MASC 411) (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101, CHEM 102, ENEC 222, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of analysis of the ocean, coast, and estuarine environments and the processes that control these environments are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. Case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 415 Environmental Systems Modeling (GEOL 415, MASC 415) (3). Prerequisite, MATH 383; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 115 or 119. Methods for developing explanatory and predictive models of environmental processes are explored. Includes discussion of the relevant scientific modes of analysis, mathematical methods, computational issues, and visualization techniques. Two lecture hours and one computer laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 416 Environmental Meteorology (3). This course explores atmospheric processes most important to environmental problems such as the transport and transformation of air pollutants and weather systems involved in intercontinental transport of gases and particles.

ENEC 417 Geomorphology (GEOL 417) (3). See GEOL 417 for description.

ENEC 420 Community Design and Green Architecture (PLAN 420) (3). The impact of building on the environment and health will be examined by looking at the major areas of land use planning, water resource use, energy, materials, and indoor environment.

ENEC 431 Systems Analysis for Sustainability (3). Provides an overview of principles from science and engineering to analyze sustainability of material and energy systems.

ENEC 441 Marine Physiological Ecology (MASC 441) (3). See MASC 441 for description.

ENEC 444 Marine Phytoplankton (MASC 444) (3). See MASC 444 for description.

ENEC 448 Coastal and Estuarine Ecology (MASC 448) (4). See MASC 448 for description.

ENEC 450 Biogeochemical Processes (GEOL 450, MASC 450) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 251 or 261, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of chemistry, biology, and geology are applied to analysis of the fate and transport of materials in environmental systems, with an emphasis on those materials that form the most significant cycles. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 459 Ecological Anthropology (ANTH 459) (3). See ANTH 459 for description.

ENEC 460 Historical Ecology (ANTH 460) (3). See ANTH 460 for description.

ENEC 461 Fundamentals of Ecology (BIOL 461) (4). See BIOL 461 for description.

ENEC 462 Ecosystem Management (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 101. Explores the ecological concepts underlying ecosystem management (e.g., genetic and species diversity, stability, resilience, landscape ecology, etc.), the tools used in the approach, and case studies of how communities are implementing ecosystem management.

ENEC 468 Advanced Functions of Temporal GIS (ENVR 468) (3). See ENVR 468 for description.

ENEC 470 Environmental Risk Assessment (ENVR 470) (3). See ENVR 470 for description.

ENEC 471 Human Impacts on Estuarine Ecosystems (MASC 471) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 102 and MATH 231. A cohesive examination of the human impacts on biological processes in estuarine ecosystems. Laboratory/recitation/field work is included and contributes two credit hours to the course.

ENEC 474 Sustainable Coastal Management (3). This course explores the environmental history of the Albemarle estuary and its larger watershed and explores ways in which humans can utilize this region in a more sustainable manner.

ENEC 479 Landscape Analysis (3). This course utilizes GIS, GPS, and remote sensing technologies to gather data on geology, watersheds, soils, integrated moisture indices. The class also develops habitat maps and derives species diversity indices.

ENEC 480 Environmental Decision Making (PLCY 480) (3). See PLCY 480 for description.

ENEC 482 Energy and the Environment: A Coastal Perspective (3). Explores coastal and offshore energy issues, including energy demand, present-day and innovative sources of energy to meet that demand, economics, policy, and environmental and human health outcomes of different energy sources. Summer session only; online and field trip hybrid course, with a mandatory eight-day field site component on the Outer Banks. Housing and field activities arranged by the instructor, which will carry a fee. 

ENEC 485 Coastal Resource Economics and Policy (3–4). Prerequisite, ECON 101. This course develops and applies core principles essential to understanding and evaluating coastal environmental policy and renewable resource use. The principles include the economics of pollution, public choice, information and cost-benefit analysis, property rights, incentive-based regulation, and the economics of renewable resources. Includes insights from politics and ethics.

ENEC 489 Ecological Processes in Environmental Systems (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 or 201, CHEM 102, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of analysis of the structure and function of ecosystems are applied to environmental phenomena. The link between the biosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

ENEC 490 Special Topics in Environmental Science and Studies (1–12). Advanced topics from diverse areas of environmental science and/or environmental studies are explored.

ENEC 491 Effective Environmental Communication (3). Combines theory and application to explore effective communication in various environmental contexts and professions. Offers students from diverse disciplines tools to effectively and credibly communicate about environmental topics using a spectrum of strategies, and offers methods for effective thinking, writing, and speaking.

ENEC 492 Social Science Research Methods (3–4). Discusses social science research methods and their application to public policies and the management of natural resources. Students learn quantitative and qualitative methods for measuring social, economic, and demographic variables; how to evaluate, interpret, and use the data; and how values, beliefs, and attitudes affect decisions about ecosystem management.

ENEC 493 Environmental Internship (1–4). Permission of the instructor. This course provides an internship with an organization related to environmental sciences or studies. Pass/Fail only.

ENEC 510 Policy Analysis of Global Climate Change (3). Provides a real-world and relevant case study in which to apply material from multiple disciplines including public policy, economics, environmental science, and international studies. Teaches techniques for building policy models not covered elsewhere.

ENEC 511 Stable Isotopes in the Environment (GEOL 511) (3). See GEOL 511 for description.

ENEC 520 Environment and Development (PLCY 520) (3). See PLCY 520 for description.

ENEC 522 Environmental Change and Human Health (ENVR 522) (3). Prerequisite, ENEC 201 or 202. The course will provide students with a multidisciplinary perspective of environmental changes to encompass both human health and ecological health.

ENEC 530 Principles of Climate Modeling (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231, 232, and 233; PHYS 118 and 119. Recommended preparation, MATH 383. Develops explanatory and predictive models of the earth's climate. The level is introductory and the emphasis is on modeling past climate with the hope of understanding its future.

ENEC 562 Statistics for Environmental Scientists (BIOL 562) (4). Prerequisite, STOR 155. Introduction to the application of quantitative and statistical methods in environmental science, including environmental monitoring, assessment, threshold exceedance, risk assessment, and environmental decision making.

ENEC 563 Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution (BIOL 563) (4). See BIOL 563 for description.

ENEC 565 Environmental Storytelling (JOMC 565) (3). See JOMC 565 for description.

ENEC 567 Ecological Analyses and Application (3). This course provides an overview of natural and social science approaches to addressing biodiversity conservation and resource management. Concepts and methods from population biology, evolutionary ecology, community ecology, and conservation biology will be complemented with approaches from common property theory, indigenous resource management, and human evolutionary ecology.

ENEC 569 Current Issues in Ecology (3). Required preparation, previous course work in ecology. Permission of the instructor. Topics vary but focus on interdisciplinary problems facing humans and/or the environment. May be repeated for credit.

ENEC 580 Environmental Markets: Science and Economics (3). Examines the interplay of science and economics in the design of environmental markets. The first part introduces the principles of environmental economics. The second part considers several case studies that illustrate the critical role that scientific models of natural systems play in the design of environmental markets.

ENEC 581 Water Resource Planning and Policy Analysis (3). Water resources demand-supply relationships, United States water resource and related water quality policy, legal structure for water allocation, planning, project and program evaluation, and pricing. Strategies for coping with floods, droughts, and climate change will be explored. Extensive use of case studies.

ENEC 585 American Environmental Policy (ENVR 585, PLAN 585, PLCY 585) (3). See ENVR 585 for description.

ENEC 586 Water Quality Policies and Planning (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and MATH 231. Introduction to the management of water quality at the local and basinwide scales. Topics include theory and management frameworks; state and federal statutes and programs; water contaminants, their fate and transport; alternatives for improving and protecting water quality; and the technologies and management practices of selected basinwide comprehensive strategies.

ENEC 593 Environmental Practicum (1–3). Focuses on the interface between environment and society by examining the relationship between science and management practices. Students receive classroom lecture and then go into the field to see what role the ideas actually have in management practices. Students also learn from an active professional working in the topic area.

ENEC 602 Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists (BIOL 602) (3). The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.

ENEC 608 Continuum Mechanics in the Earth Sciences (GEOL 608) (3). See GEOL 608 for description.

ENEC 669 Seminar in Ecology (BIOL 669) (1–3). See BIOL 669 for description.

ENEC 675 Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere (3). Examines communication practices that accompany citizen participation in environmental decisions, including public education campaigns of nonprofit organizations, "risk communication," media representations, and mediation in environmental disputes.

ENEC 685 Environmental and Resource Economics (3). Prerequisite, ECON 310. Theory and methods of environmental economics. Topics covered include cost-benefit analysis and environmental policy analysis, economic concept of sustainability, optimal use of natural resources, nonmarket valuation, and economic instruments.

ENEC 686 Policy Instruments for Environmental Management (ENVR 686, PLAN 686, PLCY 686) (3). See PLCY 686 for description.

ENEC 693H Honors Research in Environmental Sciences and Studies (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. First of two course sequence leading to the honors designation.

ENEC 694H Honors Project in Environmental Sciences and Studies (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Independent project leading to the honors designation. Includes weekly research seminar.

ENEC 698 Capstone: Analysis and Solution of Environmental Problems (3). Interdisciplinary, team-based analyses of environmental phenomena are performed and applied to problems of the selection of effective environmental strategies. Students may select from a wide range of examples and venues.