Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology


Amy E. Cooke, Director of Undergraduate Studies

Affiliated Professors

Richard Andrews (Public Policy), Carol Arnosti (Marine Sciences), Larry Band (Geography), Larry Benninger (Geological Sciences), Philip Berke (City and Regional Planning), Jaye Cable (Marine Sciences), Joe Carter (Geological Sciences), Barbara Entwisle (Sociology), Pat Gensel (Biology), William Gray (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Donald Hornstein (School of Law), Rich Kamens (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Andrew Keeler (East Carolina University), Joel Kingsolver (Biology), Jonathan Lees (Geological Sciences), Paul Leslie (Anthropology), Richard Luettich (Institute for Marine Sciences), Doug MacLean (Philosophy), Christopher Martens (Marine Sciences), Brent McKee (Marine Sciences), Timothy McKeown (Political Science), Hans Paerl (Institute for Marine Sciences), Robert Peet (Biology), Charles Peterson (Institute for Marine Sciences), David Pfennig (Biology), Jose Rial (Geological Sciences), Al Segars (Kenan–Flagler Business School), Andreas Teske (Marine Sciences), Stephen Walsh (Geography), Peter White (Biology), Dale Whittington (City and Regional Planning), Haven Wiley (Biology).

Affiliated Associate Professors

Marc Alperin (Marine Sciences), John Bruno (Biology), Chip Konrad (Geography), Charles Mitchell (Biology), Aaron Moody (Geography), Rachel Noble (Institute for Marine Sciences), Karin Pfennig (Biology), Michael Piehler (Institute for Marine Sciences), Daniel Rodriquez (City and Regional Planning), Keith Sockman (Biology), Conghe Song (Geography), Donna Surge (Geological Sciences), Stephen Whalen (Environmental Sciences and Engineering).

Affiliated Assistant Professors

Todd Bendor (City and Regional Planning), Karl Castillo (Marine Sciences), Xiaodong Chen (Geography), Jim Costa (Western Carolina University), Clark Gray (Geography), Allen Hurlbert (Biology), Pamela Jagger (Public Policy), Nikhil Kaza (City and Regional Planning), Adrian Marchetti (Marine Sciences), Benjamin Mirus (Geological Sciences), Laura J. Moore (Geological Sciences), Tamlin Pavelsky (Geological Sciences), Lauren Persha (Geography), Maria Servedio (Biology), Jason Surratt (Environmental Sciences and Engineering), Gary Wein (Western Carolina University), Colin West (Anthropology), Erika Wise (Geography), Andrew Yates (Economics).

Research Faculty

Dick Bilsborrow (Biostatistics), Elizabeth Dickinson (Kenan–Flagler Business School), Lindsay Dubbs (Institute for the Environment), David McNelis (Institute for the Environment), Johnny Randall (NC Botanical Gardens), Elizabeth Shay (Institute for the Environment), James Umbanhower (Biology), Alan Weakley (NC Botanical Gardens).

Senior Lecturer

Greg Gangi.


Geoffrey Bell, Amy Cooke, Karen Kandl (Western Carolina University), Thomas Martin (Western Carolina University).


The Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology offers diverse and multidisciplinary undergraduate degree programs in environmental science (B.S.) and environmental studies (B.A.). Faculty throughout the University, including the College of Arts and Sciences and the schools of business, government, law, and public health, mentor our students through courses, internships, and research opportunities. This unique approach provides students an opportunity to explore the knowledge base needed to understand the environment and its relationship to society, as well as the applications of that knowledge in areas such as environmental modeling; aquatic systems; environmental behavior and decisions; environmental change and human health; ecology, conservation, and biodiversity; and population and the environment. The degrees combine traditional classroom teaching with extensive use of interdisciplinary, team-based projects, internships, study abroad opportunities, and research.

The environmental studies major leads to a bachelor of arts degree and is appropriate for students seeking rigorous preparation in the social sciences and humanities needed to understand how society affects the environment, how it organizes itself to respond to environmental problems, and how understanding of the environment is transmitted through culture. All students gain a sufficient base of scientific and mathematical expertise to allow them to work effectively with environmental scientists and engineers. The major also provides strong preparation for graduate and professional training, especially in environmental policy, journalism, education, and law.

The environmental science major leads to a bachelor of science degree and is appropriate for students interested in solving complex environmental and energy resource related problems. The major includes preparation in the basic sciences related to environmental study and the application of those principles to the analysis of environmental processes and problems. It focuses on such topics as how material and energy are moved and transformed in complex environmental systems, the role of society in perturbing those processes, and scientific techniques which might be used to improve environmental quality. The degree provides strong preparation for graduate or professional training as well as for jobs in government, consulting, and industry.

Programs of Study

The degrees offered are the bachelor of arts with a major in environmental studies and the bachelor of science with a major in environmental science. Minors are offered in environmental science and studies, and in sustainability studies.

Majoring in Environmental Studies:
Bachelor of Arts

Core Requirements

All General Education requirements must be satisfied, some with specific courses:

Majoring in Environmental Science:
Bachelor of Science

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

All General Education requirements must be satisfied, some with specific courses:

Minoring in Environmental Science and Studies

The minor is designed for students wishing to remain in another discipline but having an interest in the environment as an area of application. Students in the minor in environmental science and studies must take two core courses designed as preliminary courses in the scientific and societal dimensions of environmental issues and problems and in the tools for their solution. In addition, the minor requires three ENEC courses, with at least one at the 400 level or higher.

Students must see an ENEC advisor to discuss potential courses. Depending on the courses selected, the minor would require between 17 and 20 hours.

Minoring in Sustainability Studies

The program provides an understanding of sustainability, a unifying approach to human and environmental problems. Sustainable businesses, communities, and other organizations seek to design systems in ways that optimize material and energy use to decrease environmental and health problems and to bolster economic vitality and social equity. A growing number of scholars are framing problems and solutions in the language of sustainability, which balances growth and development with justice and environmental stewardship, in order to meet today's needs without undermining the ability of future generations to do the same.

The minor requires a minimum of 16 credit hours. Students who major in the curriculum's B.A. or B.S. degree programs are not allowed to minor in sustainability studies.

Honors in Environmental Science or Studies

Students in either the B.S. or B.A. degree program may participate in honors research leading to graduation with honors or highest honors. This distinction is earned by participation in honors research in an associated honors research seminar, culminating in ENEC 694H. Students should follow the guidelines outlined with the Honors Program and meet with an advisor to ensure that appropriate requirements are fulfilled ( Honors students can use three credit hours of ENEC 694H or 395 (but not both courses) to fulfill a concentration requirement.


The Curriculum in the Environment and Ecology maintains an advising system for students with an environmental interest. Students are encouraged to contact the director of undergraduate studies as early as they wish in their academic plan to discuss options and be assigned to a faculty advisor. Students may use the advising system from the time they enter UNC–Chapel Hill, obtaining advice from specialists in the various environmental fields. This advising system includes opportunities to meet with professionals from government, industry, and consulting to learn about the skills needed to work effectively in those fields if students are interested. In addition we routinely schedule seminars and host visitors who showcase career opportunities by their example in their respective fields.

Special Opportunities in Environmental Science and Studies

Departmental Involvement

The Carolina Environmental Student Alliance (CESA) is an interdisciplinary organization dedicated to uniting the environmental interests of students across campus. Participation is open to all students and community members with an interest in the environment. The Epsilon Eta Environmental Honors Fraternity is an organization dedicated to excellence in environmental education. Interested students are nominated for membership.

Field Sites

A series of field sites is available in North Carolina and around the world where students may take coursework and conduct research for a semester. Fall semester field sites are offered at Highlands Biological Station (mountain/ecology), the Institute for Marine Sciences (marine ecology/geology), and the Outer Banks/Manteo (coastal policy and economics). Spring semester field sites are offered on the UNC campus (Sustainable Triangle field site), in Thailand (energy and pollution), and Ecuador (ecology). The Ecuador and Thailand field site experiences incorporate part of the following summer as well. Summer programs are offered at Cambridge, England (energy policy), and in the Galapagos (ecology). In addition, faculty often arrange Burch Program summer educational trips to such locations as Siberia, Russia (ecology and anthropology), the Sierra Nevadas (ecology and physical geography), and northern Europe (energy and sustainability).

Experiential Education

Possibilities for experiential education include field-site programs described above, APPLES service-learning courses (ENEC 593), Coral Reef Ecology and Management (ENEC 259), Sierra Nevada Program (ENEC 208), Internships (ENEC 393), and Research and Honors Research (ENEC 395, 698, 694H).


Students are encouraged to apply for internships in local, state, national, and international environmental organizations. The Institute for the Environment ( maintains information on internship opportunities and matches students to their best options. These internships provide valuable practical experience, and some may be conducted for academic credit.

Study Abroad

A series of exchange and other study abroad programs is available through the Institute for the Environment Field Site program and through the UNC Study Abroad Office in which environmental students may take courses at other universities.

Undergraduate Awards

Undergraduates may be considered for the Watts and Betsy Carr Awards, Mary and Watts Hill Jr. Awards, and Robert Alonzo Winston Scholarships.

Undergraduate Research

All students are encouraged (but not required) to complete an independent or team research project. Such projects introduce students to the tools needed for graduate study. They also provide an important opportunity for working directly with the world-class environmental faculty and graduate students at UNC–Chapel Hill, as well as in the many environmental organizations in the Research Triangle. The Triangle area contains one of the largest collections of environmental organizations and expertise in the world, providing unique opportunities for students to conduct research on an immense range of topics from fundamental scientific research to policy applications.


Curriculum faculty and staff occupy offices and laboratories in Venable Hall (third floor), Whitehead Hall (third floor), and the facilities at field sites in Manteo, Morehead City, and Highlands, NC.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

A major in environmental science or studies prepares students for a variety of career options, including marine scientist, ecologist, environmental modeler, environmental policy maker, conservation advocate, land-use planner, and environmental educator. Combining either major with other studies at the undergraduate or graduate level can lead to possibilities as an environmental lawyer, epidemiologist, or environmental geneticist, to cite a few examples.

Contact Information

Student Services Representative, Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology, CB# 3275, 3301 Venable Hall. Web site:

ENST and ECOL courses were renumbered under a new subject code, ENEC. The listing of ENEC courses below includes the former ENST numbers in brackets.


51 [ENST 51] First-Year Seminar: Balancing the Environment: Science, Human Values, and Policy in North Carolina (3). This course examines the ways in which scientific information, human values, and the policy process interact to produce environmental change, economic growth, and social justice in North Carolina.

89 [ENST 89] First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

108 [ENST 108] Our Energy and Climate Crises: Challenges and Opportunities (PWAD 108) (4). Students quantify global depletion of energy resources and accompanying environmental degradation, hence discovering the profound changes in attitudes and behavior required to adjust to diminished fossil fuels and modified climate.

191 [ENST 191] Peoples of Siberia (ANTH 191) (3). See ANTH 191 for description.

201 [ENST 201] Introduction to Environment and Society (4). Human-environment interactions are examined through analytical methods from the social sciences, humanities, and sciences. The focus is on the role of social, political, and economic factors in controlling interactions between society and the environment in historical and cultural contexts. Three lecture hours and one recitation hour a week.

202 [ENST 202] Introduction to the Environmental Sciences (4). Examines fundamental processes governing the movement and transformation of material and energy in environmental systems. Focuses on the role of these processes in environmental phenomena and how society perturbs these processes. Integrates methods from a range of scientific disciplines. Three lecture hours and three computer laboratory hours a week.

203 [ENST 203] Introduction to Environmental Science Problem Solving (3). Prerequisite, MATH 231; corequisite, MATH 232. A quantitative introduction to selected topics in environmental sciences with an emphasis on developing and solidifying problem-solving skills.

204 [ENST 204] Environmental Seminar (1–3). This course will provide an intellectual focus on the interface between environment and society by examining the relationship among science, policy, and actual management practices on a chosen topic.

208 [ENST 208] New Frontiers: Environment and Society in the United States (3–4). By employing a multidisciplinary approach, this class will give students a sense of the role that the environment has played in shaping United States society and the role that our society plays in producing environmental change at the national and global level.

210 [ENST 210] Energy in a Sustainable Environment Seminar (1). This seminar series will provide a general introduction to energy sources, resources, technologies, and societal use from a sustainability perspective.

211 [ENST 211] Environmental Geology (GEOL 211) (3). See GEOL 211 for description.

213 [ENST 213] Earth's Dynamic Systems (GEOL 213) (3). See GEOL 213 for description.

220 [ENST 220] North Carolina Estuaries: Environmental Processes and Problems (3). Natural processes and human impacts on estuarine systems using the Neuse River estuary as a case study. Course includes one week of intensive field work based at the Institute of Marine Sciences. A student may not receive credit for this course after receiving credit for ENEC 222.

222 [ENST 222] Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science (4). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and either CHEM 101 or PHYS 114. Introduction to the estuarine and coastal environment: geomorphology, physical circulation, nutrient loading, primary and secondary production, carbon and nitrogen cycling, benthic processes, and sedimentation. Consideration given to human impact on coastal systems with emphasis on North Carolina estuaries and sounds. Includes a mandatory weekend field trip and laboratory.

225 [ENST 225] Water Resource Management and Human Rights (3–4). Water Resource Management and Human Rights explores logistical, political, social, and economic challenges in supplying every human with adequate access to clean water, the most basic human right.

241 [ENST 241] Energy and Culture Seminar for the Thailand Field Site (1). This one credit hour course meets the semester before UNC students go to study abroad at the Institute for the Environment Thailand Field Site. The course will prepare students for the research portion of the program. Student should be applying to the field site when taking this course.

242 [ENST 242] Ecology and Culture Seminar for Ecuador Field Site (1). This one credit hour seminar is only open to students who are planning to participate in the spring research semester in Ecuador. The main purpose of this seminar is to prepare students for this six-month experience in Ecuador by discussing both research methods and Ecuadorian society.

253 [ENST 253] Introduction to Atmospheric Processes (GEOG 253) (4). See GEOG 253 for description.

254 [ENST 254] International Environmental Politics (POLI 254) (3). See POLI 254 for description.

256 [ENST 404] Mountain Biodiversity (BIOL 256) (4). Introduction to the new field of biodiversity studies, which integrates approaches from systematics, ecology, evolution, and conservation.

259 [ENST 259] Coral Reef Ecology and Management (1). The course familiarizes students with the natural history, ecology, and physical and chemical characteristics of the coral reef environment. Policy and management issues are also examined.

263 [ENST 263] Environmental Field Studies in Siberia (GEOG 263) (4). This course explores the biogeography of Siberia and gives students practical training on how to do field work in field ecology and physical geography.

264 [ENST 261] Conservation of Biodiversity in Theory and Practice (GEOG 264) (3). Prerequisite, ENEC 201. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This course will give students a multidisciplinary introduction to growing field of biodiversity preservation.

266 [ENST 266] Contemporary Africa: Issues in Health Population, and the Environment (3). A seminar that introduces students to non-Western perspectives and comparative study of ecological, social, and economic factors that influence the welfare of contemporary African communities. Examination of famine, population growth, and health issues within the context of African cultural and social systems.

304 Restoration Ecology (4). Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or ENEC 202. Explores ecological theory and its application to the restoration of terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Requires 30 hours of service to a local restoration project in which students will collect ecological data for a final case study project.

305 [ENST 305] Data Analysis and Visualization of Social and Environmental Interactions (4). Prerequisite, ECON 400, ENEC 201, MATH 231, or STOR 155. Principles of spatial and temporal data analysis are applied to issues of the role of society in producing environmental change. Methods include statistical analysis, model development, and computer visualization. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

306 [ENST 306] Business and the Environment (3). Introduction to the methods for selecting management practices in business and industry in ways that optimize environmental quality and economic prosperity. Three lecture hours a week.

307 [ENST 307] Energy and Material Flows in the Environment and Society (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231, ENEC 201 and 202. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Examines the regional to global flow of materials and energy through materials extraction, processing, manufacturing, product use, recycling, and ultimate disposition, including its relevance in policy development. Reviews natural cycles in the environment, basic physics, and the technology of energy production.

308 [ENST 308] Environmental History (3). Historical development of the system of beliefs, values, institutions, etc. underlying societal response to the environment in different cultures is analyzed. The approach is interdisciplinary, drawing on methods from history, philosophy, psychology, etc. Three lecture hours a week.

309 [ENST 309] Environmental Values and Valuation (3). Introduction to the methods for assigning value to aspects of the environment and to interhuman and human-environment interactions. The approach is interdisciplinary, drawing on methods from philosophy, ecology, psychology, aesthetics, economics, religion, etc. Three lecture hours a week.

312 [ENST 312] Risk-Based International Environmental Decisions (ENVR 312) (3). A Web-based course on the methods and roles of risk assessment in the international setting, with a primary focus on United States-European Union applications in environmental policy decisions.

330 [ENST 330] Principles of Sustainability (PLAN 330) (3). An overview of science, social science, and humanities perspectives on community sustainability.

350 [ENST 350] Environmental Law and Policy (3). This course gives students an overview of environmental law and some practical experience in environmental policy making.

351 [ENST 351] Coastal Law and Policy (3). The utilization of common coastal resources, the management of fisheries, and coastal zone management guide an examination of coastal laws, policies, and regulations at the federal, state, and local levels.

352 [ENST 352] Ecology and Management of Marine Fisheries (3). Prerequisite, MASC 101 or 401. Survey of the ecological processes that influence populations of economically important fish and shellfish, the various fisheries management tools/techniques used to achieve sustainable fish stocks, and the impacts of fishing practices on marine ecosystems.

368 [ENST 368] Environmental Ethics (PHIL 368) (3). See PHIL 368 for description.

370 [ENST 370] Agriculture and the Environment (3). Introduction to the ecology of agricultural practices and the impact of food production on the environment. Particular attention will be paid to the constraints on agriculture which must be overcome to feed the planet's growing population.

372 [ENST 270] Global Environment: Policy Analysis and Solutions (PLCY 372) (3). See PLCY 372 for description.

375 [ENST 375] Environmental Advocacy (COMM 375) (3). See COMM 375 for description.

380 [ENST 380] Environmental Economics (3). Prerequisite, ECON 101 This course develops a set of core principles that are essential to understand and evaluate environmental policy and renewable resource use. These principles are primarily economic, but our discussion will also include insights from politics and ethics.

393 [ENST 393] Internship in Sustainability (3). Permission of the instructor. This course provides an internship with a local organization on the topic of community sustainability, and explores the intellectual basis of public engagement.

395 [ENST 395] Research in Environmental Sciences and Studies for Undergraduates (1–21). Permission of the instructor. Research in an area of environmental science or environmental studies.

396 [ENST 396] Directed Readings (1–4). Permission of the instructor. A specialized selection of readings from the literature of a particular environmental field supervised by a member of the Carolina Environmental Faculty group. Written reports on the readings or a literature review paper will be required. Cannot be used as a course toward the major.

403 [ENST 403] Environmental Chemistry Processes (ENVR 403) (3). See ENVR 403 for description.

405 [ENST 405] Mountain Preservation (4). Introduces students to approaches used to preserve the natural and cultural heritage of the Southern Appalachians.

406 [ENST 406] Atmospheric Processes II (GEOG 406) (4). Principles of analysis of the atmosphere are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. The link between the atmosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through environmental case studies.

410 [ENST 410] Earth Processes in Environmental Systems (GEOL 410, MASC 410) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 102, GEOL 213, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of geological and related Earth systems sciences are applied to analyses of environmental phenomena. The link between the lithosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

411 [ENST 411] Oceanic Processes in Environmental Systems (GEOL 411, MASC 411) (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101, CHEM 102, ENEC 222, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of analysis of the ocean, coast, and estuarine environments and the processes that control these environments are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. Case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

415 [ENST 415] Environmental Systems Modeling (GEOL 415, MASC 415) (3). Prerequisite, MATH 383; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 115 or 119. Methods for developing explanatory and predictive models of environmental processes are explored. Includes discussion of the relevant scientific modes of analysis, mathematical methods, computational issues, and visualization techniques. Two lecture hours and one computer laboratory hour a week.

416 [ENST 416] Environmental Meteorology (3). This course explores atmospheric processes most important to environmental problems such as the transport and transformation of air pollutants and weather systems involved in intercontinental transport of gases and particles.

417 [ENST 417] Geomorphology (GEOL 417) (3). See GEOL 417 for description.

420 [ENST 420] Community Design and Green Architecture (PLAN 420) (3). The impact of building on the environment and health will be examined by looking at the major areas of: land use planning, water resource use, energy, materials, and indoor environment.

431 [ENST 431] Systems Analysis for Sustainability (3). Provides an overview of principles from science and engineering to analyze sustainability of material and energy systems.

441 Marine Physiological Ecology (MASC 441) (3). See MASC 441 for description.

444 Marine Phytoplankton (MASC 444) (3). See MASC 444 for description.

448 [ENST 472] Coastal and Estuarine Ecology (MASC 448) (4). See MASC 448 for description.

450 [ENST 450] Biogeochemical Processes (GEOL 450, MASC 450) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 251 or 261, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of chemistry, biology, and geology are applied to analysis of the fate and transport of materials in environmental systems, with an emphasis on those materials that form the most significant cycles. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

460 [ENST 460] Historical Ecology (ANTH 460) (3). See ANTH 460 for description.

461 [ENST 461] Fundamentals of Ecology (BIOL 461) (4). See BIOL 461 for description.

462 [ENST 462] Ecosystem Management (3). Prerequisite, BIOL 101. Explores the ecological concepts underlying ecosystem management (e.g., genetic and species diversity, stability, resilience, landscape ecology, etc.), the tools used in the approach, and case studies of how communities are implementing ecosystem management.

468 [ENST 468] Advanced Functions of Temporal GIS (ENVR 468) (3). See ENVR 468 for description.

470 [ENST 470] Environmental Risk Assessment (ENVR 470) (3). See ENVR 470 for description.

471 [ENST 471] Human Impacts on Estuarine Ecosystems (MASC 471) (4). Prerequisites, CHEM 102 and MATH 231. A cohesive examination of the human impacts on biological processes in estuarine ecosystems. Laboratory/recitation/field work is included and contributes two credit hours to the course.

474 [ENST 474] Sustainable Coastal Management (3). This course explores the environmental history of the Albemarle estuary and its larger watershed and explores ways in which humans can utilize this region in a more sustainable manner.

479 [ENST 479] Landscape Analysis (3). This course utilizes GIS, GPS, and remote sensing technologies to gather data on geology, watersheds, soils, integrated moisture indices. The class also develops habitat maps and derives species diversity indices.

480 [ENST 480] Environmental Decision Making (PLCY 480) (3). See PLCY 480 for description.

482 [ENST 482] Energy and the Environment: A Coastal Perspective (3–4). Through a combination of lecture, field trips, research, and discussion, students will explore innovations in energy generation as well as fossil fuel based energy sources on the coast and offshore.

485 Coastal Resource Economics and Policy (3–4). Prerequiste, ECON 101. This course develops and applies core principles essential to understanding and evaluating coastal environmental policy and renewable resource use. The principles include the economics of pollution, public choice, information and cost-benefit analysis, property rights, incentive-based regulation, and the economics of renewable resources. Includes insights from politics and ethics.

489 [ENST 489] Ecological Processes in Environmental Systems (4). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 or 201, CHEM 102, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Principles of analysis of the structure and function of ecosystems are applied to environmental phenomena. The link between the biosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.

490 [ENST 490] Special Topics in Environmental Science and Studies (1–12). Advanced topics from diverse areas of environmental science and/or environmental studies are explored.

492 Social Science Research Methods (3–4). Discusses social science research methods and their application to public policies and the management of natural resources. Students learn quantitative and qualitative methods for measuring social, economic, and demographic variables; how to evaluate, interpret, and use the data; and how values, beliefs, and attitudes affect decisions about ecosystem management.

493 [ENST 493] Environmental Internship (1–4). Permission of the instructor and the internship coordinator in the Institute for the Environment. To receive credit, a student must submit at the end of the internship a brief summary of the work conducted, to be judged by the faculty sponsor.

510 [ENST 510] Policy Analysis of Global Climate Change (3). Provides a real-world and relevant case study in which to apply material from multiple disciplines including public policy, economics, environmental science, and international studies. Teaches techniques for building policy models not covered elsewhere.

511 [ENST 511] Stable Isotopes in the Environment (GEOL 511) (3). See GEOL 511 for description.

520 [ENST 520] Environment and Development (PLCY 520) (3). See PLCY 520 for description.

522 [ENST 522] Environmental Change and Human Health (ENVR 522) (3). Prerequisite, ENEC 201 or 202. The course will provide students with a multidisciplinary perspective of environmental changes to encompass both human health and ecological health.

530 [ENST 530] Principles of Climate Modeling (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231, 232, and 233; PHYS 118 and 119. Recommended preparation, MATH 383. Develops explanatory and predictive models of the earth's climate. The level is introductory and the emphasis is on modeling past climate with the hope of understanding its future.

562 [ENST 562] Statistics for Environmental Scientists (BIOL 562) (4). Prerequisite, STOR 155. Introduction to the application of quantitative and statistical methods in environmental science, including environmental monitoring, assessment, threshold exceedance, risk assessment, and environmental decision making.

563 [ENST 563] Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution (BIOL 563) (4). See BIOL 563 for description.

565 Environmental Storytelling (JOMC 565) (3). See JOMC 565 for description.

567 [ENST 567] Ecological Analyses and Application (3). This course provides an overview of natural and social science approaches to addressing biodiversity conservation and resource management. Concepts and methods from population biology, evolutionary ecology, community ecology, and conservation biology will be complemented with approaches from common property theory, indigenous resource management, and human evolutionary ecology.

569 [ENST 569] Current Issues in Ecology (3). Required preparation, previous course work in ecology. Permission of the instructor. Topics vary but focus on interdisciplinary problems facing humans and/or the environment. May be repeated for credit.

580 Environmental Markets: Science and Economics (3). Examines the interplay of science and economics in the design of environmental markets. The first part introduces the principles of environmental economics. The second part considers several case studies that illustrate the critical role that scientific models of natural systems play in the design of environmental markets.

581 [ENST 581] Water Resource Planning and Policy Analysis (3). Water resources demand-supply relationships, United States water resource and related water quality policy, legal structure for water allocation, planning, project and program evaluation, and pricing. Strategies for coping with floods, droughts, and climate change will be explored. Extensive use of case studies.

585 [ENST 585] American Environmental Policy (ENVR 585, PLAN 585, PLCY 585) (3). See ENVR 585 for description.

586 [ENST 586] Water Quality Policies and Planning (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and MATH 231. Introduction to the management of water quality at the local and basinwide scales. Topics include theory and management frameworks; state and federal statutes and programs; water contaminants, their fate and transport; alternatives for improving and protecting water quality; and the technologies and management practices of selected basinwide comprehensive strategies.

593 [ENST 593] Environmental Practicum (1–3). Focuses on the interface between environment and society by examining the relationship between science and management practices. Students receive classroom lecture and then go into the field to see what role the ideas actually have in management practices. Students also learn from an active professional working in the topic area.

602 [ECOL 602] Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists (BIOL 602) (3). The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.

608 [ENST 608] Continuum Mechanics in the Earth Sciences (GEOL 608) (3). See GEOL 608 for description.

669 [ECOL 669] Seminar in Ecology (BIOL 669) (1–3). See BIOL 669 for description.

675 [ENST 675] Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere (COMM 675) (3). See COMM 675 for description.

685 [ENST 685] Environmental and Resource Economics (3). Prerequisite, ECON 310. Theory and methods of environmental economics. Topics covered include cost-benefit analysis and environmental policy analysis, economic concept of sustainability, optimal use of natural resources, nonmarket valuation, and economic instruments.

686 [ENST 686] Policy Instruments for Environmental Management (ENVR 686, PLAN 686, PLCY 686) (3). See PLCY 686 for description.

694H [ENST 694H] Honors Project in Environmental Sciences and Studies (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Independent project leading to the honors designation. Includes weekly research seminar.

698 [ENST 698] Capstone: Analysis and Solution of Environmental Problems (3). Interdisciplinary, team-based analyses of environmental phenomena are performed and applied to problems of the selection of effective environmental strategies. Students may select from a wide range of examples and venues.