Department of Geological Sciences

www.geosci.unc.edu

JONATHAN LEES, Chair

Professors

Larry K. Benninger, Joseph G. Carter, Allen F. Glazner, Jonathan Lees, José A. Rial.

Associate Professors

Louis R. Bartek, Drew S. Coleman, Kevin G. Stewart, Donna Surge.

Assistant Professors

Jason B. Barnes, Laura Moore, Tamlin M. Pavelsky, Lara Wagner.

Affiliated Faculty

John M. Bane Jr., Christopher S. Martens.

Adjunct Professor

Alan Boudreau.

Adjunct Associate Professor

Antonio B. Rodriquez.

Research Assistant Professor

Michael John Willis.

Lecturer

Melissa O. Hudley.

Introduction

The study of earth’s dynamic systems is a field that has seen major advances over the last few decades. Geologists investigate diverse systems that play a large role in controlling the environment at the earth’s surface. Examples include earthquakes, volcanoes, glaciers, landslides, rivers, and shorelines. Earth processes play a critical role in making our planet habitable, and geologists are constantly in demand to guide communities and nations in their search for resources such as clean drinking water and extractable energy and minerals, or in decisions regarding development in fragile coastal regions or in seismically active areas. The Department of Geological Sciences provides students with a solid training in earth science so that they can advance in highly satisfying careers as professional geologists.

Programs of Study

The degrees offered are the bachelor of arts with a major in geological sciences with a concentration in earth systems and the bachelor of science with a major in geological sciences, with concentrations in earth science, environmental geology, geochemistry, geophysics, or paleobiology. Most students planning to do graduate work or to become professional geologists should follow the B.S. program. However, the flexibility of the B.A. program may be advantageous to students with interests in, for example, environmental studies, education, or law. A minor is offered in geological sciences.

Majoring in Geological Sciences: Bachelor of Arts

B.A. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Earth Systems

Core Requirements

• One of the following courses: GEOL 101/101L, 103/101L, 105/101L, 109/101L, 110/101L, or 159/101L (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• GEOL 202 and 301

• A minimum of 11 credits from the following courses: GEOL first-year seminar, 204, 211, 213, 401, 402, and 404

• One of the following field-oriented courses: ANTH 451; BIOL 459; GEOL 390 (six credits over two semesters with a preapproved field component), 413, 601 and 602; or MASC 472

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 101/101L

• MATH 130

• At least three geology and/or allied science electives not otherwise required for the major, including ANTH 143, 220, 315, 317, 412, and 414; any ASTR; any BIOC except 107 and 108; BIOL 101/101L or any BIOL above 113; any CHEM above 101; any COMP except 50, 70, and 380; ECON 101 and 454; ENST 489 and 490; any ENVR except 600; GEOG 370, 410, 412, 414, 416, 440, 441, 444, any GEOG above 477; any GEOL except 101, 105, 109, and 110; any MASC above 101; any MATH above 130; any PHYS except 101, 132, and 313; any STOR 155 or above

Students also must satisfy all General Education requirements.

Majoring in Geological Sciences: Bachelor of Science

For the B.S. degree with a major in geological sciences, students must satisfy all General Education requirements. B.S. students will elect to concentrate in earth science, environmental geology, geochemistry, geophysics, or paleobiology. Specific departmental requirements for each concentration are listed below.

B.S. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Earth Science

Core Requirements

• One of the following courses: GEOL 101/101L, 103/101L, 105/101L, 109/101L, or 110/101L (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• All of the following courses: GEOL 301, 401, 402, 404, 601, and 602

• Four geology courses numbered above 400 and not otherwise required for the major (GEOL 390 counts if taken for two or three credit hours)

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 101/101L and 102/102L

• MATH 231 and 232, and one of the following: any COMP 110 or above, except 380; GEOL 520 (this course may also be used to satisfy one of the required GEOL courses numbered above 400); any MATH above 232; any STOR 155 or above

• One of the following courses: PHYS 104 or 104L (with appropriate transfer credit) or 116

• One of the following courses: BIOL 101/101L; any CHEM above 102; PHYS 105 or 105L (with appropriate transfer credit) or 117

• At least five science electives not otherwise required for the major, including ANTH 143, 220, 315, 317, 412, 414, and 451; any ASTR except a first-year seminar; any BIOC except a first-year seminar, 107, and 108; any BIOL above 113; any CHEM above 102; any COMP 110 or above, except 380; any ENVR except a first-year seminar and 600; GEOG 370, 410, 412, 414, 416, and any GEOG above 477; any GEOL except 101, 105, 109, 110; any MASC 101 and above; any MATH above 232; any PHYS except a first-year seminar, 101, 132, and 313; any STOR 155 and above

B.S. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Environmental Geology

Core Requirements

• One of the following courses: GEOL 101/101L, 103/101L, 105/101L, 109/101L, or 110/101L (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• All of the following courses: GEOL 301, 401, 402, and 404

• ANTH 451; or BIOL 459; or CHEM 481/481L and 482/482L; or GEOL 430 and 434; or GEOL 601 and 602; or GEOL 691H and 692H (with a field component previously approved by the department); or MASC 472; or PHYS 201 and 211

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 101/101L and 102/102L

• MATH 231 and 232

• One of the following courses: any COMP 110 or above, except 380; GEOL 520 (note that this course may also be used to satisfy one of the required GEOL courses numbered 400 and higher); any MATH above 232; any STOR 155 and above

• One of the following sets of courses: PHYS 104 and 105, or PHYS 116 and 117

• One of the following combinations: BIOL 201 and ENST 489, or ENST 490 and GEOG 253, or GEOL 411 and MASC 470

• At least five science electives not otherwise required for the major, including ANTH 143, 220, 315, 317, 412, 414, 451; any ASTR except a first-year seminar; any BIOC except a first-year seminar, 107, and 108; BIOL 101, any BIOL above 113; any CHEM above 102; any COMP except 50, 70, and 380; any ENVR except a first-year seminar and 600; GEOG 370, 410, 412, 414, 416, and any GEOG above 477; any GEOL except 101, 105, 109, 110; any MASC 101 and above; any MATH above 232; any PHYS except a first-year seminar, 101, 132, and 313; any STOR 155 and above

B.S. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Geochemistry

The departmental requirements for the concentration in geochemistry are identical to those for earth science except that CHEM 481 and 482 substitute for GEOL 601 and 602.

B.S. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Geophysics

Core Requirements

• One of the following courses: GEOL 101/101L, 103/101L, 105/101L, 109/101L, 110/101L (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• All of the following courses: GEOL 301, 401, 404, and 515

• Four GEOL courses numbered above 400, not otherwise required for the major

Additional Requirements

• CHEM 101/101L and 102/102L

• MATH 231, 232, 233, and 383

• PHYS 116, 117, 201, 211, and 331

• At least three geology and/or science electives not otherwise required for the major, including ANTH 143, 220, 315, 317, 412, 414, 451; any ASTR except a first-year seminar; any BIOC except a first-year seminar, 107, and 108; BIOL 101, any BIOL above 113; any CHEM above 102; any COMP except 50, 70, and 380; any ENVR except a first-year seminar and 600; GEOG 370, 410, 412, 414, 416, any GEOG above 477; any GEOL except 101, 105, 109, 110; any MASC 101 and above; any MATH above 232; any PHYS except a first-year seminar, 101, 132, and 313; any STOR 155 and above

B.S. Major in Geological Sciences: Concentration in Paleobiology

Core Requirements

• One of the following courses: GEOL 101/101L, 103/101L, 105/101L, 109/101L, or 110/101L (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• All of the following courses: GEOL 159/101L, 301, 401, 402, 413, and 478

• One of the following courses: GEOL 390 (for four credits), or 434, or 691H and 692H with approved field component, or another approved field-oriented experience in biology or paleobiology

• Three geology courses numbered above 400 not otherwise required for the major (GEOL 390 for two or three hours credit, 431, 501, 555, and GEOL 691H and 692H are specifically recommended)

Additional Requirements

• BIOL 101/101L

• CHEM 101/101L and 102/102L

• MATH 231 and 232

• One of the following courses: any COMP except 50, 70, and 380; GEOL 520 (note that this course may also be used to satisfy one of the required GEOL courses numbered above 400); any MATH above 232; any STOR 155 and above

• Either PHYS 104 or 104L (with appropriate transfer credit) or 116

• At least three geology and/or science electives not otherwise required for the major, including ANTH 143, 220, 315, 317, 412, 414, 451; any ASTR except a first-year seminar; any BIOC except a first-year seminar, 107, and 108; any BIOL above 113; any CHEM above 102; any COMP except 50, 70, and 380; any ENVR except a first-year seminar and 600; GEOG 370, 410, 412, 414, 416, any GEOG above 477; any GEOL except 101, 105, 109, 110; any MASC 101 and above; any MATH above 232; any PHYS except a first-year seminar, 101, 132, and 313; any STOR 155 and above; any course in vertebrate paleontology from North Carolina State University; any systematics course from the Department of Biology at Duke University. Paleobiology students are encouraged but not required to take as electives a course in systematics in the Department of Biology at Duke University and a course in vertebrate paleontology at North Carolina State University. Interinstitutional enrollment is possible through a UNC–Chapel Hill/Duke/North Carolina State agreement.

Minoring in Geological Sciences

Students majoring in another department may elect to pursue completion of a minor in geology. The undergraduate minor in geology consists of the following four courses (minimum of 12 semester hours).

• One of the following introductory courses: GEOL 101, 103, 105, 109, 110, or 159 (only one of GEOL 101, 105, 109, and 110 may be taken for course credit)

• At least three geology courses numbered above GEOL 110

Honors in Geological Sciences

The honors program in the Department of Geological Sciences is open to undergraduates with an overall grade point average of 3.2 or better as of the beginning of the fall semester of the senior year. To participate in this program, the student chooses a research topic in consultation with his or her chosen faculty sponsor and conducts the research during the last two semesters in residence. The research project should represent the equivalent time expenditure of six hours of course credit and is taken as GEOL 691H (fall semester) and 692H (spring semester).

Upon recommendation of the faculty, students may be awarded the degree with honors or highest honors. Highest honors is reserved for students who have distinguished themselves in both coursework and independent research. In order to obtain this distinction the student must maintain a grade point average of 3.60 or higher and complete a research project that is worthy of peer-reviewed publication.

Advising

All majors and minors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students are strongly encouraged to meet regularly with their advisor and review their Tar Heel Tracker each semester. The department’s director of undergraduate studies works with current and prospective majors by appointment. Departmental academic advising is particularly important for those majors who are considering going on to graduate school. Further information on courses, undergraduate research opportunities, the honors program, careers, and graduate schools may be obtained from the department’s Web site.

Special Opportunities in Geological Sciences

Departmental Involvement

The Department of Geological Sciences encourages the active participation of undergraduates in department research, teaching, and social life. In addition to opportunities for experiential education and teaching internships described below, the department has an active Geology Club and regularly sponsors field excursions, career information sessions, and social events. Dates, times, and locations for all events are posted on the Web site and in the main lobby on the first floor of Mitchell Hall.

Experiential Education

Many geology courses emphasize experiential learning through field and laboratory work. Most degree tracks include a field geology course (GEOL 601 and 602 or a similar course in another department) that fulfills the experiential education General Education requirement for the College of Arts and Sciences. Additionally, all students are encouraged to contact faculty members about conducting independent research, either as an honors thesis or a senior thesis project.

UNC–BEST

The UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) Program is a collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences and is designed to allow undergraduate science majors interested in teaching high school science the opportunity to earn their science degree and obtain licensure as a North Carolina high school science teacher in four years. The program consists of core education classes (EDUC 403, 503, 516 or 689, 532, 533, 593, and 601) and a teaching methods class (GEOL 412) that is housed in the Department of Geological Sciences. For more details on admission requirements, application deadlines, and submitting an online application, visit the School of Education Web site: www.soe.unc.edu/services/apply/ug.

Study Abroad

Although the department has no formalized study abroad program, many students participate in a study abroad program, and some receive credit for geology coursework completed abroad. Students interested in a study abroad program should contact the director of undergraduate studies. Students must receive approval from the director of undergraduate studies prior to taking courses abroad for geology credit.

Undergraduate Awards

The Op White Prize in Geology, established in 1966, consists of a cash prize and an engraved bronze plaque displayed in the geology library. The award is given annually to the outstanding senior in geology.

Field Camp Scholarships

Several scholarships for geology field camp are awarded each year from the Grover Murray and Anadarko funds.

Undergraduate Research

The Department of Geological Sciences encourages qualified undergraduate students to conduct independent research on an interesting geologic topic under the direction of a geological sciences faculty member. This research can be conducted as a one-to-four-credit hour project (GEOL 390 Special Problems in Geology) or in conjunction with the geology honors program.

Facilities

The Department of Geological Sciences houses several laboratory facilities that are available for undergraduate students to use for research. Many students are introduced to the laboratory facilities through coursework. Laboratories include 1) a thermal ionization mass spectrometer for isotope and geochronology research; 2) a scanning electron microscope laboratory for image analysis, element mapping, and semi-quantitative chemical analysis; 3) an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for chemical analysis of geological materials; 4) an X-ray diffractometer for rapid mineral identification; 5) a direct current plasma spectrometer for analysis of major and minor elements in sample solutions; 6) equipment for geophysical research and imaging, including portable broadband seismic stations, infrasonic microphones, a gravimeter, and equipment for ship-borne reflection seismology; 7) a sediment analysis laboratory including a coulometer, settling tube, and laser particle size counter; 8) chemical and counting laboratories for quantifying natural and artificial radioactivity at environmental levels; 9) a paleoclimate/paleoecology laboratory equipped for high-resolution microsampling of carbonate samples for geochemical analysis.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Geologists commonly are employed by private industry, public and private schools, colleges and universities, and consulting firms (e.g., hydrology, environmental geology, engineering geology, petroleum geology, and mineral exploration). Geology graduates also can find jobs with federal or state geological surveys or with other federal/state environmental or energy firms. Some federal/state agencies prefer geologists with at least a master’s degree. A doctoral degree usually is required for employment at colleges and universities.

Contact Information

Deborah Harris, Student Services Manager, CB# 3315, 107 Mitchell Hall, (919) 962-0679. Web site: www.geosci.unc.edu.

GEOL

70 First-Year Seminar: One Billion Years of Change: The Geologic Story of North Carolina (3). A field-based course focused on the geologic story of North Carolina. Includes local field trips and weekend trips to the coast and mountains.

71 First-Year Seminar: Bones Back to Life (3). Get hands-on experience with the reconstruction of vertebrate fossils. Learn the paleontology of the Carolinas and beyond.

72 First-Year Seminar: Field Geology of Eastern California (3). This seminar provides a hands-on introduction to active geologic and environmental processes in eastern California, including active volcanoes, earthquake-producing faults, and extreme climate change.

73 First-Year Seminar: Global Warming and the Future of the Planet (3). Global warming is the most important environmental problem of the 21st century. This seminar explores geologic history of global warming, its physical principles, and prospects for future societies.

74 First-Year Seminar: Geology of Climate Change (3). Examination of the problem of natural versus human-induced climate change from the perspective of the geologic record of earth history. Field trips to coast, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge.

75 First-Year Seminar: Waste in the Environment (3). Origins and effects of waste in the environment. Introduces natural wastes and ecosystem recycling, but focuses on case studies of generation, environmental impacts, and remediation of anthropogenic wastes.

76 First-Year Seminar: Energy Resources for a Hungry Planet (3). Discussions are centered on the most pressing issues of our time: environmental deterioration and construction of a sustainable (livable) world during and after the depletion of traditional energy resources.

77 First-Year Seminar: Volcanoes and Civilization: An Uneasy Coexistence (3). Volcanoes provide a breathable atmosphere, a habitable climate, and precious ores, but they have the potential to destroy civilization. This seminar will explore the uneasy coexistence of volcanoes and civilization.

79 First-Year Seminar: Coasts in Crisis (3). An investigation of the geologic evolution and function of coastal environments, the recent effects of coastal development and engineering, and an examination of existing coastal management strategies and the tensions between coastal development and the desire to preserve natural environments.

89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

101 Introductory Geology (3). Major geologic events: earthquakes, volcanic activity, mountain formation, plate tectonics, and erosion. Landscape development by glaciers, streams and groundwater, ocean currents and waves, wind. Not open to students with credit in or currently enrolled in GEOL 105, 109, or 110. Optional laboratory: GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 101+101L.

101L Introductory Geology Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, GEOL 72, 101, 105, 109, 110, or 159. Study of common minerals and rocks. Use of topographic and geologic maps to illustrate geologic processes. Two laboratory hours a week.

103 The Marine Environment (MASC 101) (3). See MASC 101 for description.

105 Violent Earth (3). Earth is changing catastrophically through volcanoes, earthquakes, hurricanes, and meteoric impacts. Explore the causes and effects of these phenomena and their impact on human development. Not open to students with credit in or currently enrolled in GEOL 101, 109, or 110. Optional laboratory: GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 105+101L.

108 Our Energy and Climate Crises: Challenges and Opportunities (4). Students quantify global depletion of energy resources and accompanying environmental degradation, discovering the profound changes in attitudes and behavior required to adjust to diminished fossil fuels and modified climate.

109 Earth, Climate, and Life through Time (3). Study of the solid earth and plate tectonics. Evolution of the atmosphere and oceans. Climate change. Origin of life, evolution and mass extinctions. Not open to students with credit in or currently enrolled in GEOL 101, 105, or 110. Optional laboratory: GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 109+101L.

110 Earth and Climate for Science Majors (3). Interactions between earth systems. Topics include plate tectonics, climate change, history of life, and biogeochemical cycles. This course is restricted to science majors only. Optional laboratory: GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 110+101L.

159 Prehistoric Life (BIOL 159) (3). Fossils and the origin and evolution of life, including micro- and macroevolution, mass extinctions, the evolution of dinosaurs and humans, and scientific perspectives on multicultural creationism. Optional laboratory, GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 159 + 101L.

190 Special Topics in Geological Sciences at an Introductory Level (3). An undergraduate seminar course that is designed to be a participatory intellectual adventure on an advanced, emergent, and stimulating topic within a selected discipline in geological sciences. This course does not count as a credit towards geological sciences majors.

202 Earth Systems History (3). Required preparation, one introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. History of the earth (including its oceans, atmosphere, and life forms) as deciphered from the geologic record. Birth of continents/oceans; evolution and extinction of life forms; the changing global environment.

204 Planetary Geology: Meteorites and Asteroids (3). Required preparation, one introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. Effects and probable effects of meteorite and asteroid impacts on earth and other planets: craters, new meteorites, and tektites; giant sea waves; reduction of species and extinction of organisms.

211 Environmental Geology (ENST 211) (3). Required preparation, one introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. Environmental and human problems connected with uses of earth materials and with geological processes. Mineral and water resources, land-use planning, and engineering geology.

213 Earth’s Dynamic Systems (ENST 213) (3). Required preparation, one introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. Earth system science approach to the study of planet earth. Influence of earth processes on the environment. Earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics, global climate change.

215 Energy Resources (3). Required preparation, one geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. Considers the distribution, extraction, economics, and demand for mineral resources. Treats the impact of the mineral industry on industrial and preindustrial economies, economic factors, maldistribution and depletion of resources, and the environmental impact of the mineral extraction industry.

221 Geology of North America (3). Required preparation, one geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. General introduction to the geologic evolution of North America. Provides students with an understanding and appreciation of diverse natural regions of the United States and Canada. Selected national parks serve as case studies of regional geologic history.

223 Geology of Beaches and Coasts (MASC 223) (3). Required preparation, one introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar. Introduction to coastal processes, including waves, tidal currents, tectonics, climate, and human activity, and their influence on barrier islands, beaches, dunes, marshes, and estuaries. Involves a field trip to the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

225 Introduction to Field Geology (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 101/101L. Introduction to geologic field methods. Includes making observations, mapping, identification of structures and features, and interpretation to solve basic geologic problems. Many field trips.

301 Earth Materials: Minerals (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 101 or 110; pre- or corequisite, CHEM 101. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Minerals in sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic environments: their properties, occurrence, and uses. Methods of identifying minerals, including use of optical properties. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

310 Coastal Environmental Change (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 101, 105, or 110. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An exploration of the large-scale evolution of coastal environments, including relevance of geologic setting, wave and sediment transport processes, the evolution of beach and barrier island morphology, and issues of coastal environmental management.

390 Special Problems in Geology (1–4). Permission of the department. For details, see geology degree requirements.

401 Structural Geology (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 101, 105, 109, or 110. Introduction to the mechanical behavior and dynamic evolution of the earth’s crust through the study of deformed rocks. Includes weekend field trip to western North Carolina.

402 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy (4). Prerequisites, GEOL 101 or 110, and GEOL 301. Introduction of principles involved in description and classification of sedimentary rocks and stratigraphic units as well as stratigraphic correlation. Students will be introduced to relationships of processes, depositional environments, and sedimentary facies.

403 Oceanography (BIOL 350, ENVR 417, MASC 401) (3). See MASC 401 for description.

404 Petrology and Plate Tectonics (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 301. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Studies of the origin and evolution of igneous and metamorphic rocks, including microscopic, X-ray, and field methods; volcanology; plate-tectonic interpretation of rock sequences. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

410 Earth Processes in Environmental Systems (ENST 410, MASC 410) (4). See ENST 410 for description.

411 Oceanic Processes in Environmental Systems (ENST 411, MASC 411) (4). See ENST 411 for description.

412 Principles and Methods of Teaching Earth Science (4). Prerequisites, GEOL 101/101L, 103, 105/101L, 109/101L, or 110; and at least two of the four geology core courses: GEOL 301, 401, 402, and 404. This course develops the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry-based earth science instruction: conceptual knowledge of earth sciences and mastery of inquiry instructional methods. Students study inquiry in cognitive science and learning theory. This course is a requirement for the UNC–BEST program in geological sciences.

413 Field Paleontology (4). Prerequisites, GEOL 101, 109, 110, or 159; and 402 or 478. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Field-oriented course on larger Ordovician through Pliocene fossil invertebrates in the central and eastern United States. Students develop a reference collection of over 250 genera and species, with data of stratigraphy and biostratigraphy. Three lecture and two laboratory hours a week.

415 Environmental Systems Modeling (ENST 415, ENVR 461, MASC 415) (3). See ENST 415 for description.

417 Geomorphology (ENST 417) (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 101 or 110, and MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to process geomorphology with emphasis on quantitative interpretation of weathering, hill slope, fluvial, glacial, and eolian processes from topography and landscapes.

417L Geomorphology Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, GEOL 417. Two laboratory hours per week.

421 Archaeological Geology (ANTH 421) (3). Permission of the instructor. The application of geological principles and techniques to the solution of archaeological problems. Studies geological processes and deposits pertinent to archaeological sites, geologic framework of archaeology in the southeastern United States, and techniques of archaeological geology. Field trips to three or more sites; written reports required.

422 Physics of the Earth’s Interior (PHYS 422) (3). See PHYS 422 for description.

430 Coastal Sedimentary Environments (MASC 430) (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402. Introduction to modern shallow-water clastic environments and their sediments, emphasizing barrier islands, deltas, estuaries, wetlands, and tidal flats. Includes local field trips and discussion/application of data-collecting techniques.

431 Micropaleontology (MASC 431) (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 478 or MASC 440. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An in-depth study of the biostratigraphy, paleoecology, and taxonomy of various microfossil groups (i.e., foraminifera, ostracodes, conodonts, coccoliths, radiolaria, diatoms, acritarchs, dinoflagellates, etc.) dependent upon individual student objectives. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

432 Paleoclimatology (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Introduction to mechanisms that drive climate. Examination of past climate reconstructions using ecological and geochemical proxies. Utility of computer models to reconstruct past climates and predict future climate change. Emphasis placed on late Quaternary.

433 Paleoceanography (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402 or 503. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Origin and distribution of pelagic sediments. Review of the major Mesozoic and Cenozoic events in the world oceans. Glacial/interglacial changes in the ocean/atmosphere system.

434 Marine Carbonate Environments (2). Permission of the instructor. Chemical and biological origins of calcium carbonate, skeletal structure, and chemo-mineralogy, preservation, sedimentation, and early diagenesis are studied in deep and shallow environmental settings to understand skeletal genesis, limestone origin, and carbonate facies variability. Field trip to Florida, Bahamas, or Bermuda. Laboratory exercises; research report.

440 Principles of Seismology (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 101, 213, 401; MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Descriptive account of global seismology, earthquake distribution, and focal mechanics. Principles of geometrical optics and applications to imaging the earth’s interior. Principles of seismic prospecting of hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs.

450 Biogeochemical Processes (ENST 450, ENVR 415, MASC 450) (4). See ENST 450 for description.

460 Fluid Dynamics of the Environment (3). Prerequisite, MATH 232. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Principles and applications of fluid dynamics to flows of air and water in the natural environment. Conservation of momentum, mass, and energy applied to lakes, rivers, estuaries, and the coastal ocean. Dimensional analysis and scaling emphasized to promote problem-solving skills.

478 Invertebrate Paleontology (BIOL 478) (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 159 or BIOL 101. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to the principles, methods of analysis, and major controversies within paleontology. Examination of the fossil record and its application to problems in evolutionary biology, paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and general earth history.

480 Modeling of Marine and Earth Systems (ENVR 480, MASC 480) (1–3). Prerequisite, MATH 232. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Mathematical modeling of the dynamic system, linear and nonlinear. The fundamental budget equation. Case studies in modeling convective transport, biogeochemical process, population dynamics. Analytical and numerical techniques, chaos theory, fractal geometry.

483 Geologic and Oceanographic Applications of Geographical Information Systems (MASC 483) (4). Required preparation, four GEOL courses or permission of the instructor. Focus is on applying GIS concepts and techniques to mining and petroleum geology, resource assessment, hydrogeology, coastal and marine geology, physical oceanography, engineering geology, and a geologic perspective on land use. Three lecture and two laboratory hours a week.

490 Topics in Earth and Environmental Sciences (3). Key topics and resources for high school teachers preparing to teach earth and environmental sciences. Includes lithosphere, tectonic processes, hydrosphere, atmosphere, origin of solar system and life, and environmental stewardship.

501 Geological Research Techniques (2). Permission of the instructor. An introduction to methods of obtaining, analyzing, and presenting geologic and paleontologic data.

502 Earth Surface Processes (GEOG 440) (3). See GEOG 440 for description.

503 Geological Oceanography (MASC 503) (4). See MASC 503 for description.

505 Chemical Oceanography (ENVR 505, MASC 505) (4). See MASC 505 for description.

506 Physical Oceanography (MASC 506) (4). See MASC 506 for description.

507 Rhythms in Global Climate and the Stratigraphic Record (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402. An overview of the mechanisms of cyclic climate forcing and a review of the geologic evidence for these climate rhythms, with a particular emphasis on the Milankovitch orbital cycles.

508 Applied Hydrology (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 101 or 110, MATH 231, PHYS 105. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An introduction to methodologies and instrumentation for quantifying the movement of water in the earth system focusing on components of the hydrologic cycle. Emphasis is divided between analytical aspects and field procedures.

509 Groundwater (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102; GEOL 101, 105, 109, or 110; MATH 231; PHYS 104, 116. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to physics, chemistry, and geology of groundwater.

510 Geochemistry of Natural Waters (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102; GEOL 101, 105, 109, or 110; MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Survey of processes affecting the compositions of streams, lakes, the ocean, and shallow ground waters.

511 Stable Isotopes in the Environment (ENST 511) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 102. Introduction to the theory, methods, and applications of stable isotopes to environmental problems. Primary focus will be on the origin, natural abundance, and fractionation of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen isotopes.

512 Geochemistry (MASC 553) (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102; GEOL 101, 105, or 110; and MATH 231. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to the application of chemical principles to geological problems. Topics include thermodynamics, kinetics, and isotope geochemistry.

514 River Systems of East Coast North America (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 101 or 110, and 211 or 417. Junior or senior status. Analysis of 23 rivers from St. Lawrence to the Everglades, from headwaters to oceanic terminus of turbidite fan. Focus on stream processes, geologic development, hydrology, utilization history, ecology, and planning.

515 Introduction to Geophysics (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 116 and 117. Introduction to the fundamentals of global geophysics: gravity, seismology, magnetism, heat, and plate tectonics. Both shallow and deep processes are considered. Emphasis is aimed at problem solving by applying concepts.

517 Sequence and Seismic Stratigraphy (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402. Examination of lithostratigraphic principles and the sequence stratigraphic paradigm. Students will study use of variation of well log signature reflection attributes and reflection termination patterns to identify and correlate sequences and systems and to interpret the lithology and depositional history of subsurface stratigraphic units.

518 Geodynamics (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102; GEOL 101 or 110; MATH 232; and PHYS 104 and 105. Interior of the earth deduced from seismology, gravity, heat flow, magnetism; geophysics of continents and ocean basins; age of earth.

520 Data Analysis in the Earth Sciences (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and 232. Required preparation, an introductory geology course numbered below 202, except first-year seminar, or permission of the instructor. Introduction to quantitative analysis in earth sciences: solid earth, atmospheres, oceans, geochemistry, and paleontology. Topics covered: univariate and multivariate statistics, testing, nonparametric methods, time series, spatial and cluster analysis, shapes.

521 Clastic Depositional Systems: Processes and Products (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 402. Examination of the use of lateral and vertical changes in sedimentary facies to identify depositional processes and environments of deposition within the terrestrial, marginal marine, shelf, and deep sea clastic depositional systems. These systems will be examined in a sequence stratigraphic framework.

522 Physical Volcanology (3). Required preparation, introductory courses in geology and physics. Course is aimed at understanding the physical properties and processes controlling volcanism and magma transport. Topics covered include volcanic processes from the formation of magma in the upper mantle to violent eruption at the surface. Emphasizes dynamic processes and underlying mechanisms.

523 Petroleum Geoscience (4). Prerequisites, GEOL 101, 301, 401, and 402. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Students study the origin, migration, and entrapment of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins and learn how several areas of the geosciences are integrated to locate and produce hydrocarbons. Students learn about these topics while analyzing a real subsurface data set.

550 Biogeochemical Cycling (MASC 550) (3). See MASC 550 for description.

552 Organic Geochemistry (ENVR 552, MASC 552) (3). See MASC 552 for description.

555 Paleobotany (BIOL 555) (4). See BIOL 555 for description.

560 Fluid Dynamics (ENVR 452, MASC 560, PHYS 660) (3). See MASC 560 for description.

563 Descriptive Physical Oceanography (MASC 563) (3). See MASC 563 for description.

590 Special Topics in Earth Sciences (1–4). Discussion or lab-based consideration of topical issues in earth sciences.

601 Summer Field Course in Geology (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 301, 401, 402, and 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Three-week field camp conducted in the western United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and/or Utah). Learn proper use of geology field tools and how to make a geologic map. Field interpretation of rocks and their deformation.

602 Summer Field Course in Geology (3). Prerequisites, GEOL 301, 401, 402, and 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Three-week field camp conducted in the western United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and/or Utah). Learn advanced mapping skills necessary to interpret geologic history of complexly deformed rocks.

608 Continuum Mechanics in the Earth Sciences (ENST 608) (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231; PHYS 104 or 116. Required preparation, introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar, or permission of the instructor. Applications of continuum mechanics in the earth sciences, including stress, strain, elasticity, and viscous flow. Numerical solutions to problems in heterogeneous finite strain including finite element analysis.

655 Physical Geochemistry (3). Prerequisites, CHEM 102 and MATH 232. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An introduction to physical geochemistry and chemical thermodynamics with special emphasis on geological applications. Three lecture hours a week.

690 Topics in Petrology (4). Prerequisite, GEOL 404. Origin of magmas and evolution of igneous and metamorphic rocks, combined with petrographic study of selected sites and individual examples. Two lecture and six laboratory hours a week.

695 Advanced Field Seminar in Geology (1–4). Prerequisites, GEOL 601 and 602. A field course that emphasizes advanced field methods. Emphasis is placed on large-scale, detailed field work in complex structural terrains and on independent mapping that will lead to thesis/dissertation and/or publication.

691H Honors (3). Permission of the department. For details, see geology degree requirements.

692H Honors (3). Prerequisite, GEOL 691H. For details, see geology degree requirements.