Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures

www.unc.edu/depts/gsll

426 Dey Hall, CB# 3160; (919) 966-1642; gsll@unc.edu

CLAYTON KOELB, Chair

Introduction

The Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures is organized to conduct research and offer instruction in the languages, literatures, and cultures of central, northern, and eastern Europe and northern Asia. It offers multiple tracks for undergraduate study.

For those interested in German programs, the department offers two concentrations. The concentration in German literature and culture provides a rich program of courses tailored to majors and double majors who wish to become culturally and linguistically fluent in German. The German media, arts, and culture concentration is ideal for students interested in expanding their knowledge of German literary history by exploring such media as film, music, or the visual arts, in their cultural-historical context. The department offers courses conducted in English as well as in German.

For students interested in Slavic programs, the department also offers two concentrations: Russian language and culture, and Slavic and East European languages and cultures. Students completing the latter option take courses to develop knowledge of the Slavic/East European language and a grounding in the most representative works of Slavic/East European culture. The courses that contribute to the major cover the languages and cultures of Russia/Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, Poland, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and (non-Slavic) Hungary–a vast grouping of territories and peoples of great cultural diversity and political importance.

An additional option takes advantage of the unique position of our department as a center of expertise in Central European studies (including Czech, German, Hungarian, and Polish). The Central European studies concentration combines language studies with literature, culture, history, geopolitical, and other studies into an interdisciplinary major.

A major in Germanic and Slavic languages and literatures provides preparatory training that will be useful in government employment; internationally oriented business, journalism, law, and teaching; as well as graduate study in a range of humanistic and social science disciplines.

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Major, B.A.–Central European Studies Concentration

Core Requirements

Students may petition the director of undergraduate studies to include other courses with significant Central European content.

Only one of the following courses may count toward the major: GSLL 691H, 692H, or 693H.

At least four of the above courses (12 credit hours) must be taken at UNC–Chapel Hill to fulfill the requirements of the major. Majors who study abroad or wish to transfer credit from another institution may apply to transfer a maximum of four courses counting toward the major. Before their departure for a study abroad program, students should consult with the relevant director of undergraduate studies about appropriate courses taken abroad for the major.

Additional Requirements

Students may not re-enroll in a language course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Major, B.A.–German Literature and Culture Concentration

Core Requirements

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for GERM 301 and/or GERM 302 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace GERM 301 and/or GERM 302) to complete the requirements for the concentration. The additional coursework must be numbered above GERM 303. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Only one of the following courses may count toward the major: GERM 691H, 692H; GSLL 691H, 692H, or 693H.

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Major, B.A.–German Media, Arts, and Culture Concentration

Core Requirements

A minimum of eight courses (24 credit hours), four of which must be taught in German (all 300-level GERM courses are conducted in German)

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for GERM 301 and/or GERM 302 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace GERM 301 and/or GERM 302) to complete the requirements for the concentration. The additional coursework must be numbered above GERM 303. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Students may petition the director of undergraduate studies to include other courses with significant German media, art, and/or cultural content.

Only one of the following courses may count toward the major: GERM 691H, 692H; GSLL 691H, 692H, or 693H.

Additional Requirements for Both German Concentrations

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Major, B.A.–Russian Language and Culture Concentration

Core Requirements

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for RUSS 321, 322, 406, and/or 407 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace each course with PL or BE credit) to complete the requirements for the concentration. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Only one of the following courses may count toward the major: RUSS 691H, 692H; GSLL 691H, 692H, or 693H.

Additional Requirements

Students who participate in an approved study abroad program in Russia can earn some of the credit for this major during their overseas stay.

Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures Major, B.A.–Slavic and East European Languages and Cultures

Concentration

Core Requirements

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for RUSS 321 and/or 406, or CZCH, HUNG, PLSH, or SECR 405 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace each course with PL or BE credit) to complete the requirements for the concentration. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Only one of the following courses may count toward the major: RUSS 691H, 692H; GSLL 691H, 692H, or 693H.

Additional Requirements

Additional Requirements for Both Slavic Concentrations

German Minor

GERM courses numbered above 399 may count toward the minor with the approval of the director of undergraduate studies, who will note whether the course is taught in English or in German.

Three German LAC credit hours may be used as a substitute for one three-hour course taught in German for the minor. (See "Languages across the Curriculum" below.)

Dutch language courses (DTCH 402, 403, and 404) may not count toward the minor. However, DTCH 396 and 405 may be counted toward the minor as courses taught in the target language (i.e., not in English).

At least nine credit hours beyond GERM 206 must be taken at UNC–Chapel Hill to fulfill the requirements of the minor. Minors who study abroad or wish to transfer credit from another institution may apply to transfer one course counting toward the minor. Before their departure for a study abroad program, students should consult the relevant director of undergraduate studies about appropriate courses taken abroad for the minor.

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for GERM 301 and/or GERM 302 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace GERM 301 and/or GERM 302) to complete the requirements for the minor. The additional coursework must be numbered above GERM 303. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Russian Culture Minor

At least nine credit hours beyond RUSS 102 must be taken at UNC–Chapel Hill to fulfill the requirements of the minor. Minors who study abroad or wish to transfer credit from another institution may apply to transfer one course counting toward the minor. Before their departure for a study abroad program, students should consult the relevant director of undergraduate studies about appropriate courses taken abroad for the minor.

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for RUSS 203, 204, 321, 322, 406, and/or 407 must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace each course with PL or BE credit) to complete the requirements for the minor. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

Slavic and East European Languages and Cultures Minor

Students who receive placement credit (PL) or By-Examination credit (BE) for RUSS 203, 204, 321, and/or 406, or for the first five courses in CZCH, HUNG, PLSH, or SECR (401, 402, 403, 404, 405) must substitute this credit with coursework (three credit hours each to replace each course with PL or BE credit) to complete the requirements for the minor. Students may not re-enroll in a course for which they have received PL or BE credit.

At least nine credit hours beyond the first two semesters of the language must be taken at UNC–Chapel Hill to fulfill the requirements of the minor. Students who study abroad or wish to transfer credit from another institution may apply to transfer one course counting toward the minor. Before their departure for a study abroad program, students should consult the relevant director of undergraduate studies about appropriate courses taken abroad for the minor.

Note: Topics courses may be repeated for credit toward the major or minor.

Advising

Students can complete any concentration, even if they have no prior experience in the language, provided that they begin taking their language courses as first-year students.

All majors and minors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students should meet regularly with their primary advisor and review their Tar Heel Tracker each semester.

However, departmental academic advising is also important for all students majoring or minoring in the department. Current and prospective majors and minors should consult with the department's director of undergraduate studies (for German literature and culture, German media, arts, and culture), or the department's Slavic undergraduate advisor (for Russian language and culture and Slavic languages and cultures), or the department's Central European advisor (for the Central European studies concentration). The director of undergraduate studies, the Slavic undergraduate advisor, or the Central European undergraduate advisor may all approve study abroad, internship, and transfer credit, and/or serve as an honors advisor, as appropriate for the concentrations they work with.

Students seeking certification to teach German or Russian in public schools should consult advisors in the School of Education.

Special Opportunities in Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures

Honors in Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures

Students majoring in Germanic and Slavic languages and literatures who are qualified for honors work are strongly encouraged to consider taking honors during their senior year. Undertaking an honors project gives students the opportunity to explore a topic in depth under the direction of a faculty member. Seniors who wish to do honors work should confer with the director of undergraduate studies and choose an honors thesis advisor during the second semester of their junior year, and enroll during their senior year in GSLL 691H (honors reading and special studies) followed by GSLL 692H (writing the honors thesis). When GSLL 693H is offered, the course replaces GSLL 692H and provides an opportunity for students majoring in any of our concentrations to complete their thesis in the context of a small seminar with other honors students. One of these honors courses may count toward the major.

Student Involvement and Cultural Enrichment beyond the Classroom

Numerous social and educational events hosted by the department, as well as by student clubs such as the German Club, provide an atmosphere for effective learning and for enjoying German and Slavic culture. There are weekly opportunities in German, Russian, and other languages for informal conversation suitable for both beginning and advanced students. The department periodically sponsors lectures, roundtables, small conferences, and film series for the various languages. Those considering an undergraduate major or minor should request to be added to the appropriate e-mail listserv for information regarding special events and opportunities.

The department also hosts receptions and informational meetings for students interested in pursuing a major or minor or seeking opportunities for internships, study abroad, graduate study, and employment in Germany, Russia, and Eastern or Central Europe. Every spring the department presents a Slavic and East European talent night, or Spektakl', featuring skits, songs, puppet shows, plays, and poetry readings in the Slavic and East European languages students are learning. The department also presents full-length plays and dramatic readings in German performed by undergraduate students.

Study Abroad

The department encourages students to study and/or engage in internships abroad. These opportunities maximize students' linguistic and cultural proficiency, particularly once they have acquired sufficient language skills to benefit most from this immersion experience. Students may participate for a whole year, a single term, or a summer.

The Study Abroad Office offers German programs at all universities in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, as well as a dedicated exchange program with the Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen; at the Vienna (Austria) University of Economics and Business Administration; at the Science Exchanges in Berlin or Jena (Germany) and Vienna; at the IES European Union Program in Freiburg (Germany); and at the IES Music Studies Program in Vienna. Most German programs require that participating students have passed GERM 204 (or its equivalent); however, students with no prior knowledge of German may attend the FUBiS or FU-BEST programs in Berlin or the IES program in Freiburg. These programs generally include intensive language instruction in addition to content courses taught in English, and most programs offer an orientation course prior to the start of the semester. The yearlong term typically begins in late August and ends in late July, with a two-month vacation between semesters that many students use for travel. Students going abroad for only one term generally do so in the spring semester, which typically begins in late February and ends in late July.

The DAAD in conjunction with German universities usually offers some summer internships. An internship is also available in Dresden. Please see an undergraduate advisor in the department office about these opportunities.

Students who choose to study Dutch may study abroad in Amsterdam through the IES, or attend SIT Netherlands' Program "International Perspective on Sexuality and Gender." Exchange programs also are offered in Nijmegen and Groningen.

Students can study in semester or yearlong programs in Russia, including in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Vladimir, while earning credit towards their Carolina degree. Students also may participate in the ACTR Moscow summer program in Russia. UNC–Chapel Hill offers four semester-long programs and one summer program in the Czech Republic. For more information about these and other programs in eastern and central Europe, go to studyabroad.unc.edu. Majors and minors should consult with the director of undergraduate studies or the appropriate undergraduate advisor in advance of going abroad about courses they plan to take for the major or minor.

Languages across the Curriculum

The Languages across the Curriculum (LAC) Program encourages majors and minors to enroll in one-credit-hour recitation or discussion sections that are conducted in German but associated with a variety of courses offered in English by other academic departments. German language recitation sections may also be scheduled in conjunction with several of the department's courses offered in English. Each of these discussion and recitation sections counts as one German language credit (in addition to the credit granted for the course).

Undergraduate Awards

Membership in the Beta Rho chapter of Delta Phi Alpha, the German honors society, is available to majors and minors who have completed at least six credit hours of German language coursework at the 300 level and who have maintained high cumulative grade point averages and high grade point averages in the major.

The department selects annually one outstanding graduating senior majoring in German to receive the Undergraduate Ria Stambaugh Award for Excellence in German, a monetary award that is presented at the Chancellor's Awards Ceremony each spring. Ria Stambaugh was a popular professor of German; after her death in 1984 her sister, friends, and colleagues contributed to a memorial fund to establish the Ria Stambaugh Awards. The undergraduate award was first presented in 1987.

Established in 1999, the Paul Debreczeny Prize is awarded each spring to a graduating senior whose work in Slavic languages and literatures has been judged outstanding. This monetary prize honors one of the founding faculty members of the program in Slavic languages and literatures.

Undergraduate Research

In addition to honors thesis work, students are encouraged to work on course-complementary or independent research projects with department faculty. Funding may be available through the Office of Undergraduate Research.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

In an age of rapid internationalization and globalization, proficiency in a foreign language is no longer just an auxiliary skill but a necessary one. Courses offered in the department make up an important part of a liberal education, and a major can provide excellent preparation for many careers, particularly when the major is combined with courses in business, economics, political science, journalism, and various other fields. Recent graduates have entered careers in international business, journalism, publishing, and the travel industry.

A bachelor of arts with a major in Germanic and Slavic languages and literatures also qualifies graduates for positions in the United States State Department and other government agencies, educational organizations, foundations, and travel organizations. The presence of over 100 German and Swiss firms in the Carolinas testifies to the demand for a high degree of German linguistic and cultural literacy in college graduates. The department is also one among very few in the United States that offers a range of critical and/or less commonly taught languages of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. People who know these languages are in particularly high demand in business and government. A graduate who has successfully taken the internationally-recognized business German examination "Wirtschaftsdeutsch als Fremdsprache" at UNC–Chapel Hill has an edge in seeking such positions.

In addition, the demand for language teachers provides career opportunities for those German and Russian majors who receive teaching certification from the School of Education.

German and Slavic majors often go on to graduate programs in comparative literature, linguistics, history, law, international business and management, international relations, professional translation, medicine, and education. Some pursue careers as college professors. Many Chapel Hill German and Slavic majors have been welcomed by the most prestigious graduate programs in the country. The department's faculty members assist undergraduate majors in selecting appropriate graduate programs.

Faculty

Professors

Eric Downing, Jonathan Hess, Clayton Koelb, David Pike, Paul Roberge.

Associate Professors

Ruth von Bernuth, Richard Langston, Radislav Lapushin, Hana Pichova, Christopher R. Putney.

Assistant Professors

Priscilla Layne, Inga Pollmann, Stanislav Shvabrin, Gabriel Trop, Ewa Wampuszyc.

Senior Lecturers

Eleonora Magomedova, Christina Wegel.

Professors Emeriti

Lawrence Feinberg, Walter K. Francke, Richard H. Lawson, Madeline G. Levine, Siegfried Mews, Vasa Mihailovich, Christoph E. Schweitzer, Peter Sherwood, Sidney R. Smith, Petrus W. Tax, Ivana Vuletic.

Contact Information

Dr. Richard Langston, Director of Undergraduate Studies and Undergraduate Advisor for German, CB# 3160, 430 Dey Hall, relangst@email.unc.edu.

Dr. Radislav Lapushin, Undergraduate Advisor for Slavic languages, CB# 3160, 422 Dey Hall, lapushin@email.unc.edu.

Dr. Hana Pichova, Undergraduate Advisor for Central European Studies, CB# 3160, 418 Dey Hall, pichova@email.unc.edu.

Courses

GSLL–Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures

GSLL 69 First-Year Seminar: Laughing and Crying at the Movies: Film and Experience (3). Why is it that we cry at the movies? We will focus on the melodrama but also look at comedy and horror to think about emotional responses to films. Students will learn the basics of film analysis, gain an overview of genre cinema, and study approaches to emotion, affect, and the body.

GSLL 87 First-Year Seminar: Literature Confronting Totalitarianism (3). What is totalitarianism? Can a portrayal of suffering, even death, under a totalitarian state, have artistic value, or must it remain only a political pamphlet? This seminar studies authors who reveal the crimes of totalitarianism, while also showing the moral strength and/or weaknesses of humans victimized by the totalitarian state.

GSLL 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

GSLL 260 From Berlin to Budapest: Literature, Film, and Culture of Central Europe (3). Central Europe, at the center of dramatic historical changes–WWI, emergence of independent nation states, WWII and Holocaust, Communism and its end, incorporation into the European Union–produced unprecedented cultural results. The creative voices of writers and filmmakers have relevance far beyond this region.

GSLL 280 The Dialectic of Whiteness and Blackness in Atlantic Cultures (3). Traces the invention of race, racism, and discourses of cultural inferiority/superiority throughout Western culture. What historical events created the necessity for racist thinking? How did colonialism and transatlantic migration change Atlantic cultures? Why did black culture become fashionable? Is the 21st century "post-racial"? Readings and course descriptions in English.

GSLL 284 Philosophy and the Arts (3). This course examines the different ways in which philosophical texts and works of art presuppose, articulate, and call into question cultural norms and values, with a special emphasis on conceptions of selfhood in various philosophical movements (for example, in Existentialism, the Enlightenment, Romanticism, etc.).

GSLL 475 Magical Realism: Central European Literature in a Global Context (3). This course studies magical realism in Central European literature and film by placing it in a global literary/cinema context. Readings and discussions in English.

GSLL 490 Topics in Germanic and Slavic Languages and Literatures (3). Examines selected themes in the history, culture, society, art, and/or literature of Germanic and Slavic/East European countries.

GSLL 496 Independent Readings in Germanic and Slavic/East European Studies (1–3). Special readings and research in a selected field or topic related to Germanic and Slavic/East European Studies, under the direction of a faculty member.

GSLL 691H Honors Course (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. For majors only. Reading and special studies under the direction of a faculty member.

GSLL 692H Honors Course (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. For majors only. Reading and preparation of an essay under the director of a faculty member, designed to lead to the completion of the honors thesis.

GSLL 693H Honors Seminar (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. For majors only. Introduction to research techniques and preparation of an essay, designed to lead to the completion of the honors thesis.

DTCH–Dutch

DTCH 396 Independent Readings in Dutch (3). Permission of the instructor. Special readings and research in a selected field or topic under the direction of a faculty member.

DTCH 402 Elementary Dutch (3). Rapid introduction to modern Dutch with emphasis on all fundamental components of communication.

DTCH 403 Intermediate Dutch (3). Focuses on increased skills in speaking, listening, reading, global comprehension, and communication. Emphasis on reading and discussion of longer texts.

DTCH 404 Advanced Intermediate Dutch (3). Aims to increase proficiency in language skills (reading, speaking, writing) and is constructed around a series of themes meant to introduce students to Dutch society, culture, and history.

DTCH 405 Topics in Dutch Culture: A Literary Survey (3). Prerequisite, DTCH 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Ability to read and speak Dutch at intermediate to advanced level recommended. Introduction to Dutch literature from Middle Ages to the present. Survey of topics in Dutch culture.

GERM–German

GERM 50 First-Year Seminar: Literary Fantasy and Historical Reality (3). The intersection of literary fantasy with historical reality considered in two ways: 1) fantastic-looking tales based on historical reality and 2) stories describing fantastic situations that actually came true.

GERM 51 First-Year Seminar: Stalin and Hitler: Historical Issues in Cultural and Other Perspectives (3). Critical issues that dominated the 20th century: WWI and Bolshevik Revolution; rise of fascism, Lenin, Stalin, Hitler and their roles; origins and evolution of Cold War; collapse of Eastern Bloc.

GERM 53 First-Year Seminar: Early Germanic Culture: Myth, Magic, Murder, and Mayhem (3). Introduction to pre-Christian culture of Germany, Anglo-Saxon England, and Scandinavia from the late Roman Empire through the Viking Age, as preserved in myths, sagas, charms, inscriptions, and historical documents.

GERM 54 First-Year Seminar: Once upon a Fairy Tale: Fairy Tales and Childhood, Then and Now (3). Fairy tales from different national traditions and historical periods read through various critical lenses, against a backdrop of changing historical conceptions of the child. Works from Grimm, Anderson, Brontë, Disney, etc.

GERM 55 First-Year Seminar: Fantasies of Rome: Gladiators, Senators, Soothsayers, and Caesars (3). Introduces students to study of humanities by examining how the idea of Rome evolved through poetry, history, philosophy, opera, even forgery into a concept that has long outlasted the Romans.

GERM 56 First-Year Seminar: Germans, Jews, and the History of Anti-Semitism (3). This course seeks to explore the historically difficult position of minorities in the modern world, using the situation of Jews in Germany from the 18th century to the Holocaust as a case study.

GERM 58 First-Year Seminar: Love in the Middle Ages (3). Examines development of notion of love from antiquity through Middle Ages to today. Discusses marriage, adultery, violence, power, gender roles. Introduces the study of humanities through reading, analysis, and research.

GERM 59 First-Year Seminar: Moscow 1937: Dictatorships and Their Defenders (3). Stalinist Soviet Union serves as a case study to examine how dictatorships develop and how they tend to be enveloped in justifications and kept in existence by outside observers.

GERM 60 First-Year Seminar: Avant-Garde Cinema: History, Themes, Textures (3). Students explore the international history, filmic techniques, and cultural meanings of non-narrative cinema of the 20th century. Students also transform in-class discussions and individual essays into video projects.

GERM 63 First-Year Seminar: Performing America (3). The intersection of performance in a theater space and in everyday life will serve as our springboard as we investigate the diversity of contemporary America. We will investigate how race, class, religion, sexuality, sexual orientation, history, and death are performed in America today.

GERM 65 First-Year Seminar: German Heroes? Knights, Tricksters, and Magicians (3). This course seeks to explore literary heroes in European literature from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. We will discuss concepts of heroism and how those ideas have changed over time.

GERM 67 First-Year Seminar: Blackness in the European Imaginary, Europe in the Black Imaginary (3). This seminar deals with how encounters between Europe and the African Diaspora have changed notions of race, nation, identity, and belonging in the 20th century. Through engaging with diverse texts–literary, nonliterary, and visual–we will explore the construction of blackness in various national and historical contexts.

GERM 68 First-Year Seminar: Intensity, Vitality, Ecstasy: Overwhelming Affects in Literature, Film, and Philosophy (3). This course focuses on three powerful affective states that challenge the conception of humans as autonomous, independent beings: intensity, vitality, and ecstasy. We will examine both philosophical and artistic representations of these particular states, focusing on the way in which they both endanger and enrich our experience of the world.

GERM 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

GERM 101 Elementary German (4). Develops the four language skills (speaking, listening, reading, writing) in a cultural context. In addition to mastering basic vocabulary and grammar, students will communicate in German about everyday topics.

GERM 102 Advanced Elementary German (4). This continuation of GERM 101 emphasizes speaking, listening, reading, writing in a cultural context. Students enhance their basic vocabulary and grammar and will regularly communicate in German about everyday topics.

GERM 105 Intensive Elementary German (8). Experience in German or fluency in another foreign language recommended. An accelerated, intensive course that essentially covers materials of GERM 101 and 102 in one semester.

GERM 203 Intermediate German (3). Students acquire necessary materials and opportunities to develop further their language skills in a cultural context. They review and expand upon the basic grammar covered in beginning German.

GERM 204 Advanced Intermediate German (3). Prerequisite, GERM 203. Emphasizes further development of the four language skills (speaking, reading, writing, listening) within a cultural context. Discussions focus on modern Germany, Austria, and Switzerland in literature and film.

GERM 206 Intensive Intermediate German (6). Prerequisite, GERM 105. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An accelerated intensive course that covers the materials of GERM 203 and 204 in one semester.

GERM 210 Getting Medieval: Knights, Violence, and Romance (3). Offers a historical perspective on the portrayal of medieval culture in film from the 1920s to today. Specific topics include the ideal hero, the quest, etiquette, chivalry, rituals, and love. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 216 The Viking Age (3). Lecture/discussion course on Viking culture, mythology, exploration, and extension of power in northern Europe (ca. 750–1050 CE) as represented in sagas, the Eddas, runic inscriptions, and chronicles. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 218 Christianity and Islam in the Middle Ages (RELI 218) (3). This course draws on a variety of cultural documents to explore both the conflict and cross fertilization between the Christian and Islamic cultures of the Middle Ages. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 220 Women in the Middle Ages (WMST 220) (3). This interdisciplinary course examines representations of women, concepts of gender, and women's participation in the economic, political, religious, and cultural life of the Middle Ages. Discussion and texts in English.

GERM 225 Popular and Pious: Early Modern Jewish Literature (3). This seminar covers popular and pious literature written by and for Jews in the 15th to 18th century in German-speaking countries. Originally written in Old Yiddish, this literature preserved the popular European genres and nonfiction accounts of Jewish community and family life.

GERM 245 Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud (3).An introduction to the writings of three great German writers of the 19th century who have had enormous impact on the lives of people around the world. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 246 Reality and Its Discontents: Kant to Kafka (3). An examination of "reality," as defined and redefined by Kant and his successors, in the context of European culture of the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 249 Modern German Literature in Translation (3). The idea of world literature was a German invention, proposed by Goethe to describe literature of universal importance for all of humanity. German thought, and German literature, in particular, remains an important component in this canon. This English-language literature course introduces newcomers to some highlights of modern German literature.

GERM 250 Women in German Cinema (WMST 250) (3). Introduction to feminist aesthetics and film theory by the examination of the representation of women in German cinema from expressionism to the present. All materials and discussions in English.

GERM 251 Ideology and Aesthetics: Marxism and Literature (SLAV 251) (3). Examines clash between 20th-century writers and the state in countries where a single government or party used an exclusive ideology as justification for interference in cultural and literary affairs. Discussions and texts in English.

GERM 252 South Africa in Literary Perspective (3). Course aims at an understanding of the South African experience as represented by that country's important writers. Readings include works by Gordimer, Coetzee, Mphahlele, Breytenbach, Fugard, Ndebele, Paton, la Guma. All materials in English.

GERM 254 The Occupation of Germany and the Cold War (3). How and why was Germany divided into two states after World War II? Were the Cold War and division inevitable? We explore these questions in two chronological contexts, 1945 to 1949 and 1989 to present, using technology to explore Russian archival documents in search of answers. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 255 Germany and the Cold War: From Allied Occupation to Division and Reunification (1945–1990) (3). This course will investigate the central role played by the "German question" in the break-up of the wartime alliance and the political division of western and eastern Europe. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 265 Hitler in Hollywood: Cinematic Representations of Nazi Germany (3). An examination of selected cinematic representations (both American and German) of Nazi Germany in terms of their aesthetic properties and propagandistic value. Films with English subtitles; readings and discussions in English.

GERM 266 Weimar Cinema (3). Explores important German films of 1919 to 1933, locating them in their artistic, cultural, and historical context. Treats the contested course of Weimar film history and culture and provides a theoretically informed introduction to the study of film and visual materials. Films with English subtitles; readings and discussions in English.

GERM 270 German Culture and the Jewish Question (CMPL 270, JWST 239, RELI 239) (3). A study of the role of Jews and the "Jewish question" in German culture from 1750 to the Holocaust and beyond. Discussions and texts (literary, political, theological) in English.

GERM 275 History of German Cinema (3). This course explores the major developments of German cinema. All films with English subtitles. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 279 Once upon a Fairy Tale: Fairy Tales and Childhood, Then and Now (CMPL 279) (3). Not intended for students who have taken GERM 54. Considers fairy tales from several different national traditions and historical periods against the backdrop of folklore, literature, psychoanalysis, and the socializing forces directed at children.

GERM 280 20th-Century German Philosophy and Modern Youth Cultures (3). This philosophical Approaches course investigates the rich European intellectual foundations on which 20th-century youth culture erected its triumvirate of sex, drugs, and rock music.

GERM 283 Freedom, Terror, and Identity: Modern Philosophy from Kant to Arendt (PWAD 283) (3). This course investigates how philosophical thought motivates, inspires, and generates forms of agency and identity against cultural tendencies that limit or erode freedom. Readings, lecture, and discussion in English.

GERM 290 Topics in German Studies (3). Examines selected themes in the history, culture, society, art, and/or literature of German-speaking countries. Readings and discussions in English.

GERM 301 Conversation and Composition (3). Prerequisite, GERM 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Emphasis is on speaking and writing, with shorter readings on contemporary German life to provide subject matter for in-class discussion and regular written compositions. Further goals include improvement of pronunciation and a mastery of grammar.

GERM 302 German Language and Culture (3). Prerequisite, GERM 301. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Introduction to issues shaping modern German culture and history through a wide range of texts and media while expanding and strengthening reading, writing, and speaking skills.

GERM 303 Introduction to German Literature (3). Prerequisites, GERM 301 and 302. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Presents major authors (Goethe, Mann, Kafka, and Brecht), periods, genres, and analysis. An appropriate conclusion to GERM 101–204, it also provides the background for more advanced undergraduate literature courses. Readings, discussions, and essays in German.

GERM 304 Business German (3). Prerequisite, GERM 301. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. An introduction to the language and culture of German business, commerce, and industry. Special emphasis is given to the acquisition of advanced business-related language skills.

GERM 305 Business German (3). Prerequisite, GERM 301. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. GERM 304 recommended but not required. As a continuation of GERM 304 the course offers a more advanced treatment of the current German economic and business debates and events while further strengthening relevant German language skills.

GERM 310 Höfische Kultur/Courtly Culture (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Introduces students to the rich culture and exciting literature of medieval Germany. Topics include knights and ladies, castles, weaponry, clothing, food, and fantasy. All materials and discussions in German.

GERM 311 The Crusades (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Examination of the medieval notion of the crusade, conflicts and exchange between East and West, and the ambiguous portrayals of the East in Western medieval literature. Readings and discussions in German.

GERM 325 Fools and Laughter in Early Modern German Literature (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Fools are everywhere. Human folly is one of the most distinctive preoccupations of German literature of the early modern period. This course will explore the multiple meanings of the German term "fool" in works from the 15th to the 18th century.

GERM 330 The Age of Goethe (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. German literature from the Enlightenment to Romanticism. Readings include works by Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, and the Romantics. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 349 Die Jahrhundertwende (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Investigation of the interconnectedness of turn-of-the-century arts, philosophy, psychoanalysis with focus on Berlin and Vienna. Works by Nietzsche, Hauptmann, Schnitzler, Freud, Hesse, Hofmannsthal/Strauss, Kafka, Rilke, T. Mann. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 350 Modern German Literature (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Study of major works of German literature from 1890 to the present by such authors as Thomas Mann, Kafka, Brecht, Hesse, Böll, and Grass. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 370 Readings in German Intellectual History (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Introduction to German intellectual history from the Enlightenment to the rise of fascism. Close readings and discussions of texts by Kant, Schiller, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, and Benjamin. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 371 The German Novella (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Famous novellas by authors such as Kleist, Brentano, Meyer, Keller, and Kafka, from the early 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. Readings and discussions in German.

GERM 372 German Drama (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. German drama from the late Enlightenment to the present. Texts include plays by dramatists such as Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, Hauptmann, Brecht, and Dürrenmatt. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 373 "Denk ich an Deutschland. . .": German Lyrical Poetry through the Centuries (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Survey of German lyric poetry from 18th to 21st century; major poets, forms, literary movements discussed. Readings, class discussions, and public recitation in German.

GERM 374 German Theater: Words Speak as Loudly as Actions (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Students study German plays, write original monodramas, and give two public dramatic performances. Readings, discussions, rehearsals in German aim to enable critique of dramas and theoretical texts.

GERM 380 Austrian Literature (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Presents Austria from the Biedermeier period to the end of the monarchy. Readings of works by authors such as Stifter, Schnitzler, Roth, Freud, Herzl, who articulate artistic, political, historical themes. Readings and lectures in German.

GERM 381 Berlin: Mapping a (Post) Modern Metropolis (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Exploration of the rich cultural and turbulent political history of 20th-century Germany by focusing on the literature, film, art, and architecture produced in and about the city of Berlin. All materials and discussions in German.

GERM 382 Representations of Violence and Terrorism in Contemporary German Literature and Film (3). Investigates literary and cinematic response to rise in terrorism in Germany since 1970. Focus on cultural and political significance of the gangster, the freedom fighter, and the terrorist.

GERM 383 Adaptations of the Past: Literature of the German Democratic Republic (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Explores the practice in East Germany of adapting earlier literatures and setting contemporary narratives in distant times. East German authors used cultural heritage as a screen for utopian sentiments and for pursuing the relationships between everyday life, historical conditions, and political circumstances. Readings and discussions in German.

GERM 388 Discussion Section in German (1). Prerequisite, GERM 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Students may enroll only in conjunction with a German department course offered in English that features an accompanying discussion section. All materials and discussions in German. May count toward the major or minor in German.

GERM 389 LAC Recitation (1). Prerequisite, GERM 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A recitation section for selected courses that promote foreign language proficiency across the curriculum (LAC). Readings and discussions in German. May count toward the major and minor in German.

GERM 390 Topics in German Studies (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Examines selected themes in the history, culture, society, art, and/or literature of German-speaking countries. Readings and discussions in German.

GERM 396 Independent Readings in German (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Special readings and research in a selected field or topic under the direction of a faculty member.

GERM 400 Advanced German Grammar (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. A study of current German structure and usage. Course strengthens the writing of graduate students and helps them confront the problems most frequently faced in speaking and teaching.

GERM 493 Internship in German (3). Prerequisite, GERM 303. This course enables a student to earn a maximum of three credit hours for a faculty-supervised internship directly related to the study of German literature or culture, or that uses the German language in day-to-day conduct of business in a German-speaking environment.

GERM 500 History of the German Language (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Development of phonology and morphosyntax from ancient times to present. Political, social, and literary forces influencing the language.

GERM 501 German Linguistics (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates. Introduction to formal analysis of German grammar (phonology, morphophonemics, prosodics, morphology, syntax) within the framework of generative grammar.

GERM 502 Middle High German (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Introduction to medieval German language and literature. Readings in medieval German; lectures in English.

GERM 505 Early New High German (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Reading and linguistic analysis of Early New High German texts, with study of phonology, morphology, and syntax. On demand.

GERM 508 Old High German (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Reading and linguistic analysis of Old High German texts, with study of phonology, morphology, and syntax; comparison of the various dialects with other older dialects of Germanic. On demand.

GERM 511 Old Saxon (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Reading and linguistic study of biblical texts (Heliand, Genesis) in Old Saxon, with study of phonology, morphology, and syntax; comparison with Old English, Old High German, and other Germanic dialects. On demand.

GERM 514 Old Norse I (Old Icelandic) (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Reading and linguistic analysis of Old Norse (Old Icelandic) texts, with study of phonology, morphology, and syntax; comparison with other older dialects of Germanic. On demand.

GERM 515 Old Norse II (Old Icelandic) (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Continuation of GERM 514. On demand.

GERM 517 Gothic (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Reading and linguistic analysis of Gothic biblical texts, with study of phonology, morphology, and syntax; comparison with other older dialects of Germanic. On demand.

GERM 520 Stylistics: Theory and Practice (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates. Study of stylistic theories and practices in literature and linguistics, analysis of a large variety of texts, written exercises, training in the use of stylistic devices.

GERM 521 Variation in German (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates. Major topics in sociolinguistics: development of the German language, traditional dialects, variation in contemporary speech, German as a minority language (Alsace, Belgium), German outside of Germany (Austria, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Liechtenstein).

GERM 545 Problems in Germanic Linguistics (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates. Special problems will be selected for intensive investigation. Subject matter of the course will be adapted to the particular interests of the students and instructor.

GERM 590 Topics in Germanic Linguistics (3). Prerequisites, GERM 302 and 303. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates.

GERM 601 Elementary German for Graduate Students (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. With GERM 602, a two-semester sequence designed as preparation for the reading knowledge examination for higher degrees in the humanities, social sciences, physical sciences, etc.

GERM 602 Elementary German for Graduate Students, Continued (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Continuation of GERM 601.

GERM 605 Comparative Germanic Grammar (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. LING 101 recommended for undergraduates. Analysis of phonological, morphological, and syntactic development from Indo-European to the older stages of Germanic dialects.

GERM 615 Cultural Foundations in German Studies, to 1800 (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. First part of a two-semester sequence offering students a comprehensive, text-based survey of German literary history from the High Middle Ages to the present.

GERM 616 Cultural Foundations in German Studies, 1800 to Present (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Second part of a two-semester sequence offering students a comprehensive, text-based survey of German literary history from the High Middle Ages to the present.

GERM 625 Early Modern Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. German literature of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 630 18th-Century Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Literature in the Age of Enlightenment. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 640 Early 19th-Century Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Literature of the Romantic period. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 645 Later 19th-Century Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Literature of Realism, Naturalism, and related movements. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 650 Early 20th-Century Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Major figures of the period from the turn of the century to World War II. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 655 Later 20th-Century Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Literature since World War II in both the Federal Republic and the former GDR. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 683 Moving-Image Avante-Gardes and Experimentalism (3). Prerequisite, ARTH 159, COMM 140, or ENGL 142. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. History and theory of international avant-garde and experimentalist movements in film, video, intermedia, multimedia, and digital formats. Content and focus may vary from semester to semester.

GERM 685 Early 21st-Century German Literature (3). Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Literature since German unification in 1989. Close readings, lectures, and discussions of representative texts.

GERM 691H Honors Course (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Majors only. Reading and special studies under the direction of a faculty member.

GERM 692H Honors Course (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Majors only. Reading and preparation of an essay under the direction of a faculty member, designed to lead to the completion of the honors thesis.

GERM 693H Honors Seminar (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Majors only. Introduction to research techniques and preparation of an essay, designed to lead to the completion of the honors thesis.

CZCH–Czech

CZCH 280 Closely Watched Trains: Czech Film and Literature (3). This course examines Czech film and literature against the backdrop of key historical, political, and cultural events of the 20th century. Taught in English; films subtitled in English.

CZCH 401 Elementary Czech (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Czech.

CZCH 402 Elementary Czech (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Czech, continued.

CZCH 403 Intermediate Czech (3). Continuation of proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Czech.

CZCH 404 Intermediate Czech (3). Continuation of proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Czech, continued.

CZCH 405 Advanced Czech (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Czech in humanities and social science topics.

CZCH 406 Advanced Czech (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Czech in humanities and social science topics, continued.

CZCH 411 Introduction to Czech Literature (3). Introduction to Czech literature with an emphasis on 19th- and 20th-century prose. Taught in English. Some readings in Czech for qualified students.

CZCH 469 Milan Kundera and World Literature (CMPL 469) (3). This course traces Milan Kundera's literary path from his communist poetic youth to his present postmodern Francophilia. His work will be compared with those authors he considers his predecessors and influences in European literature. Taught in English. Some readings in Czech for qualified students.

CZCH 490 Topics in Czech Culture (3). Study of topics in Czech and/or Slovak literature and culture not currently covered in any other course. The specific topic will be announced in advance. Taught in English. Some readings in Czech for qualified students.

HUNG–Hungarian

HUNG 271 Vampires and Empires: An Introduction to Transylvania (3). The thousand-year history of a multiethnic corner of Eastern Europe, focusing on why (and how) it has come to be identified in the West with the vampire. Course materials include films, slides, and music. All lectures and readings in English.

HUNG 280 Hungarian Cinema since World War II (3). An introduction to Hungarian society and culture since the end of World War II through a selection of film classics with English subtitles, with supporting background materials. Taught in English.

HUNG 401 Elementary Hungarian (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Hungarian.

HUNG 402 Elementary Hungarian (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Hungarian, continued.

HUNG 403 Intermediate Hungarian Language (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Hungarian.

HUNG 404 Intermediate Hungarian Language (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Hungarian, continued.

HUNG 405 Advanced Hungarian (3). Prerequisite, HUNG 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Advanced readings and discussion in Hungarian in humanities and social science topics.

HUNG 406 Advanced Hungarian (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Hungarian in humanities and social science topics, continued.

HUNG 407 The Structure of Modern Hungarian (3). Prerequisite, HUNG 401 or LING 101. Introduction to the phonology, morphology, and syntax of modern standard Hungarian, with emphasis on some of its distinctive typological features.

HUNG 411 Introduction to Hungarian Literature (3). An introduction to Hungarian literature of the last five centuries through a selection of works in English translation, with supporting background materials including films (with English subtitles). Taught in English; some readings in Hungarian for qualified students.

HUNG 490 Topics in Hungarian Culture (3). Study of topics in Hungarian literature and culture not currently covered in any other course. The specific topic will be announced in advance. Taught in English; some readings in Hungarian for qualified students.

MACD–Macedonian

MACD 401 Elementary Macedonian (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Macedonian.

MACD 402 Elementary Macedonian (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Macedonian, continued.

MACD 403 Intermediate Macedonian (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Macedonian.

MACD 404 Intermediate Macedonian (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Macedonian, continued.

MACD 405 Advanced Macedonian (3). Advanced reading and discussion in Macedonian in humanities and social science topics.

MACD 406 Advanced Macedonian (3). Advanced reading and discussion in Macedonian in humanities and social science topics, continued.

PLSH–Polish

PLSH 280 The Modern Cinema of Poland (3). An overview of postwar Polish cinema from the Polish school of the 1950s to the so-called Generation 2000. Includes films of Wajda, Munk, Kieslowski, Polanski, and others.

PLSH 401 Elementary Polish (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Polish.

PLSH 402 Elementary Polish (3). Pronunciation, structure of language, and reading in modern Polish, continued.

PLSH 403 Intermediate Polish (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Polish.

PLSH 404 Intermediate Polish (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Polish, continued.

PLSH 405 Advanced Polish (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Polish on humanities and social science topics.

PLSH 406 Advanced Polish (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Polish on humanities and social science topics, continued.

PLSH 411 19th-Century Polish Literature and Culture (3). A survey of the major works of 19th-century Polish literature and culture in English translation. Some readings in Polish for qualified students.

PLSH 412 20th-Century Polish Literature and Culture (JWST 412) (3). A survey of the major works of 20th-century Polish literature and culture in English translation. Some readings in Polish for qualified students.

PLSH 490 Topics in Polish Culture (3). Study of topics in Polish literature and culture not currently covered in any other course. The specific topic will be announced in advance. Taught in English. Some readings in Polish for qualified students.

RUSS–Russian

RUSS 101 Elementary Russian (4). Introductory course designed to lay the foundation of grammar and to convey basic reading and pronunciation skills.

RUSS 102 Elementary Russian (4). Continuation of the introductory course designed to lay the foundation of grammar and to convey basic reading and pronunciation skills.

RUSS 203 Intermediate Russian (3). Grammar-translation work with increasing proportions of free reading and oral work.

RUSS 204 Intermediate Russian (3). Grammar-translation work with increasing proportions of free reading and oral work, continued.

RUSS 213 Intermediate Russian Conversation (2). Corequisite, RUSS 203. Supplements the grammar presentations in RUSS 203. Basic conversational practice on topics relevant to Russia today.

RUSS 214 Intermediate Russian Conversation (2). Corequisite, RUSS 204. Continuation of RUSS 213.

RUSS 250 Introduction to Russian Literature (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Reading and discussion of selected authors in Russian aimed at improving reading skill and preparing the student for higher level work in Russian literature.

RUSS 270 Russian Literature of the 19th Century (3). Introduction to Russian prose fiction of the 19th century with particular consideration of selected writings of Pushkin, Gogol, Turgenev, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 272 Russian Literature from Chekhov to the Revolution (3). Literary situations and authors of 1880 to 1917, with emphasis on Chekhov and the Symbolists. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 273 Russian Culture and Society: 1890–1917 (3). Examines the extraordinary diversity of turn-of-the-century Russian culture (1890s to 1917); the proliferation of visual and performance arts; the rise of popular culture; new artistic explorations of gender and sexuality. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 274 Russian Literature after 1917 (3). Russian writers and literary problems from the Revolution to the present. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 275 Russian Fairy Tale (3). An introduction to the Russian fairy tale with attention to its roots in Russian folklore, its influence on Russian culture, and its connections with American folk and popular culture. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 276 Mystery and Suspense in Russian Literature (3). The study of mystery and suspense in Russian literature of the 19th and 20th centuries. Readings and class discussions in English.

RUSS 277 Love, Sex, and Marriage in Soviet Culture (3). A survey of the themes of love, sex, and marriage as they developed in Russian literature and culture from the Bolshevik Revolution to Perestroika. Readings and class discussions in English.

RUSS 281 Russian Literature in World Cinema (3). Survey of masterpieces of Russian literature in the context of their cinematic adaptations. Lectures and readings in English.

RUSS 296 Selected Readings in Russian (1–12). Permission of the instructor. Directed readings in Russian on topics in literature and linguistics not normally covered in scheduled courses.

RUSS 321 Russian Conversation (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Designed to develop conversational skills in a variety of situations and subjects. Russian used, except for a minimum of linguistic explanations or comment.

RUSS 322 Russian Conversation (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 321. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Designed to develop conversational skills in a variety of situations and subjects. Russian used, except for a minimum of linguistic explanations or comment.

RUSS 400 The Evolution of Russian (3). This course traces the development of Russian from late common Slavic to contemporary Russian. Consideration is given to linguistic developments as well as cultural, social, and historical circumstances shaping contemporary Russian.

RUSS 405 The Structure of Modern Russian (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 400. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. For students who want a systematic understanding of the language. Synchronic analysis of contemporary standard Russian phonology, morphology, morphophonemics, semantics, and syntax.

RUSS 406 Advanced Russian Grammar (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 204. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A comprehensive review of Russian grammar on an advanced level, emphasizing reading and writing skills.

RUSS 407 Advanced Russian Grammar (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 406. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A comprehensive review of Russian grammar on an advanced level, emphasizing reading and writing skills.

RUSS 411 Advanced Russian Conversation and Composition (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 322 or 407. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Designed to develop conversational and writing skills in a variety of situations and subjects.

RUSS 412 Advanced Russian Conversation and Composition (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 411. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Designed to develop conversational and writing skills in a variety of situations and subjects.

RUSS 413 Russian Stylistics (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 412. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Advanced Russian conversation and composition, with appropriate grammatical and stylistic explanations. Can be taken repeatedly for credit, but only counts once toward degree requirements.

RUSS 414 Russian Stylistics (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 413. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Continuation of Russian Stylistics at a more advanced level.

RUSS 431 Dandies and Dead Souls: Russian Literature and Culture, 1800–1850 (3). A survey of major works of Russian literature and culture in the first half of the 19th century. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 432 Great Novels and Cursed Questions: Russian Literature and Culture, 1850–1881 (3). A survey of major works of Russian literature and culture in the Golden Age, an era of sociopolitical reform. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 441 From Decadence to Revolution: Russian Literature and Culture, 1881–1945 (3). A survey of major works of fin-de-siècle Russian and early Soviet literature and culture. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 442 From Cold War to Capitalism: Russian Literature and Culture, 1945–Present (3). A survey of major works of Russian literature and culture from 1945 to the present. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 450 The Russian Absurd: Text, Stage, Screen (3). Examines "The Absurd" in Russian literature and culture as it developed from the 19th century to the present. Through works by important Russian writers and representative films students encounter facets of "The Russian Absurd" viewed as literary, cultural, and social phenomena. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 460 Russian Short Story (3). An introduction to the Russian short story. The readings, in English for nonmajors and in Russian for majors, include works from the 17th century to the present. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 462 Russian Poetry of the 19th Century (3). Readings and lecture on 19th-century Russian poetry. Readings in Russian.

RUSS 463 Russian Drama: From Classicism to Modernism (3). Survey of Russian drama as a literary and theatrical phenomenon from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 20th century. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 464 Dostoevsky (3). Study of major works of Dostoevsky and a survey of contemporary authors and literary trends relevant to his creative career. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 465 Chekhov (3). Study of major works of Chekhov and survey of contemporary authors and literary trends relevant to his creative career. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 469 Bulgakov (3). Study of major works of Mikhail Bulgakov, including The Master and Margarita, and a survey of contemporary Russian history and culture relevant to his creative career. Readings in English, in Russian for majors.

RUSS 471 Gogol (3). Study of major works of N. V. Gogol and a survey of contemporary authors and literary trends relevant to his creative career. Lectures and seminar discussions. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 473 Vladimir Nabokov (3). Exploration of Vladimir Nabokov's prose fiction written in Germany and America. Emphasis placed on the primary texts, but some secondary readings included. Movies based on Nabokov's novels will be viewed as well. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 475 Literature of Russian Terrorism: Arson, Bombs, Mayhem (PWAD 475) (3). Literary representations of Russian revolutionaries and terrorists in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Readings by Dostoevsky, Chernyshevsky, Bely, Joseph Conrad, and by some of the terrorists themselves. Readings in English translation. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 479 Tolstoy (3). Study of the major works of Tolstoy and a survey of contemporary authors and literary trends relevant to his creative career. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 486 Contemporary Russian Women's Writing (WMST 486) (3). A study of Russian women's writing after World War II, including both fictional and propagandistic works analyzed in their sociopolitical context. Serves as an introduction to Russian women's studies. Readings in Russian for majors, in English for nonmajors.

RUSS 490 Topics in Russian Culture (3). Study of topics in Russian literature and culture not currently covered in any other course. The specific topic will be announced in advance. Taught in English. Some readings in Russian for qualified students.

RUSS 511 Russian Mass Media I (3). Prerequisites, RUSS 411 and 412. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Module 1. Fifth-year Russian, intended to expand and master the knowledge of the language necessary for understanding deep ongoing changes in different spheres of Russian society.

RUSS 512 Russian Mass Media II (3). Prerequisites, RUSS 411 and 412. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Module 2. Fifth-year Russian, intended to expand and master the knowledge of the language necessary for understanding deep ongoing changes in different spheres of Russian society.

RUSS 513 Russian Culture in Transition I (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 411. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Fifth-year Russian, to expand knowledge of the language necessary for understanding social changes that are taking place in Russian society, in literature, art, culture, and everyday human mentality.

RUSS 514 Russian Culture in Transition II (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 412. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. RUSS 513 is not a prerequisite. Fifth-year Russian, continuing with the theme of RUSS 513 offered in the fall semester.

RUSS 560 Russian Sentimentalism and Romanticism (3). Prerequisite, RUSS 407. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Survey of Russian sentimentalism and romanticism, with special attention to the intellectual currents of the period (ca. 1770 to 1850). Consideration of Western precursors (Rousseau, Sterne, Byron, et al.). Readings in Russian.

RUSS 691H Honors Reading Course (3). Russian language and culture majors only. Researching and writing of an honors thesis on an agreed-upon topic not covered by scheduled courses, under the direction of departmental advisors.

RUSS 692H Honors Reading Course (3). Russian language and culture majors only. Researching and writing of an honors thesis on an agreed-upon topic not covered by scheduled courses, under the direction of departmental advisors.

SECR–Serbian and Croatian

SECR 401 Elementary Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Pronunciation, structure of the language, and readings in modern Serbian and Croatian language.

SECR 402 Elementary Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Pronunciation, structure of the language, and readings in modern Serbian and Croatian language, continued.

SECR 403 Intermediate Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Serbian and Croatian language.

SECR 404 Intermediate Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Continuation of the proficiency-based instruction begun in Elementary Serbian and Croatian language, continued.

SECR 405 Advanced Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Serbian and Croatian language on humanities and social science topics.

SECR 406 Advanced Serbian and Croatian Language (3). Advanced readings and discussion in Serbian and Croatian language on humanities and social science topics, continued.

SECR 411 Introduction to Serbian and Croatian Literature (3). Introduction to Serbian and Croatian literature with an emphasis on 19th- and 20th-century prose. Taught in English. Some readings in Serbian and Croatian for qualified students.

SECR 490 Topics in South Slavic Culture (3). Study of topics in Serbian, Croatian, and other South Slavic literatures and cultures not currently covered in any other course. The specific topic will be announced in advance. Taught in English. Some readings in the target language for qualified students.

SLAV–Slavic

SLAV 81 First-Year Seminar: Metaphor and the Body (3). All human beings inhabit a physical body, with inherent oppositions of inside/outside, up/down, and left/right. This course examines bodily experience as the wellspring of meaning.

SLAV 82 First-Year Seminar: Doctor Stories (3). Explores and reflects on the experience and significance of being a doctor in Russia and the United States, analyzing "doctors' stories" presented in fiction, nonfiction, film, and other media.

SLAV 83 First-Year Seminar: The Actress: Celebrity and the Woman (3). Reflects on the experience, significance, and influence of the stage and motion picture actress in the modern era, analyzing her representation and reception in memoirs, biographies, fiction, and film.

SLAV 84 First-Year Seminar: Terror for the People: Terrorism in Russian Literature and History (3). Terror was used as a political weapon in 19th-century Russia. This seminar introduces the terrorists through their own writings and fictional representations in novels by Fyodor Dostoevsky and Joseph Conrad.

SLAV 85 First-Year Seminar: Children and War (3). Readings for this seminar include children's wartime diaries, adult memoirs of child-survivors, and fiction from Eastern Europe and east Asia. Focused on World War II, but with attention to present-day conflicts.

SLAV 86 First-Year Seminar: Literature and Madness (3). This course examines the ways in which modern European and American fiction, essays, and film construct representations of madness.

SLAV 88H First-Year Seminar: Gender and Fiction in Central and Eastern Europe (3). An introduction to the region, this course examines the role of gender in central and east European literature from the end of the 19th century to contemporary times. Course materials include novels, films, historical readings, and essays. Readings and class discussions in English.

SLAV 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

SLAV 101 Introduction to Slavic Civilizations: Peasants, Popes, and Party Hacks (3). Introduction to the essentials of Slavic cultures, including religion, literature, history, art, cinema, folklore, geography, and music. Course materials include films, slides, and recordings. Lectures and readings in English.

SLAV 186 Peoples and Languages of Eastern Europe (3). The cultural diversity of Eastern Europe is examined through the emergence of competing religions, newly formed literary languages, and political controversies surrounding the birth of new languages and nations. All readings in English.

SLAV 248 Childhood and Adolescence in Slavic Literature (3). Childhood and adolescence as portrayed in both fictional and autobiographical form by 19th- and 20th-century Russian, Polish, Czech, and other East European writers, including Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Nabokov, I. B. Singer, Schulz, Milosz. Lectures and readings in English.

SLAV 250 Introduction to Non-Russian Slavic/East European Culture (3). Prerequisite, BULG 404, CZCH 404, HUNG 404, MACD 404, PLSH 404, or SECR 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Reading and discussion of selected authors in the target language aimed at improving reading and analytical skills and preparing the student for higher-level work.

SLAV 251 Ideology and Aesthetics: Marxism and Literature (GERM 251) (3). See GERM 251 for description.

SLAV 273 Ideology and Fiction in Slavic Literatures (3). The course focuses on 20th-century Slavic authors whose work was denounced in their countries. It highlights problems of ideology in their works.

SLAV 281 Holocaust Cinema in Eastern Europe (CMPL 281) (3). A critical look at varieties of cinematic representation and memorialization of the Holocaust, from those countries of Europe where it mostly took place. Taught in English. All films in (or subtitled in) English.

SLAV 296 Directed Readings in a Slavic Language (1–12). Permission of the instructor. Directed readings in a Slavic language other than Russian on topics in literature and linguistics not normally covered in scheduled courses.

SLAV 306 Language and Nationalism (LING 306) (3). This course focuses on language, identity, and nationalism in contemporary societies, with special emphasis on Europe, Africa, Asia, and the United States.

SLAV 405 Introduction to Slavic Linguistics (3). The phonological and morphological history of Slavic languages from the late Indo-European to the split of the common Slavic linguistic unity.

SLAV 463 Medieval Slavic Culture (RELI 463) (3). Survey of medieval Slavic culture, beginning with Christianization in the ninth and 10th centuries. Themes include Byzantine missions, the replacement of paganism with Christianity, the oral traditions, and Slavic literary relations. Readings in English for non-Slavic concentrators.

SLAV 464 Imagined Jews: Jewish Themes in Polish and Russian Literature (JWST 464) (3). Explores the fictional representation of Jewish life in Russia and Poland by Russian, Polish, and Jewish authors from the 19th century to the present. Readings in English for non-Slavic concentrators.

SLAV 465 Literature of Atrocity: The Gulag and the Holocaust in Russia and Eastern Europe (JWST 465, PWAD 465) (3). Literary representation in fiction, poetry, memoirs, and other genres of the mass annihilation and terror in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union under the Nazi and Communist regimes. Readings in English for non-Slavic concentrators.

SLAV 467 Language and Political Identity (PWAD 467) (3). This course examines the roles of language policy and linguistic controversies in determining national identity and fueling political polarization. It focuses primarily on western and eastern Europe and Central Asia.

SLAV 469 Coming to America: The Slavic Immigrant Experience in Literature (JWST 469) (3). Fictional and autobiographical expressions of the Slavic and East European immigrant experience in the 20th century. Readings include Russian, Polish, Jewish, and Czech authors from early 1900s to present. Readings in English for non-Slavic concentrators.

SLAV 470 20th-Century Russian and Polish Theater (3). A comparative survey of the major trends in 20th-century Russian and Polish dramaturgy and theatrical production, with attention to aesthetic, professional, and political connections between the two. Readings in English for non-Slavic concentrators.

SLAV 490 Topics in Slavic Culture (3). Comparative study of topics in non-Russian Slavic literatures and culture not covered in any other course. Specific topics will vary and will be announced in advance. Taught in English. Some readings in the target language(s) for qualified students.

SLAV 500 Old Church Slavonic (3). An introduction to the language of the oldest Slavic texts. Translation, grammatical analysis, comparison of texts.

SLAV 560 Reading Other Cultures: Issues in Literary Translation (CMPL 560) (3). Permission of the instructor. Reading knowledge of a language other than English recommended. Starting from the proposition that cultural literacy would be impossible without reliance on translations, this course addresses fundamental issues in the practice, art, and politics of literary translation.

SLAV 580 East European Literary Criticism (3). Survey of 20th-century Slavic literary criticism. Russian formalists, Bakhtin and his circle, Czech structuralists, Soviet semiotics. Emphasis on influence of Slavic criticism on development of Western literary criticism.

SLAV 691H Honors Reading Course (3). Slavic and East European languages and cultures majors only. Research and writing of an honors thesis on an agreed-upon topic not covered by scheduled courses, under the direction of departmental advisors.

SLAV 692H Honors Reading Course (3). Slavic and East European languages and cultures majors only. Research and writing of an honors thesis on an agreed-upon topic not covered by scheduled courses, under the direction of departmental advisors.