Department of History

www.unc.edu/depts/history

W. FITZHUGH BRUNDAGE, Chair

Professors

William A. Barney, W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Marcus G. Bull, Melissa M. Bullard, Kathryn J. Burns, John C. Chasteen, Peter A. Coclanis, William R. Ferris, W. Miles Fletcher, Joseph T. Glatthaar, Karen Hagemann, Konrad H. Jarausch, John F. Kasson, Lloyd S. Kramer, Klaus W. Larres, Wayne E. Lee, James L. Leloudis, Genna Rae McNeil, Louise McReynolds, Susan D. Pennybacker, Louis A. Pérez, Cynthia Radding, Donald J. Raleigh, Donald M. Reid, Sarah D. Shields, Jay M. Smith, Richard J. A. Talbert, Zaragosa Vargas, Harry L. Watson, Heather A. Williams.

Associate Professors

Cemil Ayden, Chad Bryant, Kathleen DuVal, Jerma A. Jackson, Lisa A. Lindsay, Malinda Maynor Lowery, Terence V. McIntosh, Fred S. Naiden, John W. Sweet, Michael Tsin, Brett E. Whalen.

Assistant Professors

Flora Cassen, Emma Flatt, Michelle T. King, Miguel A. La Serna, Michael Morgan, Iqbal Sevea, Eren Tasar, Benjamin Waterhouse, Molly Worthen.

Lecturers

Matthew Andrews, Joseph W. Caddell.

Joint Professor

Robert C. Allen.

Joint Associate Professor

Reginald F. Hildebrand, Walter Rucker.

Adjunct Professors

Kenneth Janken, Daniel J. Sherman.

Adjunct Associate Professors

Daniel M. Cobb, Morgan J. Pitelka, Anne M. Whisnant.

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Raúl Necochea, Jacqueline M. Olich, Rachel Seidman.

Professors Emeriti

Josef Anderle, Samuel H. Baron, Stephen B. Baxter, Frederick O. Behrends, Judith M. Bennett, E. Willis Brooks, Christopher R. Browning, Stanley J. Chojnacki, Peter G. Filene, David M. Griffiths, Jacquelyn D. Hall, Barbara J. Harris, John M. Headley, Michael H. Hunt, Lawrence D. Kessler, Frank W. Klingberg, Richard H. Kohn, William E. Leuchtenburg, Roger W. Lotchin, Donald G. Mathews, W. James McCoy, Michael R. McVaugh, John K. Nelson, Theda Perdue, Richard W. Pfaff, William S. Powell, John E. Semonche, Peter E. Walker, Gerhard L. Weinberg, Joel R. Williamson.

Introduction

The study of history is an essential part of a liberal arts education and offers valuable preparation for many careers: in law, journalism, libraries, and museums; in local, state, and national public service; in business; in international work; and, of course, in historical research and teaching. More broadly, by an exposure to a variety of cultures and human experience and by training in the interpretation of conflicting evidence, the Department of History seeks to prepare a person for the responsibilities of citizenship and for dealing with the ambiguities of human existence. Diversity in the history major program encourages a comparative approach to human problems and discourages parochialism; specialization in the program promotes an appreciation of the complexity of human affairs and the difficulties involved in interpreting them. Finally, the discipline of history stimulates imagination and analytical thinking.

Programs of Study

The degree offered is the bachelor of arts with a major in history. The Department of History also participates in the Joint Degree Program with the National University of Singapore. A minor in history also is offered. The minor in medieval and early modern studies (MEMS) is housed in the Department of History.

Majoring in History: Bachelor of Arts

Core Requirements

Students must complete the following requirements for a major. Each major shall concentrate in one area (African, Asian, and Middle Eastern history; ancient/medieval history; gender and women's history; global history; Latin American history; modern European history; Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European history; or United States history), or students must devise a thematic concentration and have it approved by the chair of the Undergraduate Studies Committee.

A history major consists of 10 history courses. A minimum of four and a maximum of six of these 10 courses will fall in the student's field of concentration. A minimum of four and a maximum of six courses will be outside the student's field of concentration. All majors will take at least one history department course in Latin American or African, Asian, and Middle Eastern history (most of which will satisfy the BN requirement in the General Education curriculum). At least six of the 10 courses a student takes for the major must be numbered 200 or above. Each major will take HIST 398 Undergraduate Seminar in History, which also satisfies both the EE and CI requirements in the General Education curriculum. Of these 10 courses, at least seven must be completed with a grade of C or better.

The Department of History offers multiple sections of the required HIST 398 undergraduate seminar each semester. Each section focuses on a different topic. To register for one of these seminars a student must sign up in person at the office of the coordinator for undergraduate studies in history in Hamilton Hall 556. Prior to the course registration period, the Department of History will distribute to all history majors information about the next semester's offerings of HIST 398.

All College of Arts and Sciences policies apply, including (but not limited to) the following. No history course may be taken for Pass/D+/D/Fail credit (even if the course serves as a free elective). A maximum of 15 history courses (45 hours) may be applied toward the B.A. degree. Any courses beyond the minimal 10 (but not above the maximum of 15) will count as free electives.

No more than five courses (15 hours) of transfer credit and College Board Advanced Placement/International Baccalaureate credit may count toward the major. Up to five courses (15 hours) of transfer credit may count toward the major, but only up to two courses (six hours) of College Board Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate credit may count toward the major. In no case can the combination of transfer credits and AP/IB credits exceed 15 hours.

Below are listed history courses for each field of concentration.

Field According to Topic: HIST 190, 289, 291, 390, 398, 490, 493, 496, 674, 691H, 692H, 697

African, Asian, and Middle Eastern History: HIST 52, 61, 62, 83, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 163, 174H, 202, 203, 271, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 331, 379, 483, 484, 513, 534, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 550, 570

Ancient/Medieval: HIST 75, 106, 107, 151, 177H, 225, 226, 227, 228, 255, 258, 345, 398 (based on topic), 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 427, 428, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 452, 453, 460

Gender and Women's History: HIST 72, 130, 258, 259, 263, 264, 280, 355, 356, 358, 370, 375, 438, 479, 500, 501, 517, 535, 537, 562, 566, 568, 569, 576

Global History: HIST 53, 62, 66, 73, 83, 138, 139, 140, 202, 203, 205, 206, 210, 212, 213, 215, 242, 250, 263, 268, 278, 281, 302H, 325, 345, 351, 359, 370, 371, 379, 398 (based on topic), 479, 501, 513, 514, 516, 517, 534

Latin American History: HIST 51, 76, 142, 143, 175H, 203, 240, 242, 280, 398 (based on topic), 513, 526, 527, 528, 529, 531, 532, 533

Modern European History: HIST 53, 54, 56, 64, 66, 72, 73, 77, 82, 84, 151, 152, 153, 156, 157, 158, 159, 161, 162, 177H, 178H, 205, 206, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262, 263, 264, 267, 268, 302H, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 325, 370, 398 (based on topic), 433, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 458, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 485, 500, 501, 513, 516, 517

Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European History: HIST 64, 161, 162, 163, 176H, 264, 398 (based on topic), 477, 478, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484

United States History: HIST 53, 57, 66, 68, 70, 79, 110, 120, 121, 124, 125, 127, 128, 179H, 205, 206, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 239, 241, 242, 250, 302H, 325, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 398 (based on topic), 517, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 568, 569, 570, 571, 574, 576, 577, 581, 582, 584, 586, 587, 589, 622, 624, 625, 670, 671

Honors in History

The departmental honors program is open to any qualified history major with at least a 3.3 cumulative grade point average and, under normal circumstances, a 3.4 in history courses, and experience in research and writing derived from an undergraduate seminar in history (HIST 398). The student pursuing a degree in history with honors must take HIST 691H and 692H; these two courses contribute credit hours toward fulfilling field-of-concentration requirements, depending on the topic of the thesis. The student, in consultation with the honors director, will choose a topic and locate an appropriate faculty member to supervise a senior honors thesis. In 691H the mechanics of researching and writing a senior essay will be discussed and a start made on the essay itself. In 692H the essay will be completed and the student examined by the supervisor and at least one additional faculty member to be agreed upon by the student and supervisor. To receive highest honors the essay must be recommended by the examiners and a review committee. The director of honors, in consultation with the examiners and review committee, will recommend that the student who has defended the essay graduate with either honors or highest honors, or merely with course credit. Students should submit applications for the honors program by the end of February during their junior year. For detailed guidelines, contact the director of honors in the Department of History.

Joint Degree Program with the
National University of Singapore (NUS)

History majors may wish to consider applying for the Joint Degree Program, an innovative undergraduate degree program joining UNC–Chapel Hill and the National University of Singapore, one of the top universities in Asia and the world. UNC–Chapel Hill undergraduates spend from two to four semesters at the University of Singapore and receive a joint bachelor of arts degree with a major in history from both institutions. For further information about the Joint Degree Program, contact the Study Abroad Office and the director of undergraduate studies in the Department of History.

Minoring in History

The minor in history consists of five courses taken in the Department of History. A maximum of two courses can be numbered below 200. Students must have a grade of C or better in at least four of the five courses; three must be taken at UNC–Chapel Hill or a program officially sponsored by the University. No more than one course (three hours) of College Board Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate credit may count toward the minor.

Minoring in Medieval and Early Modern Studies (MEMS)

The undergraduate minor in medieval and early modern studies provides students with a broad, humanities-based approach to the rich and fascinating cultures that flourished globally from around 500 CE to 1800 CE. This interdisciplinary minor requires students to take five classes representing at least three different subject codes.

The following courses are approved for the MEMS minor. With the prior approval of the MEMS minor supervisor up to two courses can be applied to the minor as transfer credits from other institutions.

AMST/ANTH 54; AMST/HIST 110; ANTH 121; ARAB 433; ARTH 54, 151, 258, 264, 265, 270, 271, 274, 362, 363, 450, 466, 467, 471, 472, 490 (based on topic); ARTH/ASIA 154, 158, 251, 266, 273, 458, 561; ASIA/HIST 131, 135, 138; ASIA/RELI 180, 183, 284, 285, 487, 488, 489, 581, 582, 584; ASIA 300/RELI 283, ASIA 301/RELI 286, ASIA 303/RELI 288; CLAS 259; CLAS/CMPL 364; CMPL 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 223, 277, 452, 453, 454, 456, 458, 473, 478, 558; CMPL/ENGL 321, 621; ENGL 120, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 319, 320, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 418, 423, 424, 430, 525; ENGL/PWAD 660; FREN 370, 371, 387, 594; GERM 53, 58, 210, 216, 310, 500, 502, 505, 511, 514, 515, 615; GERM/WMST 220; HIST 107, 127, 142, 151, 156, 177, 228, 255, 398 (based on topic), 431, 432, 434, 435, 436, 437, 452, 453, 460, 461, 467, 473, 561, 574, 697; HIST/PWAD 254, 351; HIST/RELI 454; HIST/WMST 258, 280; ITAL 240, 241, 357, 370, 511; JAPN 377; LATN 205, 514, 530; MUSC 251; PHIL 215, 220, 415, 421, 422, 470; PORT 501; RELI 64, 161, 165, 362, 366, 367, 371, 450, 489, 525, 566, 586; RELI/SLAV 463; RELI/WMST 371; SLAV 500; SPAN 280, 371, 383, 384, 617, 650; WMST 294

Advising

All majors and minors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students are strongly encouraged to meet regularly with their advisors and review their Tar Heel Trackers each semester. The Department of History offers students numerous advising resources to assist them with all things related to studying history at UNC–Chapel Hill, from making the initial decision to become a history major or minor to thinking about what to do after they complete their degree. Although history majors are not assigned individual faculty advisors, they are strongly encouraged to seek out the advice of their professors during office hours, especially if they are considering an independent study project, senior honors thesis, or applying for graduate study. The undergraduate advisor serves as a general advising resource for all history majors and minors as well as first- and second-year students who are considering a major in history. Please see the Department of History's Web site: history.unc.edu/undergraduate-program/academic-advising.

Special Opportunities in History

Departmental Involvement

Students with broad interests in the intellectual and social life of the department may volunteer to serve on the department's Undergraduate Studies Committee (UGSC). Each spring the department invites majors to volunteer for the UGSC, and the selection is made at the start of the next fall semester by the faculty members on the UGSC. Students may also plan or participate in activities organized by the Undergraduate History Club. For more information about the UGSC and the History Club, please contact the coordinator for undergraduate studies in the Department of History.

Experiential Education

In some cases, students majoring in history may wish to pursue internship opportunities. Questions and requests regarding internships should be directed to the director of undergraduate studies, who has responsibility for evaluating internship proposals and deciding whether an internship may be taken for academic credit.

Study Abroad

The Department of History strongly encourages its students to explore the many study abroad opportunities provided by the Study Abroad Office. Whatever the student's field of concentration within the history major, the experience of studying abroad opens intellectual horizons that can be glimpsed only in unfamiliar worlds, and it deepens one's appreciation for the enduring power of historical context and circumstance.

As noted above, the Department of History participates in a unique joint degree program with the National University of Singapore. The department also has an exchange program with King's College in London. For further information about both programs, contact the Study Abroad Office and the director of undergraduate studies in the department.

Undergraduate Awards

All majors who complete the required undergraduate seminar are automatically eligible for the annual Joshua Meador Prize, awarded to the author of the best seminar paper written in the preceding calendar year. A named prize is also awarded to the author of the best honors thesis; the award is announced at the annual spring honors banquet.

The Department of History sponsors a chapter of Phi Alpha Theta, the national history honor society. Students who have taken 12 hours of history courses at UNC–Chapel Hill and who have an overall grade point average of 3.0 and an average in history courses of 3.1 are eligible to apply for membership. An announcement regarding applications for Phi Alpha Theta will be distributed to all history majors in the fall semester.

Undergraduate Research

The Department of History encourages undergraduate research in a variety of ways. The required seminar for majors (HIST 398) introduces students to historical research. The senior honors program (HIST 691H and 692H) gives students an opportunity to carry out a yearlong research project. In both the fall and spring semesters, senior honors students may apply for competitive awards, including the Michael L. and Matthew L. Boyatt Awards in History for Undergraduate Research and the David Anthony Kusa Undergraduate Research Award, to help support travel for the purpose of research.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Most history majors at UNC–Chapel Hill develop careers that do not involve practicing history in its narrow sense. These students work in a range of fields: business, law, journalism, education, and government, for example. These students have found that they can apply to many different tasks the skills that history teaches: analyzing, conceptualizing, investigating, researching, interpreting large amounts of information, as well as communicating through writing and speaking.

Many history majors enter professional schools in a number of different areas. Law school, business school, and medical school rank high in popularity. By teaching students how to analyze problems, how to understand society and human behavior, and how to communicate effectively, a major in history provides excellent preparation for enrollment in a professional school.

Some majors end up using history directly in their vocations. Those who wish to teach history at the secondary level in public schools must obtain appropriate certification, usually through an M.A.T. degree. Other students pursue graduate study by entering a master's degree program in history that requires a thesis and takes about two years to complete. A student can then decide whether to proceed into a Ph.D. program, which normally requires an additional two years of study and the completion of a doctoral dissertation. Students who decide to pursue a Ph.D. in history generally teach at the college level. Some complete a master's degree in public history and work for government archives at the national, state, or local levels or for private nonprofit organizations, such as groups interested in restoration work.

Contact Information

The coordinator for undergraduate studies, the undergraduate advisor, or the director of undergraduate studies, CB# 3195, 556 Hamilton Hall, (919) 962-9822. Web site: www.unc.edu/depts/history.

HIST

51 First-Year Seminar: Latin American Revolutions (3). This course explores the problem of revolutionary upheaval in Latin American history, from the revolutionary wars of the independence era (1810 to 1825) to revolutionary episodes of the 20th century.

52 First-Year Seminar: Conflicts over Israel/Palestine (3). This course will familiarize students with the background of this ongoing conflict. It will begin with the growth of political Zionism in Europe, continue through early Zionist settlement, the United Nations partition and resulting war, and the history of the conflict through the present.

53 First-Year Seminar: Traveling to European Cities: American Writers/Cultural Identities, 1830–1930 (3). This course examines the experiences of American writers who traveled and lived in European cities during the era between 1830 and 1930 with the goal of developing historical insights into these writers' fascination with famous European cities and the experience of travel.

54 First-Year Seminar: Interpreting the French Revolution, 1789–1815 (3). In this course, students will learn about the dominant interpretations of the French Revolution, elaborated over the course of the 20th century, and they will come to appreciate and criticize the work of those historians who have interpreted the evidence from the French Revolution over the past 60 years.

56 First-Year Seminar: World War I: History and Literature (3). This seminar will read and discuss powerful examples of literature (poetry, memoirs, and novels) produced during and after World War I that sought to come to terms with the trauma of this cataclysmic event in European history, the first experience of total war fought by modern, industrialized nations.

57 First-Year Seminar: History and Memory in the Modern South, 1865 to the Present (3). This course is organized around reading about and discussing the theme of history, memory, and popular culture in the post–Civil War South.

61 First-Year Seminar: Southeast Asia in Global Prospective (3). The course will examine some of the principal themes that have informed Southeast Asian history and continue to shape the area today. Students will focus on the relationship between material forces—environmental and economic primarily—as well as social, political, and cultural developments.

62 First-Year Seminar: Nations, Borders, and Identities (3). This seminar will explore the ways people have identified themselves in relation to specific places, nation-states, and foreign "others." Examples may include the Kurdish nationalists, Islamist political parties, the Eritrean independence movement, and the Basque separatists.

64 First-Year Seminar: Gorbachev: The Collapse of the Soviet Empire and the Rise of the New Russia (3). Examines Mikhail Gorbachev and the astonishing transformations that occurred while he governed the Soviet Union between 1985 and 1991. Students will explore post–Soviet Russia's efforts at negotiating a new set of relations with the rest of the world and how Russia continues to shape our own destiny.

66 First-Year Seminar: Film and History in Europe and the United States, 1908–1968 (3). This course will examine major films in Europe and America from 1908 to 1968 in terms of how they shaped the medium and reflected important social trends.

68 First-Year Seminar: American Dreams: Histories of Experience and Explanation, 1620–1900 (3). In this seminar, through systematic discussion and dialogue, students will explore dreams, visions, and apparitions in American history from the early years of colonial contact to the emergence of modern psychology around 1900.

70 First-Year Seminar: Exploring Cultural Landscapes: Chapel Hill as a Case Study (3). Course explores the concept of cultural landscapes as a way of studying history and its legacies. Through a combination of field work, historical research, and analysis, students use maps, photographs, GIS resources, and archival documents to understand how—and why—people in the past shaped our surroundings today.

72 First-Year Seminar: Women's Voices: 20th-Century European History in Female Memory (3). The course examines 20th-century European history through the lenses of women's autobiographical writings. It explores women's voices from different generational, social, and national backgrounds and asks what formed their memories.

73 First-Year Seminar: On the Train: Time, Space, and the Modern World (3). Beginning with a close reading of Wolfgang Schivelbusch's The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century, this course will examine how railway travel impacted American and European culture.

75 First-Year Seminar: Faith and Violence in the Middle Ages (3). This course will explore intersections of faith and violence in the Christian tradition from the period from 300 to 1300. It will examine mainstream Christian attitudes toward non-Christians (pagans, Jews, Muslims) and nonorthodox groups (heretics).

76 First-Year Seminar: Understanding 1492 (3). This seminar will examine one of the most challenging topics in American and Latin American history: how to understand the conquest (la conquista) of Latin America by the Spaniards after the arrival of Columbus in 1492.

77 First-Year Seminar: Seeing the Past (3). This seminar will introduce students to practices of critical analysis that inform academic work in all the core humanistic disciplines: how do we ask analytical questions about texts, artwork, and other cultural artifacts that come down to us from the past or circulate in our own culture?

79 First-Year Seminar: Coming of Age in 20th-Century America (3). We will employ coming of age autobiographies to explore developments in the United States during the 20th century. In these autobiographies the authors focus primarily on the periods of childhood and adolescence into young adulthood. We will consider many issues including race, racism, immigration, religion, social class, and gender.

82 First-Year Seminar: The Search for Modern Jewish Identity (3). This course explores diverse experiences of modernity among Jewish populations from the mid-18th century to the present under the influence of political, cultural, and socioeconomic changes. Diaries, memoirs, literature, and film challenge students to develop their own analyses while becoming familiar with arguments among scholars of Jewish life.

83 First-Year Seminar: African History through Popular Music (3). Examines popular music as a way of understanding African history from the 1930s to the present. We will read background materials on African historical developments and musical styles, do a lot of listening, and try to learn what African musicians tell us about their societies.

84 First-Year Seminar: Monsters, Murders, and Mayhem in Microhistorical Analysis: French Case Studies (3). Explores the distinctive features of microhistorical approaches to the past and the attractions of microhistory for the practicing historian. Students will read a rich sampling of recent work (much of it featuring monsters, murder, and mayhem) and try their hand at writing their own microhistories.

89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

106 Ancient History (3). A topical survey of the ancient world, especially the civilization of the Near East, Greece, and Rome.

107 Medieval History (3). A survey of Western Europe and the Mediterranean World, 300 to 1500.

110 Introduction to the Cultures and Histories of Native North America (AMST 110) (3). An interdisciplinary introduction to Native American history and studies. The course uses history, literature, art, and cultural studies to study the Native American experience.

120 Sport and American History (3). A survey of American sport history, from the colonial era to the present. Course will explore how sports have reflected larger trends in American life and analyze the different ways sports have influenced American history and shaped the world we occupy today.

121 History of Religion in North America (3). Surveys religious thought and practice in the United States and Canada from the colonial era to the present day. Themes include continuities and changes in expressing ancient faiths; the relationship between religion and politics; the intersection of theology with everyday life; and evolving notions of religious truth and toleration.

124 United States History through Film (3). Explores the history of the United States through films made about various historical eras. For each film, the instructor will lecture on the time period(s), the class will read relevant primary and secondary sources, and then the class will watch and discuss the film.

125 The Social History of Popular Music in 20th-Century America (3). Explores the relationship between popular music and major developments in 20th-century America. The course's overarching focus is how popular music has simultaneously unified and divided the nation.

127 American History to 1865 (3). A survey of various aspects of American development during the colonial, revolutionary, and national periods, with stress upon major themes and interpretations.

128 American History since 1865 (3). A survey of various aspects of American development during a century of rapid industrial, social, political, and international change, with stress upon major themes and interpretations.

130 Modern African History (3). An overview of major developments in sub-Saharan African history since the late 19th century, focusing on colonialism, nationalism and decolonization, social change, and current issues, and drawing upon fiction, film, and primary sources.

131 Southeast Asia to the Early 19th Century (ASIA 131) (3). The history of Southeast Asia from prehistory to "high imperialism." Long-term political, economic, social, and religious developments, including Indianization, the impact of China, and the first contacts with Europeans.

132 Southeast Asia since the Early 19th Century (ASIA 132, PWAD 132) (3). Comparative colonialism, nationalism, revolution, and independence movements. Topics include Indonesia and the Dutch, Indochina under French rule, United States involvement in the Philippines and Vietnam, communist and peasant movements, Cambodian revolution.

133 Introduction to Chinese History (ASIA 133) (3). Chinese history from its beginnings to the present, organized around the central theme of how the identity of China and "Chineseness" was created.

134 Modern East Asia (ASIA 134, PWAD 134) (3). Comparative and interdisciplinary introduction to China and Japan in the 19th and 20th centuries, focusing on impact of the West, nation building, industrialization, and evolution of mass society.

135 History and Culture of Hindus and Muslims: South Asia to 1750 (ASIA 135) (3). An introduction to major political, religious, social, and cultural events from 3500 BCE to 1750 CE with a focus on Hindu, Muslim, and Buddhist groups before British colonial rule.

136 History of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh: South Asia since 1750 (ASIA 136) (3). This course is an introduction to modern India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. We will investigate major political, social, economic, and cultural issues from 1750 to the present.

138 History of Muslim Societies to 1500 (ASIA 138) (3). A broad, comprehensive, and interdisciplinary introduction to the traditional civilization of the Muslim world.

139 History of Muslim Societies since 1500 (ASIA 139) (3). A broad interdisciplinary survey of the later Islamic empires since the 15th century and their successor societies in the modern Muslim world.

140 The World since 1945 (3). This introduction to the
contemporary world examines the Cold War and its international aftermath, decolonization, national development across a variety of cases, and trends in the global economy.

142 Latin America under Colonial Rule (3). Social and economic development under colonial rule, especially in Mexico and Peru.

143 Latin America since Independence (3). A general introduction to Latin American society, culture, politics, and economics from a historical perspective. Focus will be on the events of the past two centuries.

151 European History to 1650 (3). European history from Greek antiquity to the mid-17th century.

152 European History since 1650 (3). European history from the middle of the 17th century to the present.

153 Jewish History from the Crusades to the European Enlightenment (JWST 153) (3). This course studies the history of the Jews of Europe and their relations with Christians. It explores the development and richness of Jewish life but also episodes of persecution. It investigates the impact of major religious and political events, such as the crusades or the Renaissance, on the Jews.

156 English History to 1688 (3). Prehistoric and Roman Britain, Dark Age and medieval England, Reformation, founding of the colonies, revolutions scientific and political. An introductory survey for first-year students and sophomores.

157 History of Britain since 1688 (3). Explores the interplay between Britain's domestic history and her European, transatlantic, and wider global engagements from the Glorious Revolution through the present day. Focuses on social and economic thought, Parliament, London's urban and class structures, religious and ethnic strife, racial and gender difference, and literary, cinematic, and artistic expression.

158 Early Modern European History, 1450–1815 (3). Intellectual and social structures, dynamics of social and political change, principles of authority, and bases of revolution from the Reformation to the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic period.

159 20th-Century Europe (EURO 159) (3). A critical overview of 20th-century European history, with particular attention to the constant ethnic, religious, social, economic, and cultural struggles (including Holocaust, Cold War) in various subunits of the old continent.

161 Russia Becomes an Empire (3). Between 862 and 1861 Russia expanded from agrarian settlements into Europe's most formidable empire. Subjugated by Mongols in 1240, it recovered and absorbed territories from Poland to Alaska. Conquest came on the backs of an enserfed peasantry, whose emancipation began the next chapter in Russia's history.

162 Russia under the Last Tsars and Soviet Commissars (3). This course surveys fundamental issues affecting the Russian/Soviet/post-Soviet multinational empire in the last century and a half, emphasizing regime failures, revolutions, wars, and ethnic challenges.

163 Modern Central Asia (3). Provides an understanding of significant contemporary developments in Central Asia—9/11, the Taliban, oil and gas geopolitics, Communism and its collapse, the rise of China, Islamism, and global terrorism—through an analysis of themes in the region's history, with a focus on the 19th and 20th centuries.

174H Honors Seminar in African, Asian, and Middle Eastern History (3). Examines selected themes in the history of Africa, Asia, and/or the Middle East. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: colonialism, resistance movements, religion, gender, economic transformations.

175H Honors Seminar in Latin American History (3). Examines selected themes in the history of Latin America. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: indigenous societies, colonialism, religion, the family, economic transformations.

176H Honors Seminar in Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European History (3). Examines selected themes in the history of Russia, Eurasia, and/or Eastern Europe. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: imperialism, revolution, the Soviet Union, war and society.

177H Honors Seminar in Early European History (3). Examines selected themes in the history of Europe from ancient to early modern times. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: legacies of antiquity, philosophy and religion, feudal society, gender, and power.

178H Honors Seminar in Modern European History (3). Examines selected themes in the history of modern Europe. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: effects of industrialism, nationalism, history of ideas, consumer society, modern revolutions, imperialism.

179H Honors Seminar in American History (3). Examines selected themes in American history. Theme(s) chosen by the instructor. Possible subjects: colonial diversity, emerging nation, intellectual traditions, labor and capitalism, slavery and race relations, markets and political power, war and society.

190 Special Topics in History (3). Subject matter will vary with instructor but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from the departmental office. Closed to graduate students.

202 Borders and Crossings (3). This course will examine how collective identities have been created, codified, and enforced; and will explore possibilities for building bridges between groups in order to resolve conflicts.

203 Empires and Cultures in the Modern World (3). This course will examine the relationship between Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and the making of the modern world in the 20th century.

205 International Relations, 1618–1815 (3). The history of European international politics from the outbreak of the Thirty Years War to the Congress of Vienna. Considers the sources of national power, the reasons for war, and the changing nature of diplomacy.

206 International Relations, 1815–1945 (3). The history of international politics from the fall of Napoleon to the end of the Second World War, with special attention to European nationalism, imperialism, the emergence of non-European great powers, the reasons for war, and the search for peace.

210 Global Issues in the 20th Century (ANTH 210, GEOG 210, GLBL 210, POLI 210) (3). See GLBL 210 for description.

212 History of Sea Power (PWAD 212) (3). The influence of sea power on international affairs will be surveyed from ancient times to the present. Emphasis on United States naval history and its interaction with diplomacy, economics, and technology.

213 Air Power and Modern Warfare (AERO 213, PWAD 213) (3). Examines air power theory and practice from 1914 to the present. Focuses on the application of air power as an instrument of war and the effectiveness of that application.

215 Peace and War (3). The emphasis will be historical, with conceptual tools from other disciplines used when appropriate. Theoretical explanations, militarism, the international system, internal order, and the search for peace will be examined.

225 History of Greece (3). A survey of Greek history and culture from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic period.

226 History of Rome (3). Origins to the first two centuries CE. Focuses upon Rome's growth as a world power and the shift from republican government to autocracy.

227 Cathedral and Castle in Medieval England (3). An approach to the Middle Ages through the architectural masterpieces of medieval England.

228 The Medieval Expansion of Europe (3). This course examines the formation of Christian Europe and its relationship with the wider world through the lens of European expansionism.

231 Native American History: The East (AMST 231) (3). See AMST 231 for description.

232 History of Native Americans in the Southeast (3). An examination of selected topics concerning the most significant Native American cultures and tribes in the southeastern United States from the earliest times to the present.

233 Native American History: The West (AMST 233) (3). Deals with the histories of Native Americans living west of the Mississippi River. It begins in the pre-Columbian past and extends to the end of the 19th century.

234 Native American Tribal Studies (AMST 234, ANTH 234) (3). This course introduces students to a tribally specific body of knowledge. The tribal focus of the course and the instructor change from term to term.

235 Native America in the 20th Century (AMST 235) (3). See AMST 235 for description.

239 Religion in North America since 1865 (3). A survey of modern religion in the United States and Canada. Themes include religious pluralism; new religious movements, immigrant faiths; the relationship between religion and urban life, industrialization, and new science; religion and foreign affairs; questions of church and state; and the conflict between secular modernity and religious fundamentalism.

240 Introduction to Mexico: A Nation in Four Revolutions (3). History of Mexico seen through four moments of change: conquest, independence, 19th-century reforms, and 20th-century revolution. This course is an introductory survey for students who want to know more about Mexico, its place in Latin America, and its relations with the United States.

241 History of Latinos in the United States (3). A comparative examination of the historical experiences of Latinos in the United States, from the 19th century to the present, drawing on experiences of Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and Central Americans. Special emphasis on the events, people, and ideas that have made distinctive contributions.

242 United States-Latin American Relations (3). This course examines the history of United States involvement in Latin America and the Caribbean. The material will cover two centuries of United States intervention, from the wars of the 19th century to the covert CIA operations of the Cold War and the more recent wars on drugs and terror.

250 Human Rights in the Modern World (3). This course looks at the international history of human rights from the Enlightenment to the present and considers how human rights ideas first emerged, how they evolved, and how they became so influential.

251 The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648): Europe in an Age of Crisis (PWAD 251) (3). A critical examination of the significance of the Thirty Years' War for 17th-century Europe's social, religious, military, and geopolitical history. The representation of the conflict in art and literature also receives attention.

253 Art and Power in Early Modern Europe (3). This seminar interrogates the relationship between art and political power in the 15th through 17th centuries, assessing the nature of visual propaganda and art as an effective means of early modern communication, with special emphasis on gendered conceptions of power.

254 War and Society in Early Modern Europe (PWAD 254) (3). A critical examination, from the Renaissance to the Napoleonic period, of the changes in European land and naval warfare and their impact on society and government.

255 Manor to Machine: The Economic Shaping of Europe (3). From agriculture to industry, Europe's march to industrialization. Survey from the medieval manor through revival of trade, rise of towns, credit and capitalism, overseas expansion and mercantilism to the Industrial Revolution.

257 Society and Culture in Postwar Germany (GERM 257, POLI 257, SOCI 257) (3). See GERM 257 for description.

258 Women in Europe before 1750 (WMST 258) (3). The female experience in preindustrial Europe (from Ancient Greece to the Industrial Revolution).

259 Women and Gender in Europe, 18th–20th Century (WMST 259) (3). This course examines and compares the situation of women and men in politics, the work force, society and family from the era of the late Enlightenment and the French Revolution to the new women's movement in the 1970s with a focus on Britain, France and Germany. One major theme is the history of the struggle for women's emancipation.

260 East Central Europe from the 18th Century to the Present (3). A study in the emergence of nations of Eastern Europe, their internal development, mutual conflicts, and struggle for independence.

262 History of the Holocaust: The Destruction of the European Jews (JWST 262, PWAD 262) (3). Anti-Semitism; the Jews of Europe; the Hitler dictatorship; evolution of Nazi Jewish policy from persecution to the Final Solution; Jewish response; collaborators, bystanders, and rescuers; aftermath.

263 War and Gender in Movies (PWAD 263, WMST 262) (3). The course examines the interrelations between changes in warfare, the military system, and the gender order in Europe from medieval to modern time, and its reflection in international movies.

264 Gender in Russian History (WMST 264) (3). Traces the development of sexual identities and changes in masculine and feminine ideals from Tsarist Russia through the post-Soviet period with emphasis on politics, society, and popular culture.

267 Gender, Military, and Society in Europe from the 16th to the 20th Century (3). The course examines the interrelations between changes in warfare, the military system, and the gender order in 16th- to 20th-century Europe, with a focus on the modern period.

268 War, Revolution, and Culture: Trans-Atlantic Perspectives, 1750–1850 (3). The course explores the dramatic historical changes from 1750 to 1850 and their intersection with and reflection in arts, literature, and music in a trans-Atlantic perspective.

271 Premodern Japanese History and Culture (JAPN 231) (3). See JAPN 231 for description.

274 History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923 (3). Approaches the history of the Ottoman Empire from a world historical perspective. Situates the Ottoman imperial experience in relation to Muslim, Mongolian, and Byzantine traditions. Discusses the early modern and modern transformation of the Ottoman Empire and its legacy for contemporary Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.

275 History of Iraq (ASIA 275, PWAD 275) (3). History of Iraq from ancient times to the present.

276 The Modern Middle East (ASIA 276) (3). This course introduces students to the recent history of the Middle East, including a comparison of the Middle East to the United States.

277 The Conflict over Israel/Palestine (ASIA 277, PWAD 277) (3). Explores the conflict over Palestine during the last 100 years. Surveys the development of competing nationalisms, the contest for resources and political control that led to the partition of the region, the war that established a Jewish state, and the subsequent struggles between conflicting groups for land and independence.

278 The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (3). Slavery in select African communities, economic and political foundations of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and its impact on African and New World societies.

279 Modern South Africa (3). Beginning with the discovery of gold and diamonds in the mid-19th century and reaching to the present, this course considers colonialism, industrialization, social change, and political protest in South Africa, with particular attention to the rise, fall, and legacies of apartheid.

280 Women and Gender in Latin American History (WMST 280) (3). Examines the experiences of women and gender relations in Latin American societies from pre-Columbian times to the

present, providing a new perspective on the region's historical development.

281 The Pacific War, 1937–1945: Its Causes and Legacy (ASIA 281, PWAD 281) (3). An examination of the origins of the Pacific War, the course of this bitter and momentous conflict, and its complex legacy for both Asia and the United States.

282 China in the World (ASIA 282) (3). See ASIA 282 for description.

284 Late Imperial China (3). This course introduces undergraduates to significant themes of the Ming (1368–1644) and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties. Topics include family, religion, art, fiscal change, trade networks, conquest, emperorship, Manchu ethnicity, the examination system and book culture, legal codes, gender, the Taiping Rebellion, and the Boxer Uprising, among others. No prior coursework required.

285 20th-Century China (3). China today is poised to become the next world superpower. What is the story of its modern transformation? This lecture course will introduce undergraduates to the history of 20th-century China, through a thematic approach to its culture, politics, and society. No prior coursework required.

286 Samurai, Peasant, Merchant, and Outcaste: Japan under the Tokugawa, 1550–1850 (ASIA 286). Japanese society in the last great age of samurai rule. From small villages to the largest cities of the preindustrial world, students explore the realities of life for "traditional" Japan.

287 Japan's Modern Revolution (ASIA 287) (3). Covering the period from 1600 to 1900, this course examines the causes and impact of the Meiji Restoration of 1868, which marked the start of modern Japan.

288 Japan in the 20th Century (ASIA 288) (3). Topics include the Japanese Empire, the road to the Pacific War, defeat, the Allied occupation, Japan's recovery from war, and development into a democracy and the world's second largest economy.

289 Historical Problems (3). This is an intensive readings course designed to introduce students to ongoing debates in the historical profession. Specific debate and theme to be chosen by the instructor.

291 Putting Literature and History in Dialogue (3). Dialogues between historiographic and fictional treatments of important historical problems. Explores works of history and literature to determine how different genres of writing give meaning to the past.

302H Film and History in Europe and the United States, 1908–1968 (3). This course explains how and why certain films helped shape the medium even as they reflected broader aspects of historical change. Beginning with the development of narrative film in 1908, the course looks at those nationally specific genres that had repercussions beyond national borders, ending in about 1968.

306 History of Britain in the 19th Century (3). This course explores British political, social, and cultural history from Waterloo through the South African War, emphasizing the rise of limited democracy, labor and social movements that included anti-slavery and women's suffrage, and attempts to eradicate urban and rural poverty.

307 History of Britain in the 20th Century (3). This course
explores British political, social and cultural history, 1890–present, emphasizing Britain's engagements in two global wars and a declining empire; the extension of democracy; the welfare state; and an emerging diverse racial, ethnic, and religious society displaying persistent class differences.

308 European Renaissance and the Jews (JWST 308) (3). The Renaissance (1300–1600) is known as a time of great artistic, scientific, and political renewal. But did Jews, the only religious minority in Europe, get an opportunity to benefit from and participate in that progress? This class studies the history of the Jews at a time of great cultural change.

309 Old Regime France, 1661–1787 (3). This course focuses on the period in French history between the ascendancy of absolute monarchy in the middle of the 17th century and the collapse of absolutism at the onset of the French Revolution.

310 The French Revolution (3). The French Revolution was a source of much that the modern world recognizes as its own: nationalism, human rights, class conflict, ideology, communism, conservatism, show trials, citizen armies, terrorism, and the concept of revolution itself. This course probes issues that underlie the continuing relevance of the French Revolution today.

325 Food and History: The Local and Global, the United Kingdom and the United States (3). An examination of how food, its production, distribution, and consumption have shaped the history of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the world at large. The course will study how these nations and their empires have been intertwined but remained distinctive from colonial times to the present.

331 Sex, Religion, and Violence: Revolutionary Thought in Modern South Asia (3). Which of the following would you consider potentially political issues: celibacy; semen retention; body-building; depiction of gods/goddesses; or bomb making? Well, they all are. This course examines debates over sex, religion, and violence that constituted a key part of revolutionary thought and anti-colonial struggles in modern South Asia.

345 Comparative Strategies of Empire (3). This team-taught course compares premodern empires, inquiring into rulers' strategies and subject peoples' experiences. Empires studied will depend on instructors' areas of expertise, but may include Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Incas, West Africans, Mughals, and Ottomans, among others. We anticipate comparing three premodern empires in any given semester.

351 Global History of Warfare (3). The history of warfare from its prehistoric origins to the present. The focus is on interactions between peoples around the world and particularly on the problems of innovation and adaptation.

355 American Women's History to 1865 (3). This course will explore women's experiences in America from 1500 to 1865. Topics will include the ways in which women have shaped American politics, economy, society, and culture.

356 American Women's History: 1865 to the Present (3). This course will examine the changing lives of women in the United States after 1865: their contribution to the economy, society, cultural change, and political struggles.

357 Childhood in America (3). An examination of the changing history of childhood (emphasizing preadolescence) from the colonial times through slavery, homeless news boys, and the Great Depression to the present. Materials will include a variety of primary documents (novels, letters, slave narratives, prints and drawings, films) as well as recent scholarship.

358 American Sexualities (3). An introduction to the history of sexuality in North America from the colonial period to the sexual revolution, this course critically examines such issues as regulation, reproduction, reform, and identity.

359 Global Evangelicalism since 1600 (3). This is a survey of evangelical Christianity from 1600 to the present. We will trace the roots of evangelicalism in post–Reformation Europe, its diverse expressions and political influence in modern Western culture, and its recent spread throughout the Global South.

360 Modern American Intellectual History (3). This course surveys questions that have preoccupied leading thinkers and shaped intellectual culture in America since 1870. Themes include the problem of defining American identity, the clash between faith and reason, social injustice, the meaning of "modernity," the power and pitfalls of ideology, conceptions of human nature.

362 Baseball and American History (3). Course explores the historical significance of baseball in American life, using the history of the game to investigate topics such as industrialization, urbanization, and immigration; conflicts between labor and capital; racial prejudice and integration; patriotism and American identity; evolving gender ideals; and the role of myth in American culture.

363 Popular Culture and American History (3). Study of the popular arts and entertainments of the 19th and 20th centuries and the ways in which they illuminate the values, assumptions, aspirations, and fears of American society.

364 History of American Business (MNGT 364) (3). A survey of the rise and development of the major financial, commercial, manufacturing, and transportation enterprises that transformed the United States from an agricultural into a leading industrial nation.

365 The Worker and American Life (MNGT 365) (3). From the experience of colonial artisans to contemporary factory and office workers, organized and unorganized, this course examines the effect of the industrial revolution on the American social and political landscape.

366 North Carolina History before 1865 (3). The history of North Carolina from the original Indian cultures to the end of the Civil War. Important topics include colonization, the American Revolution, evangelical religion, slavery, economic and political reform, the rise of sectionalism, and the Civil War.

367 North Carolina History since 1865 (3). The history of North Carolina from the end of the Civil War to the present. Important topics include Reconstruction, agrarian protests, disfranchisement and segregation, industrialization and workers' experience, the civil rights movement, and 20th-century politics.

368 War and American Society to 1903 (PWAD 368) (3). The American military experience from colonial times to the early 20th century. Major themes include the problem of security, the development of military policies and institutions, and the way in which the country waged and experienced war.

369 War and American Society, 1903 to the Present (PWAD 369) (3). Survey of America's military experience in the 20th century, focusing on national security policy, military institutions, World Wars I and II, the Cold War, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and recent interventions.

370 Women in the Age of Victoria (3). Students will study the impact of culture on the lives of women in Britain and the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

371 Emancipation in the New World (AAAD 385) (3). Will examine the way that the process of emancipation unfolded in Haiti, Jamaica, and Cuba, with major emphasis on emancipation in the United States.

372 Politics and Society since the New Deal (3). Diverse developments as interpreted within the framework of certain broad and open-ended themes, particularly individual freedom, social welfare, mass culture, and community.

373 The United States in World War II (PWAD 373) (3). A history of the United States in World War II (1941–1945): home front and military front.

374 The American West, 1800 to the Present (3). A survey and interpretation of the American West in the 19th and 20th centuries, emphasizing the special role of the West in the evolution of American history and the development of contemporary American society.

375 History of Gender in America (WMST 375) (3). See WMST 375 for description.

376 History of African Americans to 1865 (3). Survey of African American history to abolition of slavery in North America with some attention to experiences of people of African descent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

377 History of African Americans, 1865 to Present (3). Survey of African American history since emancipation in North America with some attention to experiences of people of African descent in Latin America and the Caribbean.

378 Slavery and Place: The South Carolina Case (3). This Maymester three-week course will examine slavery in the American South by focusing on slavery in South Carolina both on large plantations and in the urban setting of Charleston.

379 Race, Segregation, and Political Protest in South Africa and the United States (3). This course explores the origins, consolidation, and unmaking of segregationist social orders in the American South and South Africa from the colonial era up to the 20th century.

380 Quilting African American Family History (3). Examines methods African American people used to create the family as an institution once they became free. Looks at families under segregation and Jim Crow, through the civil rights movement, to the growth of a black middle and underclass. Also explores nontraditional African American families, including interracial and gay families.

381 Bebop to Hip-Hop: The Modern Black Freedom Struggle through Music (3). The struggle for freedom has been a pivotal theme in African American history. This course turns to music to explore the shifting contours and permutations of that struggle between the 1940s and 1990s.

390 Special Topics in History (3). Subject matter will vary with instructor but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from departmental office. Closed to graduate students. Repeatable for credit.

398 Undergraduate Seminar in History (3). Permission of the department. The course is in general limited to 15 students. The subject matter will vary with the instructor. Each course will concern itself with a study in depth of some historical problem. Students will write a substantial research paper.

420 Politics and Religion in Ancient Greece (3). This course deals with ancient Greek religious practices and seeks to place them in their legal, political, and cultural contexts, and thus integrate them into the study of Greek history.

421 Alexander (PWAD 421) (3). The rise of Macedonia; the careers of Philip II and Alexander (with emphasis on the latter's campaigns); the emerging Hellenistic Age. The course integrates computer (including Web site) and audiovisual materials throughout.

422 Ancient Greek Warfare (PWAD 422) (3). War and the warrior in the archaic and classical Greek world, seventh to the fourth centuries BCE.

423 Archaic Greece, 800–480 BCE (3). HIST 225 strongly recommended. Topical approach to the social and cultural history of the ancient Greek city states, ca. 800–336 BCE.

424 Classical Greece (Sixth–Fourth Centuries BCE) (3). HIST 225 strongly recommended. The life and times of the ancient Athenians from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.

425 Roman History, 154 BCE–14 CE (3). Explores the transformation from Republic to Principate. Conducted in considerable part by student reports and classroom discussions.

427 The Early Roman Empire, 14 CE–193 CE (3). Focuses upon administrative, social, and economic themes. Conducted in considerable part by student reports and classroom discussions.

428 The Later Roman Empire, 193 CE–378 CE (3). Focuses upon administrative, social, and economic themes. Conducted in considerable part by student reports and classroom discussions.

431 The Medieval Church (3). The nature and workings of the Western church between roughly 600 and 1300. Emphasis on the church "from within," organization, missionary strategies, liturgy, monasticism, popular religion.

432 The Crusades (3). Students in this course will examine Christian attitudes toward holy war, crusading, and other forms of coercive violence from the 11th until the 15th centuries, with a focus on the major crusades to the Holy Land.

433 English Society, 1200–1700 (3). Examines critical issues in the development of English society and economy in the centuries before industrialization.

434 Medieval England (3). A consideration of England's origins, unification, and development as a national monarchy. Primary emphasis is on political, ecclesiastical, and cultural aspects.

435 The Medieval University (3). The origins and development of the university during the period 1100 to 1400; types of organization, curricula and degrees, intellectual life, town-gown and student-master relationships.

436 Medieval Theology, Gender, and the Body (3). This course will explore notions of male and female sanctity from Late Antiquity to the High Middle Ages. Topics will include martyrdom, the cult of relics, and bodily resurrection.

437 Aristocratic Culture in the Central Middle Ages (3). This course has as its theme the lives of aristocratic men and women in western Europe between about 850 and 1200 CE. Discusses the nature of aristocratic identity, the trends that shaped the lives of aristocratic men and women, and the different roles of men and women within aristocratic culture.

438 Medieval Masculinities, 500–1200 (3). This course examines the multifaceted constructions of masculinity found in narrative texts produced in medieval western Europe. Focuses on topics such as gender relations, male self-fashioning, homosocial bonding, family structures. Sources studied range from epic and romance to chronicles and visual records.

451 1492: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (JWST 451) (3). The largest and most prosperous Jewry of Europe lived in medieval Spain. The 1492 expulsion, driven by the Inquisition and Catholic monarchy, not only ended Spanish Jewish life but also forced a traumatic redefinition of Jewish identity. This course focuses on the causes and consequences of the expulsion of 1492.

452 The Renaissance: Italy, Birthplace of the Renaissance, 1300–1550. (3). A study of the people, culture, and intellectual achievements of the Italian Renaissance with emphasis on the interaction between culture and society.

453 Mediterranean Societies and Economics in the Renaissance World (3). A picture of Mediterranean social and economic life 1300 to 1600, with special focus on rural and urban society, family structure, patronage, work and wages, public and private finance.

454 The Reformation (RELI 454) (3). Examines a movement of religious reform that shattered Latin Christendom and contributed many of the conditions of early modern Europe. Emphases: religious, political, social.

455 Europe in the 17th Century (3). The century marks the watershed in European development. Emphases: statecraft, the emerging state-system, the new scientific world view, the evolution of European society.

458 Europe and the World Wars, 1914–1945 (3). Europe and the experience of total war, with special focus on national conflicts; ideological conflicts among fascism, communism, and liberalism; and the dictatorships of Hitler and Stalin.

460 Late Medieval and Reformation Germany (3). Examines the major late medieval religious, social, and political developments plus the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Topics include Luther's theology, the German Peasant's War, Jewish-Christian relations, witch-hunting, and family life.

461 Early Modern Germany, 1600–1815 (3). Examines major political, social, and cultural developments. Topics include the growth of absolutist government, Prussia's militarism and rivalry with Austria, German Jewry, Baroque music, the Enlightenment, and the Napoleonic wars.

462 Germany, 1806–1918: Politics, Society, and Culture (3). This course examines the changes in German politics, culture, and society during the long 19th century, with a focus on the Anti-Napoleonic Wars and the following era of restoration, the Vormärz and the Democratic Revolution of 1848 to1849, the German Unification of 1871 and the Wilhelmine Empire, and finally World War I.

463 Germany since 1918: Politics, Society, and Culture (3). This course examines the changes in German politics, culture, and society during the 20th century, with a focus on the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich and World War II, the reshaping of East and West Germany since the post-war era, and the unification in 1989.

464 History of Spain (3). A survey of Spanish history from the Islamic invasion to Napoleon. Particular attention will be given to the period of the Hapsburgs, 1516 to 1700.

465 Intellectual History of Europe, Early Period (3). The course examines the gradual erosion of and criticism within the classical Christian tradition that led to the emergence of a new mentality by the end of the 17th century. Two lectures, one discussion per week.

466 Modern European Intellectual History (3). The main developments in European thought from the Enlightenment to the 20th century, with some attention to social context. Readings include Voltaire, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Tocqueville, Sand, Flaubert, Nietzsche, Freud.

467 Society and Family in Early Modern Europe (3). A survey of changes in social organization, family life, courtship practices, sexual behavior, and the relations between the economy and population that occurred in preindustrial Europe, 1500–1815.

468 Art, Politics, and Society in France, 1850–1914 (ARTH 483) (3). See ARTH 483 for description.

469 European Social History, 1815–1970 (3). The social transformation of Europe from agrarian through postindustrial society, discussing population growth, family history, spread of education, class structure, social conflict, group ideologies, and mass politics, as well as everyday lives and popular lifestyles.

470 The Scientific Revolution (3). Traces the creation of scientific thought 1500 to 1700, from Leonardo to Newton, examining the various strands—Greek science, art, engineering, experimentation, occultism, etc.—woven into it.

471 History of Science from Newton to Einstein (3). A survey of the development since 1700 of the various branches of physical and biological science, culminating in the 20th-century revolution in physics.

472 Medicine and Health in Early Modern Europe (3). Shows how the age of Shakespeare and Newton (16th- to 17th-century England) fused old and new ideas about medicine and health, anticipating some of our own beliefs and practices.

473 Tudor and Stuart England, 1485–1660 (3). A lecture course, open to juniors, seniors, and graduate students.

477 Revolution in Russia, 1900–1930 (3). A close study of Russia's age of revolution from the reign of the last tsar to the turbulent Stalin Revolution of 1929, with emphasis on the revolutions of 1917.

478 Stalin and After: The USSR, 1929–Present (3). An in-depth examination of Soviet and post-Soviet history from 1929 to the present.

479 History of Female Sexualities in the West (WMST 479) (3). Spanning the ancient, medieval, and modern West, this course explores normative and non-normative female sexualities, ideas about female bodies, and the regulation of female sexuality by families, religions, and states.

480 Russia, 1796–1917 (3). The diplomatic, military, and ideological confrontations with the West; the decline and fall of the Russian autocracy; the evolution of reform thought; and revolutionary opposition.

481 Eastern Europe since World War II (3). An examination of the countries of Eastern Europe, their origins and development since World War II, their cohesion and conflict.

482 Russia, Eurasian Empire (3). This course examines the development of the Russian Empire, from the Mongol conquest in the 13th century to the transformation of Imperial Russia in the Soviet Union after 1917.

483 Nation and Religion in Tsarist and Soviet Russia (3). This course explores the role of nation and religion in shaping political, cultural, and social experience and change in Tsarist and Soviet Russia through the prism of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.

484 Islam in Tsarist and Soviet Russia (3). This course examines the role that Islam has played in the history of the Russian sphere—interior Russia, Siberia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia—from the 18th century to the present. Topics include methods of rule, social change, Islamic institutions, attempts to bureaucratize religion, and resistance.

485 Modern East European Jewish History (JWST 485) (3). Eastern Europe was one of the largest centers of Jewish civilization from premodern times to the Second World War, giving rise to important religious, cultural, and political developments in Jewish modernity. This course examines main developments of Jewish society from the late 18th century until the aftermath of the Holocaust.

490 Special Topics in History (3). Subject matter will vary with instructor but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from the departmental office.

493 Internship in History (1–3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. A supervised internship at an organization or institution engaged in the promotion of historical studies or the collection and preservation of historical documents and artifacts.

496 Independent Studies in History (1–3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Special reading and research, supervised by a member of the department, in a selected field of history. Prior coursework in the selected field is recommended.

500 Gender, Empire, and Nation in Europe and Beyond, 18th to the 20th Century (WMST 500). This course explores the growing body of research on gender, empire, and nation/nationalism in modern European history by focusing on problems of national belongings and citizenship, state and nation building and empire formation, and the gendered discourses and representations of nation and empire.

501 The Gender of Welfare: Comparative Perspectives, 19th and 20th Century (WMST 501) (3). This course explores the growing body of research on gender and welfare in a comparative perspective by focusing on the sexual division of labor in the workforce and the family, related social and family policies, including child care, and social citizenship in a comparative perspective.

513 Imperialism and the Third World (3). This course explores the processes by which 19th-century imperialism set the contours of the modern world, establishing relations among societies and reconfiguring both colonial cultures and European cultures.

514 Monuments and Memory (3). Museums and monuments have played a key role in the formation of cultural memory and identity, both nationally and globally. This course explores the relation between museums and monuments historically and theoretically, and relates them to national and international developments in the 19th and 20th centuries.

516 Historical Time (3). This course explores the ways in which Western historians and other students of the past from Adam Ferguson to Stephen Jay Gould have conceptualized and packaged historical time.

517 Military, War, and Gender in Comparative Perspective (PWAD 517, WMST 517) (3). This course introduces students to new research on the history of gender, the military and war in a comparative perspective. It explores the interrelations between changing military systems, types of warfare, the gender order as well as political, social and cultural currents with a focus on the 19th and/or 20th century.

526 History of the Andes (3). This course offers a survey of the history of the Andean region. The primary focus will be either the pre-Inca, Inca, and colonial periods or the 19th and 20th centuries, depending on the instructor.

527 Latin American Indigenous Peoples (3). This course surveys the history of Latin American indigenous peoples from the conquest to the present. Focus is on indigenous struggles and survival strategies.

528 Guerrillas and Counterinsurgencies in Latin America (3). This course examines the leftist guerrilla movements that swept Latin America and the Caribbean during the latter half of the 20th century. Students will analyze the origins, trajectories, and legacies of these insurgencies, paying particular attention to the roles of race, class, and gender.

529 Mexico, 1750–1870: War, Independence, and Reforms: Citizenship and Conflict in a New Nation. This upper-division course focuses on the major issues, debates, and conflicts that arose over citizenship in a multiethnic society, tensions between church and state, and the definition of national territory in Mexico as a new and modernizing nation.

531 History of the Caribbean (3). Thematic approach to the history of the West Indies, with emphasis on the period from European conquest through the 20th century. Topics include colonialism, slavery, monoculture, United States-Caribbean relations, and decolonization.

532 History of Cuba (3). Thematic approach to Cuban history, from conquest to the revolution. Attention is given to socioeconomic developments, slavery and race relations, the 19th-century independence process, and the 20th-century republic.

533 History of Brazil (3). This course is concerned primarily with the creation of a new society through race mixture and culture change, and with the political and economic development of Brazil.

534 The African Diaspora (3). A comparative examination of the movements, experiences, and contributions of Africans and people of African descent from the period of the Atlantic slave trade to the present.

535 Women and Gender in African History (3). Analysis of historical transformations in Africa and their effects on women's lives and gender relations. Particular themes include precolonial societies, colonialism, religious change, urban labor, nationalism, and sexuality.

536 Revolution in the Modern Middle East (ASIA 536) (3). This course will focus on revolutionary change in the Middle East during the last century, emphasizing internal social, economic, and political conditions as well as international contexts.

537 Women in the Middle East (ASIA 537, WMST 537) (3). Explores the lives of women in the Middle East and how they have changed over time. Focus will change each year.

538 The Middle East and the West (ASIA 538) (3). This course explores changing interactions between the Middle East and the West, including trade, warfare, scientific exchange, and imperialism, and ends with an analysis of contemporary relations in light of the legacy of the past.

539 The Economic History of Southeast Asia (ASIA 539) (3). This course is intended as a broad overview of Southeast Asian economic history from premodern times to the present day.

540 African Intellectual History: Discourse, Knowledge, Politics (3). This course traces Africa's modern intellectual history, exploring such topics as Africa's place in history, African nationalism, pan-Africanism, the problem of colonialism, and the meaning of progress.

541 African Environmental History: Ecology, Economy, Politics (3). This course addresses the major themes of the environmental history of Africa with an emphasis on issues of local ecology, land use, and labor and the struggles over these issues.

542 Development in Africa and Its Discontents (3). This course examines the changing meanings of the idea of development in Africa and the role that Africans have played in shaping these meanings from the late 19th century.

543 Histories of Health and Healing in Africa (3). This course focuses on the historical, social, medical, cultural, policy, and economic aspects of health and health crises in Africa.

550 Gender in Chinese History (3). This course is designed to introduce undergraduates to recent historical scholarship in the field of Chinese gender studies. Topics include family and kinship, the body and bodily practices, social space, writing, sexuality, work, and law, covering both the premodern and modern periods. No prior coursework required.

561 The American Colonial Experience (3). Major topics: European reconnaissance; founding of new societies; character and structure of institutions; thought and feeling from Cotton to Franklin; privilege and cost of empire.

562 Oral History and Performance (COMM 562, FOLK 562, WMST 562) (3). See COMM 562 for description.

563 Jacksonian America, 1815–1848 (3). The society and politics of the United States during the period dominated by President Andrew Jackson. Topics include economic development, the expansion of slavery, religion and reform, the changing roles of women, and the political movements associated with "Jacksonian democracy."

564 Revolution and Nation Making in America, 1763–1815 (PWAD 564) (3). Major topics: constitutional conflict in the British empire; independence and war; Confederation and Constitution; growth of political parties and nationality in a period of domestic change and international conflict.

565 Civil War and Reconstruction, 1848–1900 (PWAD 565) (3). Focus is on causes, nature, and consequences of the Civil War.

566 The History of Sexuality in America (3). A history of the sexual practices, desires, and understandings of Americans, from earliest colonial encounters to the late 20th century.

568 Women in the South (WMST 568) (3). An exploration of the distinctive themes in Southern women's lives, using the evidence of history and literature.

569 African American Women's History (WMST 569) (3). The course covers the history of black women in the United States from the 18th century to the present. It deals with such themes as work, family, community, sexuality, politics, religion, and culture.

570 The Vietnam War (ASIA 570, PWAD 570) (3). A wide-ranging exploration of America's longest war, from 19th-century origins to 1990s legacies, from village battlegrounds to the Cold War context, from national leadership to popular participation and impact.

571 Southern Music (FOLK 571) (3). Explores the history of music in the American South from its roots to 20th-century musical forms, revealing how music serves as a window on the region's history and culture.

574 Spanish Borderlands in North America (3). The history of the Spanish colonial experience north of Mexico, to 1820.

576 The Ethnohistory of Native American Women (WMST 576) (3). Introduces students to the study of Native American women through the perspectives of anthropology, history, and autobiography.

577 United States Foreign Relations in the 20th Century (PWAD 577) (3). How the United States came to occupy a leading role in world affairs as a diplomatic, military, economic, and cultural power and what that role has meant to Americans and to other peoples, especially during the Cold War.

581 American Constitutional History to 1876 (3). In a classroom environment characterized by discussion, simulation, and interaction, the antecedents, formation, and interpretation of the Constitution are confronted in a broad historical matrix.

582 American Constitutional History since 1876 (3). Using a classroom environment similar to HIST 581, constitutional adjustments and change are related to psychological, political, social, and economic factors, and to Supreme Court members.

584 The Promise of Urbanization: American Cities in the 19th and 20th Centuries (3). A survey of the development of American cities since 1815 and their influence upon American history.

586 The Old South (3). Economic, cultural, and social history of the antebellum South. The region's political history will serve as a supporting part of the study.

587 The New South (3). This course explores the transformation of the South from the time of the Civil War and emancipation to the contemporary rise of the Sunbelt.

589 Race, Racism, and America: (United States) Law in Historical Perspective (3). This course will historically and critically examine the changing legal status of people of color in the United States. Within a broad historical matrix from the colonial era to the present, it will focus on African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Latina/os, and United States law.

622 Medicine and Society in America (3). A survey of major developments in the history of American medicine. Emphasis will be placed upon setting the practice of medicine as well as the experience of health and disease into broad social, cultural, and political contexts.

624 Intellectual History of African Americans (3). Examines African American intellectuals in North America with some attention to black writers in the Caribbean. Emphasizes American Negro Academy, black scholars, scholar-activists, writers, and public intellectuals.

625 Technology and American Culture (3). Technology's impact on American thought and society and the response it has engendered. Topics will include the factory town, search for utopia, impact of Henry Ford, war, and depersonalization.

670 Introduction to Oral History (FOLK 670) (3). Introduces students to the uses of interviews in historical research. Questions of ethics, interpretation, and the construction of memory will be explored, and interviewing skills will be developed through field work.

671 Introduction to Public History (3). Introduces the theory, politics, and practice of historical work conducted in public venues (museums, historic sites, national parks, government agencies, archives), directed at public audiences, or addressed to public issues.

674 Field Methods in Archaeology and History (3). This course will introduce many techniques employed by archaeologists and historians in locating and excavating sites of past human activity. It will involve field work at an active archeological site.

691H Honors in History (3). Permission of the instructor. Introduction to the methods of historical research; designed to lead to the completion of an honors essay.

692H Honors in History (3). Permission of the instructor. Introduction to the methods of historical research; designed to lead to the completion of an honors essay.

697 Myth and History (3). Myths and legends are the stuff of history. An interdisciplinary capstone course treating topics such as Alexander the Great and George Washington as mytho-historical heroes, the Holy Grail, and uses of myth in the modern world.