Department of Physics and Astronomy

www.physics.unc.edu

JAMES CHRISTOPHER CLEMENS, Chair

Professors

Bruce Carney, Gerald N. Cecil, Arthur E. Champagne, Thomas B. Clegg, James Christopher Clemens, Louise A. Dolan, Jonathan H. Engel, Charles R. Evans, Paul H. Frampton, Christian G. Iliadis, Hugon J. Karwowski, Dmitri V. Khveshchenko, Jianping Lu, Laurie E. McNeil, Yee Jack Ng, Lu-Chang Qin, Dan Reichart, Richard Superfine, Frank Tsui, Sean Washburn, John Wilkerson, Yue Wu, Otto Zhou.

Associate Professors

Reyco Henning, Sheila Kannappan, Rene Lopez, Laura Mersini-Houghton.

Assistant Professors

Rosa Tamara Branca, Joaquin Drut, Adrienne Erickcek, Fabian Heitsch, Nicholas Law, Amy Oldenburg.

Research Professors

Mike Falvo, Alfred Kleinhammes, Pabitra Sen, Russell Taylor II.

Research Associate Professor

Nalin R. Parikh.

Research Assistant Professors

Cao Guohua, David Hill, Edward Timothy O'Brien III, Xin Qian.

Adjunct Professors

Fred Chaffee, Richard Hammond, David Radford, Ryan M. Rohm, Jie Tang.

Adjunct Associate Professor

Anton Tonchev.

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Yueh Lee, Kwan Skinner, Jian Zhang.

Lecturers

Alice Churukian, Duane Deardorff, Stefan Jeglinski, Shaleen Shukla, David Smith, Jennifer Weinberg-Wolf.

Professors Emeriti

Charles V. Briscoe, Sang-Il Choi, Wayne Christiansen, Kian S. Dy, John P. Hernandez, William M. Hooke, Paul S. Hubbard, Horst Kessemeier, Edward J. Ludwig, J. Ross Macdonald, Earl N. Mitchell, James A. Rose, Lawrence G. Rowan, Dietrich Schroeer, Stephen M. Shafroth, Lawrence M. Slifkin, William J. Thompson, James W. York Jr.

Introduction

The goal of physics is a unified description of the properties of matter and energy. The study of matter and energy encompasses a range of phenomena, from the subnuclear to the cosmological. Physics seeks to understand the way the universe "works," from the very small scale (quarks and neutrinos) to the human scale (materials encountered in daily life) to the structure of the cosmos. Different approaches and technologies are used in these different regimes.

The areas of active research at UNC–Chapel Hill can be divided into nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics, condensed matter and materials physics, field and particle physics, astronomy and astrophysics, and biophysics. Often the separation between subfields is not as distinct as it appears. For example, nuclear and particle physics are used to address questions in astrophysics. As scientists have learned more about the universe, they have realized that even the boundaries between the sciences have blurred. Today, physics shares interests with biology, chemistry, and computer science. Physicists are also responsible for the invention of much of our modern technology, including computers, lasers, medical imaging devices such as MRI and ultrasound, nuclear reactors, and the World Wide Web.

Physics has played a significant role in shaping modern society and culture, and some knowledge of physics is essential to fully appreciate the world. As the frontiers of physics and astronomy have advanced, old questions have been answered or refined, new questions have been asked, and major surprises have been encountered. The joy of doing physics is "To see a world in a grain of sand and a heaven in a wild flower, hold infinity in the palm of your hand and eternity in an hour" (William Blake).

Programs of Study

The department offers the bachelor of science with a major in physics and astronomy (with an option in astrophysics) and the bachelor of arts with a major in physics and astronomy (with options in standard physics, astronomy, energy, biological physics, and quantitative finance). A minor in astronomy and a minor in physics also are offered.

Majoring in Physics and Astronomy:
Bachelor of Arts

B.A. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Standard Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

B.A. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Astronomy Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

B.A. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Biological Physics Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

B.A. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Energy Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

B.A. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Quantitative Finance Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

*BUSI 101 and ECON 410 are prerequisites for BUSI 408.

As part of these course requirements, candidates for the B.A. degree must earn grades of C (not C-) or better in at least 18 credit hours of courses that are listed under Core Requirements.

Majoring in Physics and Astronomy: Bachelor of Science

B.S. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Standard Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

B.S. Major in Physics and Astronomy:
Astrophysics Option

Core Requirements

Additional Requirements

As part of these course requirements, candidates for the B.S. degree must earn grades of C (not C-) or better in at least 18 credit hours of courses that are listed under Core Requirements.

It is strongly recommended that students planning to major in physics fulfill the Foundations requirement in English composition and rhetoric by enrolling in ENGL 105I Writing in the Natural Sciences.

Most students will find it advantageous to defer some of the General Education requirements to the junior and/or senior year(s).

Minoring in Astronomy

The minor in astronomy consists of six courses:

Minoring in Physics

The minor in physics consists of five courses:

Honors in Physics and Astronomy

The honors program offers exceptionally well-qualified students an opportunity to perform original research with a faculty member and graduate with honors or highest honors. It requires an overall grade point average of at least 3.3 and a grade point average of at least 3.4 for physics courses at the end of the junior year.

Students who wish to enter the honors program should consult with the departmental coordinator for the program no later than the preregistration period in the spring semester of their junior year.

Advising

All majors and minors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students are strongly encouraged to meet regularly with their advisor and review their Tar Heel Tracker each semester. The department's director of undergraduate studies and undergraduate advisors work with current and prospective majors by appointment (see "Contact Information" below). Departmental academic advising is particularly important for those majors who are considering going on to graduate school. Further information on courses, undergraduate research opportunities, the honors program, careers, and graduate schools may be obtained from the department's Web site.

Special Opportunities in Physics and Astronomy

Departmental Involvement

The Society of Physics Students, open to anyone interested in physics, builds connections between undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and alumni. The society invites visitors to give talks and sponsors a number of events for students each year. Women in Physics at UNC–Chapel Hill, an organization that aims to provide resources, advice, and an encouraging social atmosphere for women in the field of physics, welcomes physics majors and all women interested in physics.

UNC–BEST

The UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) Program is a collaboration between the School of Education and the College of Arts and Sciences and is designed to allow undergraduate science majors interested in teaching high school science the opportunity to earn their science degree and obtain licensure as a North Carolina high school science teacher in four years. UNC–BEST students meet all the degree requirements for their degree using PHYS 410 as one of their upper-level physics courses. UNC–BEST students also fulfill teaching licensure coursework requirements as well as many General Education and elective requirements as they complete 10 credit hours in teaching and learning, including EDUC 403, 516 or 689, 532, 533, and 601. During their final semester, students engage in a full-time student teaching internship (EDUC 593) and participate in an education leadership seminar (EDUC 503). For more details on admission requirements, application deadlines, and submitting an online application, visit the School of Education Web site: soe.unc.edu/services/apply/ug.

Undergraduate Awards

The department gives awards each year to the senior (Shearin Award) and junior (Johnson Award) who demonstrate the greatest achievement.

Undergraduate Research

All majors conduct at least one semester of research under the supervision of a faculty member. Many enjoy the experience so much that they continue for several semesters. An approved learning contract is required prior to registering for PHYS 295 and 395, and students must be registered within the first week of classes.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Employers know that physicists understand how to think and reason effectively about the world, which equips them to solve unconventional challenging problems. Over 90 percent of physics majors do something other than teach and conduct research at a university. Physics will prepare you to pursue anything from medicine to energy to business. The American Institute of Physics' Career Resources site (aip.org/career-resources) provides useful information about the careers of physics bachelor's degree recipients, including who is hiring them in North Carolina.

Those who are considering going on to graduate school in physics, astronomy, and other physical science and engineering fields, should contact one of the physics advisors. Those who are considering marine sciences as a graduate specialty should consult the material under the Department of Marine Sciences. Those who plan careers in health sciences, including dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, should consult advisors in the Health Professions Advising Office in Hanes Hall. Those interested in science teaching can take the educational coursework required for a high school science teaching license through the UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC-BEST) program (unc.edu/uncbest).

Contact Information

Maggie Jensen, Student Services Coordinator, Physics and Astronomy, CB# 3255, 278 Phillips Hall, (919) 962-2078, mejensen@email.unc.edu.

Dr. Frank Tsui, Director of Undergraduate Studies, CB# 3255, 333 Chapman Hall, (919) 962-0305, ftsui@physics.unc.edu.

Dr. Rene Lopez, Academic Advisor (students with last names beginning with A–G), CB# 3255, 343 Chapman Hall, (919) 962-7216, rln@physics.unc.edu.

Dr. Christian Iliadis, Academic Advisor (students with last names beginning with H–O), CB# 3255, 174 Phillips Hall, (919) 962-3016, iliadis@physics.unc.edu.

Dr. Yue Wu, Academic Advisor (students with last names beginning with P–Z), CB# 3255, 341 Chapman Hall, (919) 962-0307, yuewu@physics.unc.edu.

Web site: www.physics.unc.edu.

ASTR

61 First-Year Seminar: The Copernican Revolution (PHYS 61) (3). This seminar explores the 2,000-year effort to understand the motion of the sun, moon, stars, and five visible planets. Earth-centered cosmos gives way to the conclusion that earth is just another body in space. Cultural changes accompany this revolution in thinking.

63 First-Year Seminar: Catastrophe and Chaos: Unpredictable Physics (3). Physics is often seen as the most precise and deterministic of sciences. Determinism can break down, however. This seminar explores the rich and diverse areas of modern physics in which "unpredictability" is the norm.

89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

101 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System (3). Celestial motions of the earth, sun, moon, and planets; nature of light; ground and space-based telescopes; comparative planetology; the earth and the moon; terrestrial and gas planets and their moons; dwarf planets, asteroids, and comets; planetary system formation; extrasolar planets; the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).

101L Introduction to Astronomy Laboratory: Our Place in Space (1). Pre- or corequisite, ASTR 101. Observing with robotic telescopes in Chile, Australia, and around the world: planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, binary and variable stars, supernovae, star-forming regions, star clusters, and galaxies; the seasons, the Galilean revolution; the cosmic distance ladder; the Great Debate; dark matter; Hubble's Law; dark energy.

102 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology (3). Prerequisite, ASTR 101. The sun, stellar observables, star birth, evolution, and death, novae and supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, the Milky Way galaxy, normal galaxies, active galaxies and quasars, dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, early universe.

111L Educational Research in Radio Astronomy (1). Permission of the instructor. One-week field experience at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, WV, for experiential education (EE) credit. Observing with radio telescopes and antennae: supernova remnants, star-forming regions, normal and active galaxies, quasars, solar system objects (sun, moon, Jupiter), radio spectroscopy.

205 The Medieval Foundations of Modern Cosmology (3). This course will examine science as it emerged and developed in the West starting in the 13th century. We will use example problems from cosmology that are relevant today.

301 Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology (1). Corequisites, ASTR 102 and PHYS 117. Stellar observables; galaxies; novae; cosmology; the early universe. This one-credit course can be taken with ASTR 102 for students who wish to major or minor in astrophysics.

390 Research and Special Topics for Juniors and Seniors (1–12). Permission of the instructor. To be taken by honors candidates and other qualified juniors and seniors.

501 Astrophysics I (Stellar Astrophysics) (3). Prerequisites, ASTR 301, MATH 383, and PHYS 331. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An introduction to the study of stellar structure and evolution. Topics covered include observational techniques, stellar structure and energy transport, nuclear energy sources, evolution off the main-sequence, and supernovae.

502 Astrophysics II (Modern Research in Astrophysics) (3). Prerequisites, ASTR 301 and MATH 383; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 331. An introduction to modern research in astrophysics based on scientific journal articles addressing a current topic of interest in galactic or extragalactic astrophysics, including training in computer modeling and statistical analysis, culminating in the completion of a research project.

503 Structure and Evolution of Galaxies (3). Prerequisites, ASTR 301, MATH 383, and PHYS 331. Internal dynamics and structure of galaxies; physics of star formation, active galactic nuclei, and galaxy interactions; large-scale clustering and environment-dependent physical processes; evolution of the galaxy population over cosmic time.

504 Cosmology (3). Prerequisites, ASTR 301 and PHYS 301; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 321. An introduction to modern cosmology: the study of the contents and evolution of the universe. Covers expanding spacetime, the thermal history of the early universe, including nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background, the inflationary model for the origins of cosmic structure, and the growth of that structure though time.

505 Physics of Interstellar Gas (3). Prerequisites, ASTR 301, MATH 383, and PHYS 331. Surveys the physical processes governing the interstellar medium (ISM), which takes up the "refuse" of old stars while providing fuel for young stars forming. Covers the processes regulating the galactic gas budget and the corresponding observational diagnostics. Topics: radiative transfer, line formation mechanisms, continuum radiation, gas dynamics, star formation.

519 Observational Astronomy (4). Prerequisite, ASTR 102; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 331. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A course designed to familiarize the student with observational techniques in optical and radio astronomy, including application of photography, spectroscopy, photometry, and radio methods. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.

PHYS

51 First-Year Seminar: The Interplay of Music and Physics (MUSC 51) (3). See MUSC 51 for description.

52 First-Year Seminar: Making the Right Connections (3). This seminar investigates the multiple roles that computers and microprocessors perform in scientific investigations and the impact of technological advances on society. Students perform experiments, take field trips to research laboratories, and gain hands-on experience with computer-based instrumentation.

53 First-Year Seminar: Handcrafting in the Nanoworld: Building Models and Manipulating Molecules (3). This seminar provides a general introduction to nanoscience and nanotechnology, focusing on recent advances in molecular electronics, nanomaterials, and biomedical research. Course activities include group model-building projects, presentations, and discussions of reading material.

54 First-Year Seminar: Physics of Movies (3). Students watch and analyze short movie clips that demonstrate interesting, unusual, or impossible physics. Group analysis emphasized.

61 First-Year Seminar: The Copernican Revolution (ASTR 61) (3). See ASTR 61 for description.

63 First-Year Seminar: Catastrophe and Chaos: Unpredictable Physics (3). Physics is often seen as the most precise and deterministic of sciences. Determinism can break down, however. This seminar explores the rich and diverse areas of modern physics in which "unpredictability" is the norm.

71 First-Year Seminar: Power Down: Preparing Your Community for the Transition from Cheap Oil (3). This seminar quantifies what will be required to supplement declining supplies of cheap oil for transportation with increased electrification from nonfossil fuel sources. What are viable paths forward to a decarbonized or carbon-neutral energy system?

89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

100 How Things Work (3). Demystifying the working of objects such as CD players, microwave ovens, lasers, computers, roller coasters, rockets, light bulbs, automobiles, clocks, copy machines, X-ray and CAT-scan machines, and nuclear reactors.

101 Basic Concepts of Physics (4). Basic principles of physics with introduction to quantum physics, atoms, nuclei, and relativity. Not to be taken for credit after PHYS 104–105 or 116–117. Three lecture and two laboratory hours a week.

104 General Physics I (4). Pre- or corequisite, MATH 130. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Only one of PHYS 104 and 116 may be taken for credit. Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours a week.

105 General Physics II (4). Prerequisite, PHYS 104. Only one of PHYS 105 and 117 may be taken for credit. Three lecture hours a week and two laboratory hours a week.

106 Inquiry into the Physical World (4). A hands-on/minds-on approach to learning the basic concepts of physical science. Emphasis will be placed on examining the nature of science, your own learning, and the way scientists learn science.

108 Our Energy and Climate Crisis: Challenges and Opportunities (4). Students quantify global depletion of energy resources and accompanying environmental degradation, discovering the profound changes in attitudes and behavior required to adjust to diminished fossil fuels and modified climate.

114 General Physics I: For Students of the Life Sciences (4). Prerequisite, MATH 231. Basic principles of physics, including forces, energy, oscillations, sound, diffusion, and heat transfer, and applications to biological systems. Intended to meet the needs of, but not restricted to, students majoring in the life sciences. Students may not receive credit for PHYS 114 in addition to PHYS 104, 116, or 118.

115 General Physics II: For Students of the Life Sciences (4). Prerequisite, PHYS 114. Basic principles of physics, including fluids, electricity, magnetism, optics, quantum physics, and nuclear physics, and applications to biological systems. Intended to meet the needs of, but not restricted to, students majoring in the life sciences. Students may not receive credit for PHYS 115 in addition to PHYS 105, 117, or 119.

116 Mechanics (4). Prerequisite, MATH 231; pre- or corequisite, MATH 232. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Only one of PHYS 104 and 116 may be taken for credit. Mechanics of particles and rigid bodies. Newton's laws;
conservation principles. Oscillatory and wave motion. Sound. Lecture, recitation, and laboratory.

117 Electromagnetism and Optics (4). Prerequisites, MATH 232 and PHYS 116; pre- or corequisite, MATH 233. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Only one of PHYS 105 and 117 may be taken for credit. Electricity and magnetism; laws of Coulomb, Ampere, and Faraday. Electromagnetic oscillations and waves. Light; diffraction and interference. Lecture, recitation, and laboratory.

118 Introductory Calculus-based Mechanics and Relativity (4). Prerequisite, MATH 231; pre- or corequisite, MATH 232. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Mechanics of particles and rigid bodies. Newton's laws; mechanical and potential energy; mechanical conservation laws; frame-dependence of physical laws; Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Lecture and studio. Students may not receive credit for PHYS 118 in addition to PHYS 104, 114, or 116.

119 Introductory Calculus-Based Electromagnetism and
Quanta (4).
Prerequisites, MATH 232 and PHYS 118; pre- or corequisite, MATH 233. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Unification of the laws of electricity and magnetism; electromagnetic waves; the particle-wave duality; fundamental principles and applications of quantum mechanics. Lecture and studio. Students may not receive credit for PHYS 119 in addition to PHYS 105, 115, or 117.

128 Modern Physics (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 117; corequisite, PHYS 128L. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Special relativity theory, black body radiation, photons and electrons; wave particle duality. Elements of atomic theory, nuclei and fundamental particles. Three lecture hours a week.

128L Modern Physics Laboratory (1). Pre- or corequisite, PHYS 128. Selected modern physics experiments. Written research reports and oral presentations. Three laboratory hours per week.

131 Energy: Physical Principles and the Quest for Alternatives to Dwindling Oil and Gas (3). Corequisite, PHYS 131L. A quantitative exploration of the physical principles behind energy development and use within modern civilization, the stark impact of depleted fossil fuel reserves, and alternative sources.

131L Energy: Physical Principles and the Quest for Alternatives to Dwindling Oil and Gas (1). Corequisite, PHYS 131. Explore renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. Three laboratory hours per week.

132 Science and Society (3). A description of the scientific community and how scientists relate to such sociotechnical issues as the space program, the arms race, the energy problem, computer technology, medical technology, and pseudosciences.

133 How Bio Works (3). Physics of biology and biotechnology. Life as an assembly of molecular machines that manipulate DNA, replicate cells, propel bacteria, and contract muscles. Nanotechnology for DNA biotechnology and microscale fluid chips.

201 Basic Mechanics (3). Prerequisites, MATH 232 and PHYS 104 or 116. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. A one-semester course in statics, kinematics, simple harmonic motion, central forces, and applications from modern physics.

211 Intermediate Electromagnetism (3). Prerequisites, MATH 233 and PHYS 105 or 117. Electric fields and potentials, dielectrics, steady currents, magnetic flux and magnetic materials, electromagnetic induction. Emphasis on Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic waves in bounded and unbounded media.

231 Physical Computing (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 114 or 118; pre-or corequisite, PHYS 115 or 119. Course focuses on combining sensors and precision motions so that microcomputers can measure environmental conditions locally or worldwide via the Internet and manipulate that environment. Students propose a project, execute it with popular microcomputers, utilize three-dimensional design tools and printers, write a final report, and publish a demonstration on YouTube.

281L Experimental Techniques in Physics (2). Prerequisite, PHYS 119. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Exploration of modern physics experiments, techniques, and data analysis to prepare students for research and advanced laboratory work. Written and oral reports with peer review. Meets four hours per week.

295 Research with Faculty Mentor I (1–12). Research with a faculty mentor. Approved learning contract required.

301 Mechanics I (3). Pre- or corequisites, MATH 383 and PHYS 331. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Particle kinematics, central forces, planetary motions. Systems of particles, conservation laws, nonlinearity. Statics, motion of rigid bodies. Langrange's and Hamilton's equations. Euler's equations. Vibrations and waves.

302 Mechanics II (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 301. Advanced topics in mechanics.

311 Electromagnetism I (3). Prerequisites, MATH 383 and PHYS 331. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Brief treatment of DC and AC circuit theory. Electrostatics: dielectrics, the magnetic field, magnetic materials. Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic waves.

312 Electromagnetism II (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 311. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Brief treatment of DC and AC circuit theory. Electrostatics: dielectrics; the magnetic field; magnetic materials. Maxwell's equations and their application to electromagnetic waves.

313 Space and Time in Physics and Philosophy (3). Contingent and necessary properties of space and time. The direction and flow of time. Fatalism. Effects preceding their causes.

321 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (3). Prerequisites, MATH 383, and MATH 547 or PHYS 331; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 301. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Origins of quantum theory. Uncertainty principle. Schroedinger equation for simple systems, including hydrogen atom. Perturbation theory. Spin. Identical particles.

331 Introduction to Numerical Techniques in Physics (4). Prerequisite, PHYS 105 or 116; pre- or corequisite, MATH 233. Applications of calculus, vector analysis, differential equations, complex numbers, and computer programming to realistic physical systems. Three lecture and two computational laboratory hours per week.

341 Thermal Physics (3). Prerequisites, MATH 233 and PHYS 117. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Equilibrium statistical mechanics; the laws of thermodynamics, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell's equations.

351 Electronics I (4). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and PHYS 104 or 116. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. DC and AC circuit analysis, PN junctions and diodes, single-transistor circuits, transducers. Analog devices. Extensive circuit building with testing, trouble shooting, and debugging.

352 Electronics II (4). Prerequisite, PHYS 351. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Introduction to digital circuits: gates, flip-flops, and counters. Computers and device interconnections, converters and data acquisition. Signal analysis and digital filters. Graphical (LabVIEW) programming and computer interfacing. Individual projects and practical applications.

354 Quantum Mechanics, Weirdness, and Reality (PHIL 354) (3). Prerequisites, MATH 231 and any PHYS course numbered 100 or greater. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. An interdisciplinary course on the weirdness of quantum mechanics and the problem of interpreting it. Nonlocality, the measurement problem, superpositions, Bohm's theory, collapse theories, and the many-worlds interpretation.

391 Senior Seminar (1–21). To be taken by seniors with permission of the department.

395 Research with Faculty Mentor II (1–12). Research with a faculty mentor. Approved learning contract required. Additionally, students write and submit a proposal to an internal or external competition for funding intended for students. They also give a poster or oral presentation on the topic of their research at an appropriate symposium or meeting.

405 Biological Physics (BIOL 431) (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 116 and 117. How diffusion, entropy, electrostatics, and hydrophobicity generate order and force in biology. Topics include DNA manipulation, intracellular transport, cell division, molecular motors, single molecule biophysics techniques, nerve impulses, neuroscience.

410 Teaching and Learning Physics (4). Prerequisites, PHYS 116 and 117. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Learning how to teach physics using current research-based methods. Includes extensive fieldwork in high school and college environments. Meets part of the licensure requirements for North Carolina public school teaching.

415 Optics (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 311 and 312. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Elements of geometrical optics; Huygens' principles, interference, diffraction, and polarization. Elements of the electromagnetic theory of light; Fresnel's equations, dispersion, absorption, and scattering. Photons. Lasers and quantum optics.

422 Physics of the Earth's Interior (GEOL 422) (3). Prerequisites, MATH 383 and either PHYS 201 and 211, or 301 and 311. Origin of the solar system: the nebular hypothesis. Evolution of the earth and its accretionary history. Earthquakes: plate tectonics and the interior of the earth. The earth's magnetic field. Mantle convection.

424 General Physics I (4). PHYS 104 equivalent, specifically for certification of high school teachers.

425 General Physics II (4). PHYS 105 equivalent, specifically for certification of high school teachers.

471 Physics of Solid State Electronic Devices (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 117; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 211 or 311. Properties of crystal lattices, electrons in energy bands, behavior of majority and minority charge carriers, PN junctions related to the structure and function of semiconductor diodes, transistors, display devices.

472 Chemistry and Physics of Electronic Materials Processing (APPL 472, CHEM 472) (3). Prerequisite, CHEM 482 or PHYS 117. Permission of the instructor. A survey of materials processing and characterization used in fabricating microelectronic devices. Crystal growth, thin film deposition and etching, and microlithography.

481L Advanced Laboratory I (2). Prerequisite, PHYS 351 or 352. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Selected experiments illustrating modern techniques such as the use of laser technology to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields and matter. Six laboratory hours a week.

482L Advanced Laboratory II (2). Prerequisite, PHYS 481. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Independent laboratory research projects. Scientific writing and oral presentations, abstracts, and reports. Six laboratory hours per week.

491L Materials Laboratory I (APPL 491L) (2). Prerequisites, APPL 470 and PHYS 351. Structure determination and measurement of the optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of solids.

492L Materials Laboratory II (APPL 492L) (2). Prerequisite, APPL 491L or PHYS 491L. Continuation of PHYS 491L with emphasis on low- and high-temperature behavior, the physical and chemical behavior of lattice imperfections and amorphous materials, and the nature of radiation damage.

510 Seminar for Physics and Astronomy Teaching Assistants (1). How students learn and understand physics and astronomy. How to teach using current research-based methods.

521 Applications of Quantum Mechanics (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 321. Emphasizes atomic physics but includes topics from nuclear, solid state, and particle physics, such as energy levels, the periodic system, selection rules, and fundamentals of spectroscopy.

543 Nuclear Physics (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 321. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Structure of nucleons and nuclei, nuclear models, forces and interactions, nuclear reactions.

545 Introductory Elementary Particle Physics (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 312 and 321. Relativistic kinematics, symmetries and conservation laws, elementary particles and bound states, gauge theories, quantum electrodynamics, chromodynamics, electroweak unification, standard model and beyond.

573 Introductory Solid State Physics (APPL 573) (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 321. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Crystal symmetry, types of crystalline solids; electron and mechanical waves in crystals, electrical and magnetic properties of solids, semiconductors; low temperature phenomena; imperfections in nearly perfect crystals.

581 Renewable Electric Power Systems (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101L, and 202 or 271; and PHYS 131, and 131L or 281L, and 201 or 301, and 211 or 311, and 351; pre-or corequisites, CHEM 261 and 481. Broad and quantitative study of renewable electric power systems: wind systems, photovoltaic cells, distributed generation (concentrating solar power, microhydro, biomass), and the economics of these technologies.

582 Decarbonizing Fuels (3). Prerequisites, BIOL 101L, and 202 or 271; and PHYS 131, and 131L or 281L, and 201 or 301, and 211 or 311, and 351; pre- or corequisites, CHEM 261 and 481. Assess quantitatively the feasibility of powering humanity without increasing release of climate-altering carbon dioxide and other organic greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Can these gases be removed? Which bio-chemical-physical novelties may scale to meet growing demand and at what cost?

585 Imaging Science: From Cells to Stars (3). Prerequisites, MATH 233 and PHYS 118. Fundamentals of imaging as applied to biological, medical and astronomy imaging systems. Physics of radiation and particle sources, image formation and detection physics. Principles of optics, coherence, Fourier methods, statistics, especially as they cross disciplinary boundaries for new opportunities in imaging.

594 Nonlinear Dynamics (MATH 594) (3). Prerequisite, MATH 383. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Interdisciplinary introduction to nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Fixed points, bifurcations, strange attractors, with applications to physics, biology, chemistry, finance.

631 Mathematical Methods of Theoretical Physics I (3). Prerequisites, MATH 383 and PHYS 128. Vector fields, curvilinear coordinates, functions of complex variables, linear differential equations of second order, Fourier series, integral transforms, delta sequence.

632 Mathematical Methods of Theoretical Physics II (3). Prerequisite, PHYS 631. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Partial differential equations, special functions, Green functions, variational methods, traveling waves, and scattering.

633 Scientific Programming (3). Prerequisite, MATH 528 or 529, or PHYS 631 or 632. Required preparation, elementary Fortran, C, or Pascal programming. Structured programming in Fortran or Pascal; use of secondary storage and program packages; numerical methods for advanced problems, error propagation and computational efficiency; symbolic mathematics by computer.

660 Fluid Dynamics (ENVR 452, GEOL 560, MASC 560) (3). See MASC 560 for description.

671L Independent Laboratory I (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 301 and 312. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Six laboratory hours a week.

672L Independent Laboratory II (3). Prerequisites, PHYS 301 and 312. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Six laboratory hours