Curriculum in Peace, War, and Defense

401 Hamilton Hall, CB# 3200; (919) 962-3093

WAYNE E. LEE (History), Chair


Peace and war are among the oldest dreams and most difficult challenges of human experience. The curriculum brings together faculty and courses from many disciplines to provide undergraduates with a range of approaches to the fundamental issues of human conflict and national and global security and defense. The curriculum prepares majors for graduate work in several of the humanities and social sciences, for a variety of professional schools, and for a range of employment. Graduates have found employment with federal agencies, state and local governments, banks, and other businesses. Others have attended graduate and professional schools in government, history, international relations, and law. The strength of the curriculum is its broad interdisciplinary perspective combined with its depth of focus on topics that span the range of human experience across time and national boundaries, from science and technology to ethics and public policy. In addition to coursework, the curriculum sponsors guest speakers and field trips, and provides majors with help and advice on internships and career planning.

Peace, War, and Defense Major, B.A.

Core Requirements

The three concentrations consist of the following groups of courses:

The Culture of Peace and War

ANTH 280; ARAB 452; ASIA/HIST 276; CMPL/PWAD 489; COMM 376, 390 (with approval, based on topic), 574, 575; COMM/PWAD 355; ENGL 659, 660; GERM/PWAD 283; HIST 132, 134, 254, 262, 268, 275, 277, 281, 373, 421, 422, 432, 528, 565, 570; HIST 354/PWAD 354/WMST 353, HIST/PWAD/WMST 517; LAW 252 (permission of the PWAD chair and instructor); MUSC 289; PLCY 455; POLI 260, 416, 423, 449, 450, 457, 469; PSYC 490; RELI 481, 583; RUSS 475; SLAV 84, 85, 465, 467; SOCI 442

National and International Defense and Security

ANTH 280; ARAB 452; ASIA/HIST 276; CMPL/PWAD 489; COMM 390 (with approval, based on topic), 575; ECON 460; ENEC 108; GEOG 120, 453; HIST 134, 205, 206, 213, 262, 277, 528, 577; HPM 634; LAW 252 (permission of the PWAD chair and instructor); PLCY 210, 220, 455; PLCY/PWAD 101, 110, 430; POLI 150, 231, 252, 253, 256, 260, 423, 443, 446, 449, 450, 469, 631; POLI/PWAD 287, 444; PSYC 490; PWAD 352, 353, 356, 357, 486, 487, 488, 670, 672; RELI 481; RUSS 475; SLAV 84, 85, 465, 467; SOCI 481

The Evolution of Warfare

COMM 390 (with approval, based on topic); COMM/PWAD 355; ENGL 660; HIST 212, 213, 254, 262, 268, 275, 277, 281, 368, 369, 373, 421, 422, 432, 564, 565, 570, 577; HIST 354/PWAD 354/WMST 363, HIST/PWAD/WMST 517; MUSC 289; POLI 150, 446; POLI/PWAD 444; PSYC 490 (with approval, based on topic); PWAD 352; SLAV 465

PWAD 396 Independent Study in Peace, War, and Defense; PWAD 680 Research Seminar in Peace, War, and Defense; PWAD 490 Selected Topics in Peace, War, and Defense; PWAD 690 Seminars in Peace, War, and Defense; and 691H Honors in Peace, War, and Defense may be applied toward the concentration requirement with the permission of the chair. Students can request that relevant courses not on this list, but offered as first-year seminars, honors seminars, or "topics" courses in other departments, be used to fulfill major requirements. This requires the approval of the chair.

Additional Requirements

All General Education requirements must be met. In fulfilling General Education requirements, majors should consider the following courses as helpful preparation for the curriculum: ANTH 101; ECON 101; HIST 127, 128, 140, 158, 159; MATH 152; PHIL 160, 170; POLI 100, 150, 239; PSYC 101; SOCI 101; and STOR 151.


All majors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students are strongly encouraged to meet regularly with their advisor and review their Tar Heel Tracker each semester. The curriculum's student services manager and the chair work with current and prospective majors by appointment (see "Contact Information" below). Further information on courses, internships, the honors program, careers, and graduate schools may be obtained from the curriculum's Web site.

Special Opportunities in Peace, War, and Defense

Honors in Peace, War, and Defense

Majors who earn at least a 3.3 overall grade point average and at least a 3.3 grade point average in the major through their junior year may apply to the chair of the curriculum for permission to enroll in PWAD 691H and 692H Honors in Peace, War, and Defense. Students interested in honors must take a research seminar in peace, war, and defense (PWAD 670 or 680), a seminar in history (HIST 398), or another course that provides background in research design. For students who wish to write an honors thesis in their senior year, a thesis topic should be approved by an appropriate thesis director by the end of the junior year. Students prepare an honors thesis in PWAD 691H and 692H and defend it orally. PWAD 691H can be used to fulfill the student's chosen concentration requirement; PWAD 692H provides credit hours toward the major but cannot be used to satisfy concentration requirements. Based on faculty evaluations, the baccalaureate degree may be conferred with honors or with highest honors, or merely with course credit.

Departmental Involvement

Undergraduates can participate in the activities and programs of the Triangle Institute for Security Studies at no cost by becoming a Wickersham Scholar. To become a scholar, a student must have a faculty sponsor and a demonstrated interest in international security studies. For more information contact Carolyn Pumphrey at (919) 613-9280 or

Experiential Education

Internship courses provide students with the opportunity to earn academic credit while obtaining practical work experience in agencies and organizations clearly related to national and international security. In recent years students have served in these and other agencies: The Central Intelligence Agency, Durham Police Department, Office of Naval Intelligence, Defense Intelligence Agency, Carolina for Kibera, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Peace Action, United States Army Special Operations Command, and many more. Students are limited to one internship for credit, and all internships are limited to three hours of academic credit. Although some routine administrative tasks are required in any professional setting, the expectation is that a majority of the intern's work will be directed toward the substantive mission of the agency and that tasks will be of a nature to justify awarding academic credit. All internships require prior approval, and all must consist of at least eight hours per week and at least 100 hours per semester. Students must sign an internship contract with their agency and faculty supervisors, setting out expectations and course requirements. Interns are required to keep a daily internship journal. Once approved for an internship, students enroll in PWAD 393, which is offered on a Pass/Fail basis only and does not count toward the nine courses required for the major. Students wishing credit towards the major derived from their internship work should pursue an independent study with a faculty supervisor either while taking the internship or in the next semester. That independent study should produce a major written product, would be graded normally, and receives credit in the major.

Study Abroad

The curriculum encourages all undergraduates to study abroad either for a summer, a semester, or an entire year. Students should consult the study abroad Web site at and visit the Study Abroad Office as early as possible in their course of study to meet with a study abroad advisor. A number of foreign programs contain courses that qualify for major credit. Of particular usefulness is study at the King's College, University of London War Studies Department, the closest analogue to the Curriculum in Peace, War, and Defense in the English-speaking world and a program with a renowned faculty. Students with at least a 3.3 grade point average are eligible to apply to King's College. While supervision arrangements need to be negotiated and agreed with relevant faculty members, students writing honors theses in their senior year may also apply to spend the year at King's College.

Undergraduate Research

Students who qualify are encouraged to experience original research by writing a senior honors thesis described in the honors section above.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

The curriculum prepares majors for graduate work in several of the humanities and social sciences, for a variety of professional schools, and for a range of employment. Graduates work for federal agencies, state and local governments, nongovernmental organizations, businesses, and other employers. Others have attended graduate and professional schools in government, history, international relations, and law. The curriculum's strength is its broad interdisciplinary perspective combined with its depth of focus on topics that span the range of human experience across time and national boundaries, from science and technology to ethics and public policy.


Advisory Committee

Navin Bapat (Political Science), Bernard R. Boxill (Philosophy), Peter Coclanis (History), Cori Dauber (Communication Studies), Stephen Gent (Political Science), Stephen Gillespie (Naval Science), Bradford Green (Aerospace Studies), Daniel Knott (Military Science), Douglas MacLean (Philosophy), Mark Shellaberger (Naval Science), Patricia Sullivan (Public Policy), Jonathan Weiler (Global Studies).

Adjunct Professors

Christopher Armitage (English and Comparative Literature), Joseph Glatthaar (History), Karen Hagemann (History), Klaus Larres (History), Wayne Lee (History).

Adjunct Associate Professors

Navin Bapat (Political Science), Cori Dauber (Communications Studies), Fred Naiden (History), David Schanzer (Triangle Center on Terrorism and Homeland Security).

Adjunct Assistant Professor

Patricia Sullivan (Public Policy).

Adjunct Lecturers

Joseph Caddell (History), Tim Nichols, Shai Tamari.

Contact Information

Professor Wayne Lee, Chair and Director of Undergraduate Studies,

Jackie Gorman, Student Services Manager,


PWAD–Peace, War, and Defense

PWAD 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Content varies by semester.

PWAD 101 Making Public Policy (PLCY 101) (3). See PLCY 101 for description.

PWAD 108 Our Energy and Climate Crises: Challenges and Opportunities (ENEC 108) (4). See ENEC 108 for description.

PWAD 110 Global Policy Issues (PLCY 110) (3). See PLCY 110 for description.

PWAD 120 World Regional Geography (GEOG 120) (3). See GEOG 120 for description.

PWAD 132 Southeast Asia since the Early 19th Century (ASIA 132, HIST 132) (3). See HIST 132 for description.

PWAD 134 Modern East Asia (ASIA 134, HIST 134) (3). See HIST 134 for description.

PWAD 150 International Relations and World Politics (POLI 150) (3). See POLI 150 for description.

PWAD 212 History of Sea Power (HIST 212) (3). See HIST 212 for description.

PWAD 213 Air Power and Modern Warfare (AERO 213, HIST 213) (3). See HIST 213 for description.

PWAD 220 The Politics of Public Policy (PLCY 220) (3). See PLCY 220 for description.

PWAD 251 The Thirty Years War (1618–1648): Europe in an Age of Crisis (HIST 251) (3). See HIST 251 for description.

PWAD 252 International Organizations and Global Issues (POLI 252) (3). See POLI 252 for description.

PWAD 253 Problems in World Order (POLI 253) (3). See POLI 253 for description.

PWAD 254 War and Society in Early Modern Europe (HIST 254) (3). See HIST 254 for description.

PWAD 260 Crisis and Change in Russia and Eastern Europe (POLI 260, SOCI 260) (3). See POLI 260 for description.

PWAD 262 History of the Holocaust: The Destruction of the European Jews (HIST 262, JWST 262) (3). See HIST 262 for description.

PWAD 268 War, Revolution, and Culture: Trans-Atlantic Perspectives, 1750–1850 (3). The course explores the dramatic historical changes from 1750 to 1850 and their intersection with and reflection in arts, literature, and music in a trans-Atlantic perspective.

PWAD 272 The Ethics of Peace, War, and Defense (PHIL 272, POLI 272) (3). See PHIL 272 for description.

PWAD 275 History of Iraq (ASIA 275, HIST 275) (3). See HIST 275 for description.

PWAD 277 The Conflict over Israel/Palestine (ASIA 277, HIST 277) (3). See HIST 277 for description.

PWAD 280 Anthropology of War and Peace (ANTH 280) (3). See ANTH 280 for description.

PWAD 281 The Pacific War, 1937–1945: Its Causes and Legacy (ASIA 281, HIST 281) (3). See HIST 281 for description.

PWAD 283 Freedom, Terror, and Identity: Modern Philosophy from Kant to Arendt (GERM 283) (3). See GERM 283 for description.

PWAD 287 Strategy and International Relations (POLI 287) (3). See POLI 287 for description.

PWAD 289 Sounds of War and Revolution (MUSC 289) (3). See MUSC 289 for description.

PWAD 350 National and International Security (3). Introduction to the problem of war and violent conflict in human experience and the contemporary world, and efforts to prevent, avoid, or ameliorate war and its effects. Content will vary by instructor and disciplinary perspective but will include causes of war, deterrence, irregular war, and the future of war.

PWAD 351 Global History of Warfare (HIST 351) (3). See HIST 351 for description.

PWAD 352 History of Intelligence Operations (3). This course reviews the historic development of intelligence organizations and operations. The primary focus is on the modern world and the correlation between intelligence and national security concerns.

PWAD 353 Intelligence Analysis: Research Methods and Writing (3). Examines intelligence analysis methodology and products from a variety of settings and customer-types. An overview of the intelligence process and of collection strategies will also be conducted. The primary emphasis will be on conducting actual analysis of raw information to produce an intelligence estimate as a capstone to the course.

PWAD 354 War and Gender in Movies (HIST 354, WMST 353) (3). See HIST 354 for description.

PWAD 355 Terrorism and Political Violence (COMM 355) (3). See COMM 355 for description.

PWAD 356 Strategic Intelligence and International Security (3). Course investigates policies, issues, key problems, and potential solutions in strategic intelligence and international security. In addition to readings and class simulations, students will write an issue paper similar to those prepared within the national security community assessing the future environment and suggesting policies and strategies.

PWAD 357 International Intelligence Services (3). This course examines international intelligence services within the context of national and homeland security. Prominent subjects include human intelligence (HUMINT), covert action, and counterintelligence, as well as the organizations, missions, and functions of international intelligence and security services.

PWAD 368 War and American Society to 1903 (HIST 368) (3). See HIST 368 for description.

PWAD 369 War and American Society, 1903 to the Present (HIST 369) (3). See HIST 369 for description.

PWAD 373 The United States in World War II (HIST 373) (3). See HIST 373 for description.

PWAD 376 The Rhetoric of War and Peace (COMM 376) (3). See COMM 376 for description.

PWAD 393 Internship in Peace, War, and Defense (3–6). Students are encouraged to undertake unpaid internships with branches of the federal government, international organizations, and selected nongovernment organizations. Pass/Fail only, with the written approval of the department chair. Does not count as a course in the major, but can be combined with an independent study such as PWAD 396.

PWAD 396 Independent Study in Peace, War, and Defense (1–6). Permission of the instructor. Independent study and reading. Special reading and research activities in a selected field under the supervision of a faculty member.

PWAD 416 Constitutional Policies and the Judicial Process (POLI 416) (3). See POLI 416 for description.

PWAD 421 Alexander (HIST 421) (3). See HIST 421 for description.

PWAD 422 Ancient Greek Warfare (HIST 422) (3). See HIST 422 for description.

PWAD 423 Peace Settlements in Ethnically Divided Societies (POLI 423) (3). See POLI 423 for description.

PWAD 430 Analysis of National Security Policy (PLCY 430) (3). See PLCY 430 for description.

PWAD 432 The Crusades (3). Students in this course will examine Christian attitudes toward holy war, crusading, and other forms of coercive violence from the 11th until the 15th centuries, with a focus on the major crusades of the Holy Land.

PWAD 442 Conflict and Bargaining (SOCI 442) (3). See SOCI 442 for description.

PWAD 443 American Foreign Policy: Formulation and Conduct (POLI 443) (3). See POLI 443 for description.

PWAD 444 Seminar on Terrorism (POLI 444) (3). See POLI 444 for description.

PWAD 446 Defense Policy and National Security (AERO 446, POLI 446) (3). See POLI 446 for description.

PWAD 452 Imagining Palestine (ARAB 452) (3). See ARAB 452 for description.

PWAD 453 Political Geography (GEOG 453) (3). See GEOG 453 for description.

PWAD 455 9/11 and Its Aftermath (PLCY 455) (3). See PLCY 455 for description.

PWAD 457 International Conflict Processes (POLI 457) (3). See POLI 457 for description.

PWAD 460 International Economics (ECON 460, EURO 460) (3). See ECON 460 for description.

PWAD 465 Literature of Atrocity: The Gulag and the Holocaust in Russia and Eastern Europe (JWST 465, SLAV 465) (3). See SLAV 465 for description.

PWAD 467 Language and Political Identity (SLAV 467) (3). See SLAV 467 for description.

PWAD 469 Conflict and Intervention in the Former Yugoslavia (POLI 469) (3). See POLI 469 for description.

PWAD 475 Literature of Russian Terrorism: Arson, Bombs, Mayhem (RUSS 475) (3). See RUSS 475 for description.

PWAD 481 Religion, Fundamentalism, and Nationalism (RELI 481) (3). See RELI 481 for description.

PWAD 486 National Security Decision Making (3). Permission of the instructor. Explores national security policy formation through analyzing the United States national security apparatus, the elements of national power, and historical examples of their application. Also examines the merits of various approaches to national security decision making. A course for senior majors in PWAD.

PWAD 487 Intelligence for National Security (3). Permission of the instructor. Course investigates the intelligence function associated with United States national security, focusing on how national security decision makers (Congress and the Executive Branch) have designed and employed the intelligence apparatus as a component of national power. Case studies and in-class simulations complement the readings and seminar discussions.

PWAD 488 Nuclear Security in the 21st Century (3). Examines the history of and contemporary problems associated with nuclear security and counter-proliferation.

PWAD 489 Empire and Diplomacy (CMPL 489) (3). Examines the history of the British Empire and the role of peace, war, defense, diplomacy, and letters in shaping Britain's presence on the world stage.

PWAD 490 Special Topics in Peace, War, and Defense (3). Subject matter will vary with instructor, but will focus on some particular topic or historical approach. Course description available from departmental office.

PWAD 517 Gender, Military, and War in Comparative Perspective (HIST 517, WMST 517) (3). See HIST 517 for description.

PWAD 564 Revolution and Nation Making in America, 1763–1815 (HIST 564) (3). See HIST 564 for description.

PWAD 565 Civil War and Reconstruction, 1848–1900 (HIST 565) (3). See HIST 565 for description.

PWAD 570 The Vietnam War (ASIA 570, HIST 570) (3). See HIST 570 for description.

PWAD 574 War and Culture (COMM 574) (3). See COMM 574 for description.

PWAD 575 Presidential Rhetoric (3). The power of the presidency depends in part upon the president's ability to rally public opinion, which depends upon the president's ability to use the "bully pulpit." This course examines the hurdles presidents face, and the steps presidents take to shape opinion.

PWAD 577 United States Foreign Relations in the 20th Century (HIST 577) (3). See HIST 577 for description.

PWAD 634 Public Health Issues in Community Preparedness and Disaster Management (HPM 634) (3). See HPM 634 for description.

PWAD 652 International Law (LAW 252) (3). See LAW 252 for description.

PWAD 659 War in 20th-Century Literature (ENGL 659) (3). See ENGL 659 for description.

PWAD 660 War in Shakespeare's Plays (ENGL 660) (3). See ENGL 660 for description.

PWAD 670 Peace Making in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (3). Research-intensive seminar focusing on the barriers preventing peace making from occurring. The course will make a distinction between making peace among individuals and achieving a political solution between governments and organizations.

PWAD 672 Political Violence and Insurgency (3). Course explores the concepts and problems of political violence and insurgency in the context of national and international security from a policy maker perspective. Students will conduct research and analysis for policy formulation aimed at countering these problems, and will write a substantial research policy paper.

PWAD 680 Research Seminar in Peace, War, and Defense (3). Undergraduate research seminar intended to provide an intensive research and writing experience for juniors and seniors in the major. Topic will vary by instructor. This course will emphasize developing research, writing, and presentation skills in topics relevant to the study of the problems of peace and security.

PWAD 690 Seminars in Peace, War, and Defense (3). Seminars on aspects of peace, war, and defense that lead to the production of a significant research product. Past topics have included arms control, public opinion and national security, and the Cold War.

PWAD 691H Honors in Peace, War, and Defense (3). Permission of the instructor. Directed research on an independent basis for majors who are preparing an honors thesis and for the oral examination on the thesis.

PWAD 692H Honors in Peace, War, and Defense (3). Prerequisite, PWAD 691H. Directed research on an independent basis for majors who are preparing an honors thesis and for the oral examination on the thesis.