Department of Religious Studies

125 Saunders Hall, CB# 3225; (919) 962-1567



The Department of Religious Studies is dedicated to the study of the world's religions as historical and cultural phenomena. It examines the history, texts, artifacts, beliefs, values, and rituals of a variety of religious traditions, including Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Inherently interdisciplinary in its approach, religious studies explores these traditions in light of related fields in the humanities and social sciences such as anthropology, classics, archaeology, sociology, philosophy, and history. The department offers a variety of courses ranging from large lecture classes to advanced seminars, as well as independent studies, an honors thesis program, and a capstone course for all majors (RELI 697). Introductory courses, which are numbered below 200, orient students to the field of religious studies or to major approaches, topics, or issues within that broader field. Intermediate courses are numbered between 200 and 399, and they provide more in-depth analysis. Advanced courses, which are numbered 400 and above, often build on knowledge or skills derived from lower-level courses, and they provide opportunities for research-intensive study in particular areas of concentration in the study of religion.

Religious Studies Major, B.A.

Core Requirements

Of the nine courses required in the major, students must take at least one course in each of three of the department's subfields.

Ancient Mediterranean Religions: CLAR/JWST/RELI 110, 512; CLAR/RELI 375; FOLK/RELI 502; JWST/RELI 103, 106, 206, 503; RELI 63, 65, 70, 104, 105, 109, 117, 201, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 217, 302, 390 (based on topic), 411, 412, 413, 590 (based on topic), 602, 603, 605, 607, 608, 617

Asian Religions-Islamic Studies: ANTH/ASIA/RELI 574; ARAB/ASIA/RELI 681; ASIA/RELI 180, 181, 183, 248, 284, 285, 487, 488, 489, 581, 582, 583, 584; ASIA 300/RELI 283, ASIA 301/RELI 286, ASIA 302/RELI 287, ASIA 303/RELI 288; HNUR/RELI 592; PWAD/RELI 481; RELI 64, 73, 165, 184, 185, 248, 289, 381, 385, 390 (based on topic), 480, 485, 524, 580, 585, 586, 590 (based on topic)

Medieval and Early Modern/Historical Studies: ASIA/RELI 180, 284, 488, 581; ASIA 301/RELI 286; ASIA 303/RELI 288; GERM/RELI 218; HIST/RELI 454; RELI 62, 77, 88, 108, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 209, 266, 365, 366, 367, 390 (based on topic), 450, 565, 566, 569, 586, 590 (based on topic), 617, 662, 665, 668; RELI/SLAV 463; RELI/WMST 362, 371

Religion and Culture: ANTH/FOLK/RELI 428, 688; CMPL 270/GERM 270/JWST 239/RELI 239; JWST 100/RELI 123, JWST/RELI 343; PHIL 134/RELI 126; RELI 61, 67, 68, 71, 74, 75, 76, 85, 101, 102, 121, 122, 125, 127, 134, 135, 138, 222, 225, 232, 235, 236, 246, 322, 323, 325, 338, 390 (based on topic), 421, 425, 438, 522, 524, 525, 528, 530, 534, 590 (based on topic); RELI 234/SOCI 140, RELI/SOCI 429; RELI/WMST 244, 424

Religion in the Americas: ANTH/FOLK/RELI 342; ASIA/RELI 445; JWST/RELI 107, 143, 243, 444; RELI 60, 66, 69, 72, 140, 141, 142, 151, 235, 240, 241, 242, 245, 246, 248, 332, 338, 340, 345, 390 (based on topic), 423, 441, 442, 443, 446, 540, 541, 542, 580, 590 (based on topic)

Introductory and intermediate language courses (RELI 401, 402, 403, 404, 409, 410) are recommended for their usefulness but do not count toward the major in religious studies.

Religious Studies Major, B.A.–Jewish Studies Concentration

Core Requirements

Courses listed more than once can be counted for only one category.

Additional Requirements

Although this concentration of the religious studies major is housed in the Department of Religious Studies, the director of Jewish studies is responsible for advising all students who chose the concentration in Jewish studies.

Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies Minor

The undergraduate minor in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies (ISME) is intended to offer students access to two complementary perspectives, the transregional study of Islam and Muslim societies in interaction with surrounding cultures, and the Middle East as a complex region seen through multiple disciplinary perspectives.

The minor consists of five courses, which must be taken in at least two different departments; at least one course must be from the Department of Religious Studies, and at least one course must be at an advanced level (400 and above). The two required core courses for the minor are the following:

Three of the five required courses in the minor (including the core courses) must be selected from one of two subject categories–either Islamic studies or Middle Eastern studies–as indicated by the two lists of approved courses below. The other two courses must come from the other category.

Islamic Studies

Middle Eastern Studies

One language course at level 5 or higher in Arabic, Hebrew, Hindi-Urdu, Persian, or Turkish can count as a course toward the minor. Up to two courses in Islamic and Middle East studies at Duke University may count toward the minor if approved by the director of the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations.

Although this minor is housed in the Department of Religious Studies, the director of the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations is responsible for advising all students who minor in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies.

Jewish Studies Minor

The undergraduate minor in Jewish studies is an interdisciplinary curriculum that explores the history, literature, culture, and religious life of Jews in their interaction with other peoples from ancient times to the present. It also offers students an opportunity to become more knowledgeable about selected areas of the Jewish experience.

The minor consists of five courses, which must be taken in at least two different departments: a core course (JWST 100/RELI 123) and four other courses selected from the list below. Of these four courses, one must be a course numbered 400 or higher, and at least one must fulfill the world before 1750 (WB) General Education requirement.

Additions to this list must be approved by the director of the Carolina Center for Jewish Studies. Only courses in Modern Hebrew at the fifth-semester level or higher can count toward the minor. For students minoring in both Jewish studies and religious studies, only two courses can overlap between the two minors.

Although this minor is housed in the Department of Religious Studies, the director of Jewish studies is responsible for advising all students who minor in Jewish studies.

Religious Studies Minor

Minimum requirements for the minor in religious studies consist of five courses, four of which must be completed with a grade of C or better and two of which must be numbered above 400. Minors must take at least one course in two of the department's subfields (see lists under departmental requirements for the major): religion in the Americas, religion and culture, Asian religions-Islamic studies, ancient Mediterranean religions, and medieval and early modern/historical studies. Introductory and intermediate language courses (RELI 401, 402, 403, 404, 409, 410) are recommended for their usefulness but do not count towards the minor in religious studies. Courses listed more than once can be counted for only one subfield.

Study of Christianity and Culture Minor

The undergraduate minor in the study of Christianity and culture is an interdisciplinary curriculum in the humanities, arts, and social sciences that aims to refine students' understanding of the cultural, social, and political influence of Christianity.

The minor requires the completion of five courses, including at least one course from each of the following categories:

Courses fulfilling the minor in the study of Christianity and culture also must be taken from at least two different departments, and at least one must be numbered 200 or above. Students may also petition the Minor Faculty Advisory Committee for permission to count toward their minor requirements other potentially appropriate UNC–Chapel Hill courses, independent study courses, transfer courses, or study abroad courses.

Students also are encouraged to take language courses that relate to the minor in the study of Christianity and culture–such as Latin, Greek, or Hebrew–but language courses do not fulfill minor course requirements.

Although this minor is housed in the Department of Religious Studies, the director of Christianity and culture is responsible for advising all students who minor in the study of Christianity and culture.


The director of undergraduate studies advises majors and minors in religious studies. Please contact the Department of Religious Studies for updated contact information.

The director of Jewish studies advises majors and minors in Jewish studies. Please contact the Carolina Center for Jewish Studies for updated contact information.

The director of Christianity and culture advises minors in the study of Christianity and culture. Please contact the Department of Religious Studies for updated contact information.

The director of the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations advises minors in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies. Please contact the Carolina Center for the Study of the Middle East and Muslim Civilizations for updated contact information.

Special Opportunities in Religious Studies

Honors in Religious Studies

Students majoring in religious studies (including double majors) with a grade point average of 3.5 or above in department courses and 3.3 grade point average overall and who will have successfully completed at least one course numbered 400 or above on a topic in religious studies that is related to the proposed thesis may choose to write an honors thesis. Candidates for graduation with honors in religious studies are to be enrolled in RELI 691H in the fall and 692H in the spring semester of their senior year. RELI 691H and 692H count toward the major as courses fulfilling subfield requirements. Students should submit applications for the honors program to the department's director of undergraduate studies by the end of February during their junior year. Consult the department's director of undergraduate studies for details.

Study Abroad

Professor Jodi Magness directs archaeological excavations in Israel during the summer. Students are welcome to participate. Other courses through the Study Abroad Office can count towards the major and minor in religious studies as well.

Undergraduate Awards

The department presents two awards at the end of each academic year: the Bernard Boyd Fellowship and the Bernard Boyd Memorial Prize.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Those wishing to proceed to graduate study in religion can consult the director of undergraduate studies. We encourage students to pursue the study of two or more languages in which the sacred literatures of the world have been written, as well as the modern languages of scholarship. In addition to the language courses offered by this department, UNC–Chapel Hill offers courses in Greek, Modern Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, Hindi-Urdu, Latin, Arabic, Sanskrit, Persian, Bengali, and Tamil.

Students majoring in religious studies often choose to pursue an M.A. or Ph.D. in religious studies or other related fields in the humanities and social sciences. Some of the graduates of the program go on to professional schools in law, medicine, divinity, or journalism. Each year the department awards a fellowship, the Bernard Boyd Fellowship, to a graduating religious studies major who is planning to pursue graduate study in religion at another institution.



Yaakov Ariel, Bart D. Ehrman, Carl W. Ernst, Jodi Magness.

Associate Professors

Barbara Ambros, Juliane Hammer, Lauren Leve, Evyatar Marienberg, Todd Ramon Ochoa, Zlatko Plese, Randall Styers.

Assistant Professors

Brandon Bayne, Jessica Boon, Andrea Cooper, Joseph Lam, David Lambert, Brendan Thornton.

Adjunct Professors

Jason Bivins (NCSU), Philip F. Gura, Jonathan M. Hess, Charles Kurzman, Bruce B. Lawrence (Duke University), Fred Naiden, Albert Rabil Jr., James B. Rives, Omid Safi (Duke University).

Adjunct Associate Professors

Anna Bigelow (NCSU), Christian Lundberg, Barry Saunders, Margaret J. Wiener.

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Maria Doerfler (Duke University), Levi McLaughlin (NCSU).

Professors Emeriti

David J. Halperin, Peter I. Kaufman, Laurie Maffly-Kipp, William J. Peck, Jack Sasson, John H. Schutz, Ruel W. Tyson Jr., John Van Seters.

Contact Information

Undergraduate Studies Program Assistant, Department of Religious Studies, CB# 3225, 125 Saunders Hall, (919) 962-5666.

Follow the department on Facebook:


RELI–Religious Studies

RELI 60 First-Year Seminar: Religion and Racism (3). How does religion become a source of ethnic or racial prejudice among religious practitioners? When does prejudice against religious persons constitute a form of racism? This class explores answers to these questions by examining the connections between religion and racism in modern societies like the United States and South Africa.

RELI 61 First-Year Seminar: Religion, Magic, and Science (3). This course explores the ways in which religion, magic, and science are defined in the modern world and the different forms in which supernaturalism circulates within contemporary culture.

RELI 62 First-Year Seminar: A History of Heresy: Christian Dissent from the Gnostics to the Pentecostals (3). Christian orthodox beliefs or practices often get formulated expressly to marginalize a viewpoint or community considered too radical. This course examines a variety of Western Christian dissenters and the authorities that opposed them: Gnostics; medieval, Spanish, and Latin American inquisitions; Protestant Anabaptists; witches; Galileo; Mormons; and Pentecostals.

RELI 63 First-Year Seminar: The Archaeology of Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls (3). In this seminar students learn about the Dead Sea Scrolls, ancient manuscripts dating to the time of Jesus from caves around the site of Qumran by the Dead Sea. They include early copies of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and sectarian works of the Jewish community that lived in Qumran.

RELI 64 First-Year Seminar: Reintroducing Islam (3). An introduction to the Islamic religious tradition, focusing on major themes of Islamic religious thought and bringing out both traditional spirituality and the critical issues confronting Muslims today.

RELI 65 First-Year Seminar: Myth, Philosophy, and Science in the Ancient World (3). This course examines the conflicting ways in which ancient myth, science, and philosophy explained creation of the universe, origins of mankind, nature of dreams, and foundations of culture.

RELI 66 First-Year Seminar: Buddhism in America: From the Buddha to the Beastie Boys (3). Introduces students to Buddhism and traces its history in the United States, highlighting the period since 1965. It focuses on immigrants, converts, and the cultural influence of Buddhism in America.

RELI 67 First-Year Seminar: Nature, Culture, and Self-Identity: Religion in the Construction of Social Life (3). This course explores how different religious traditions conceive of human nature and cultural personhood, and the ways that these understandings are reflected in diverse forms of personal identity and public life.

RELI 68 First-Year Seminar: Charisma in Religion, Science, Poetry: Studies in the Entrepreneurial Imagination (3). A comparative examination of prophet, scientist, and poet as critics and creators of the entrepreneurial outlook and sensibility in individuals and organizations with special attention to innovators' dilemmas.

RELI 69 First-Year Seminar: Gender and Sexuality in Contemporary Judaism (3). Taking a global perspective, the course compares the manners in which Jewish communities in America, Israel, Europe, Asia, and Africa have accommodated themselves to the changing norms in gender and sexuality in the last generation.

RELI 70 First-Year Seminar: Jesus in Scholarship and Film (3). This seminar explores the ways the historical Jesus has been portrayed in the writings of modern scholars and films of the 20th and 21st centuries.

RELI 71 First-Year Seminar: Ethics and the Spirit of the New Capitalism (3). What does it mean to be ethically literate in the age of information technology? Philosophical and historical inquiries into organizational practices and styles of life.

RELI 72 First-Year Seminar: Apocalypse Now? Messianic Movements in America (3). This course explores the messianic idea in America as well as the messianic movements that have been active in the nation's history and their interaction with American society and culture.

RELI 73 First-Year Seminar: From Dragons to Pokemon: Animals in Japanese Myth, Folklore, and Religion (3). This course examines the cultural construction of animals in Japanese myth, folklore, and religion.

RELI 74 First-Year Seminar: Person, Time, and Religious Conduct (3). Within the vast field of activity called "religion," this course examines how people and societies give meaning to the relation between human organisms and the universe in time and space.

RELI 75 First-Year Seminar: Sacrifice and Surrender (3). This course will consider the questions of debt, loss, and surrender as we explore the problem of sacrifice. Readings will address the associated problems of violence, transgression, and animality.

RELI 76 First-Year Seminar: Money and Morality: Divining Value in Social Life (3). This seminar explores the many ways that different religions and cultures have imagined spiritual wealth, secular riches, and the appropriate modes of interaction between them in different places and times.

RELI 77 First-Year Seminar: Martyrs and Warriors: Religion and the Problem of Violence (3). This seminar asks why some people choose to take life (their own or another's) for religious purposes and how texts, practices, and communities shape these motives. Focuses on martyrological traditions in Western religions, but also tracks idioms of war, sacrifice, and ritualized suffering in other religious contexts and secular discourses.

RELI 78 First-Year Seminar: Reading the Bible: Now and Then (3). An introduction to the interpretation of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. We will look at the biblical text as modern interpreters and through the eyes of the Bible's earliest Jewish and Christian interpreters with special attention to changing assumptions about how to read the Bible and the nature of Scripture itself.

RELI 79 First-Year Seminar: Human Animals in Religion and Ethics (3). This course investigates the figure of the human animal in religion and philosophy. What kind of animal is the human, and what separates humans from animals? We will consider how attending to distinctions between humans and animals can highlight varying ideological and religious viewpoints.

RELI 85 First-Year Seminar: Sex, Marriage, and Family in Religion (3).This course approaches the central role of discourses about sexual norms, marriage, and family in select religious traditions. It asks how religious traditions have defined and negotiated normative models for marriage and family in their connection to larger theological frameworks and religious source texts.

RELI 88 First-Year Seminar: Religion and Society in Historical Novels (3). In this seminar we will read several books. Most of them are best-sellers and can be described as "historical novels." Having these books as a starting point, we will explore religion and society in Europe and the Middle East in the medieval and early modern period.

RELI 89 First-Year Seminar: Special Topics (3). Special topics course. Content will vary each semester.

RELI 101 Introduction to Religious Studies (3). An introduction to the academic study of religion that considers approaches to the interpretation of religion and includes study of several religious traditions.

RELI 102 World Religions (3). This course examines forms of religious expression as embodied in several important religious traditions. It investigates religious experience; myth and ritual; teachings and scripture; historical, social, and artistic aspects of religion; and the nature and function of religion in society, with a special focus on ethics and values.

RELI 103 Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Literature (JWST 103) (3). This course introduces students to the various books of the Hebrew Bible and to the history and culture of ancient Israel, focusing on the formation of national identity, ancient conceptualizations of divinity, ritual practice, and modes of social regulation, all of which are set against the background of the ancient Near East.

RELI 104 Introduction to New Testament Literature (3). This course introduces students to New Testament literature and to the faith of the early Christian communities, focusing on Jewish and Greco-Roman background, the development of the gospel traditions, the life and ministry of Jesus, the ministry of Paul, the post-Pauline era, and the literature of the Johannine circle.

RELI 105 Religions of the Greco-Roman World (3). An introduction to religions and the religious life of the ancient world (1000 BCE–300 CE) in various cultural settings: Greek cities, cosmopolitan Hellenistic kingdoms in Egypt and Syria, and the Roman Empire.

RELI 106 Introduction to Early Judaism (JWST 106) (3). This course surveys Jewish history and religion during the Second Temple and Rabbinic periods, from the destruction of the First Jewish Temple (Solomon's Temple) in 586 BCE to the Muslim conquest of Palestine (640 CE).

RELI 107 Introduction to Modern Judaism (JWST 107) (3).The course offers a comprehensive understanding of the development of Judaism from the late Middle Ages to contemporary times.

RELI 108 Classic Jewish Texts: From Bible and Dead Sea Scrolls to Kabbalah and Hassidism (3). This course will explore Jewish literary works that are considered "fundamental," "classic," "traditional" (often, all of the above), including the Hebrew Bible, the Mishnah, the Babylonian Talmud, midrashic collections, works by Maimonides, major codes of Jewish law, major kabbalistic, philosophic, poetic, and ethical works, hassidic compositions, and more.

RELI 109 History and Culture of Ancient Israel (3). An examination extending from Hebrew origins to the Babylonian exile and including political history as well as social and religious institutions.

RELI 110 The Archaeology of Palestine in the New Testament Period (CLAR 110, JWST 110) (3). This course surveys the archaeology of Palestine (modern Israel and Jordan) from the Persian period (ca. 586 BCE) to the Muslim conquest (640 CE).

RELI 117 Culture of the Ancient Near East. (3). An overview of the history and culture of the ancient Near East, from the birth of writing through the first millennium BCE, covering the regions of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, and Syria-Palestine.

RELI 121 Introduction to Religion and Culture (3). An introductory course that explores relations between religion and culture through the examination of social theory and the analysis of case studies. The case studies focus on such issues as visual culture, ritual, media, gender, and politics.

RELI 122 Introduction to Philosophical Approaches to Religion (3). An introduction to philosophical approaches to the study of religion, exploring such topics as religious language and experience, the problem of evil, the relation between religious belief and practice, and issues of religious diversity.

RELI 123 Introduction to Jewish Studies (JWST 100) (3). An introduction to the broad scope of Jewish history, culture, and identity, from biblical times to the 21st century and from the Middle East to the New World.

RELI 125 Heaven and Hell (3). This course will explore cultural development and significance of religious notions of an afterlife. Are they coherent? What alternative notions of life after death can we imagine?

RELI 126 Philosophy of Western Religion (PHIL 134) (3). See PHIL 134 for description.

RELI 127 The Claims of Science and Religion (3). The proposition that God exists is treated as a scientific hypothesis. Evidence for and against the hypothesis. The status of other minds and free will in science and religion. Conflicting views about creation, revelation, miracles, and prayers.

RELI 134 Introduction to Religious Ethics (3). A study of the nature, methods, and aims of ethics as seen in exemplary persons and actions with emphasis on religious and social context and contemporary problems.

RELI 135 Technology, the Self, and Ethical Problems (3). Problems in the study of ethics in the new worlds of information technology.

RELI 138 Religious Freedom (3). This course explores the development of religious liberty and freedom of conscience in Western culture by examining both the historical emergence of these concepts and important contemporary controversies.

RELI 140 Religion in America (3). An introduction to the history, themes, and issues in American religion from the precolonial period to the present.

RELI 141 African American Religions (3). Survey of the historical development of various African American religious traditions, with emphasis on folk spirituality, gender issues, black nationalism, and the role of the church in the black community.

RELI 142 Catholicism in America (3). An introduction to Roman Catholicism in the United States.

RELI 143 Judaism in Our Time (JWST 143) (3). An examination of Judaism in its two major centers, demonstrating how different social and cultural environments shape very different interpretations and practices of the Jewish tradition.

RELI 151 Religion in Latin America (3). This course surveys the history of Latin American religious traditions from precontact to the present. It explores the contributions of African, indigenous, and European traditions as well as the extraordinary combinations that resulted from their interaction.

RELI 161 Introduction to the History of Christian Traditions (3). Analysis of continuities and innovations in the history of Western Christian traditions in the West and globally.

RELI 162 Introduction to Catholicism (3). This course provides students with a first glimpse and insight into the Catholic tradition, past, present, and future: its beliefs, structure, aims, successes, and failures.

RELI 163 Critical Issues in Western Religious Thought (3). A consideration of major questions within and about religious thought.

RELI 164 Heresy and Inquisition: Religion, Ethics, Marginalization (3). During the Middle Ages and the early modern era, various inquisitions used legal inquiry and torture to determine the boundaries of heresy. This course surveys the influence of these regimes on the doctrine, practices, and morality of heretics, mystics, witches, Jews, and Muslims, in the interest of delimiting "orthodox" Catholicism.

RELI 165 Mysticism (3). Comparative study of mysticism in several religious traditions, Eastern and Western.

RELI 166 Ideals, Cultures, and Rituals of the University (3). Permission of the instructor. A religious studies approach to the rituals, cultures, and disciplines of the university, assessing the ways in which explanatory ideals are embedded, changed, and promoted.

RELI 180 Introduction to Islamic Civilization (ASIA 180) (3). A broad, comprehensive, and interdisciplinary introduction to the traditional civilization of the Muslim world.

RELI 181 Modern Muslim Societies (ASIA 181) (3). This course surveys important developments in modern Muslim societies since the 16th century and up to the present. Topics covered include Muslim experiences with colonialism and nationalism, modernist reform movements, fundamentalism, women's activism and changes in Qur'an interpretation, Islamic law, and religious practice.

RELI 183 Asian Religions (ASIA 183) (3). An introduction to major religions of South Asia and East Asia, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism.

RELI 184 East Asian Religions: The Religions of East Asia and the Environment (3). This course surveys East Asian religions and their relationship with the natural world. It provides an East Asian religious perspective on environmental thought and an environmental perspective on East Asian religions. We will explore parallels and divergences, and how each can enrich and critique the other.

RELI 185 Women/Gender/Islam (3). A survey of gender roles in Muslim societies from the advent of Islam to the present. It explores how Muslims have interpreted the Qur'an to determine discourses on gender and sexuality and emphasizes the role of religious authority as well as historical/geographical contexts for Muslim women's lives.

RELI 196 Independent Study (3). Permission of the instructor. Subject matter will vary with instructor but will always be focused on a particular problem or issue.

RELI 201 Ancient Biblical Interpretation (3). The course looks at the origins of biblical interpretation, how the Hebrew Bible was interpreted around the turn of the Common Era, the key formative period for early Christianity and rabbinic Judaism. We consider the nature of interpretation as an endeavor, as well as how the Bible came to be viewed as Scripture.

RELI 205 Sacrifice in the Ancient World (3). This course examines the religious phenomenon of sacrifice with a focus on examples from the ancient Mediterranean world (including Greece, ancient Israel, and the Near East).

RELI 206 Prophecy and Divination in Ancient Israel and Judah (JWST 206) (3). An examination of prophecy and divination in the Israelite-Jewish traditions and in their environments, including an analysis of the major biblical prophets.

RELI 207 Jesus in Myth, Tradition, and History, 30–200 CE (3). An analysis of the variety of traditions used in the first two centuries to portray Jesus, focusing on the reasons for this variety and the historical and literary problems it presents.

RELI 208 The Birth of Christianity (3). An analysis of the origin of the Christian church and its early expansion, with particular emphasis on the problems evident in the shift from a Jewish to a Gentile framework. Paul's role in defining and resolving the issues is considered in detail and evaluated in the light of subsequent events.

RELI 209 Varieties of Early Christianity (3). A study of various forms of Christianity in the second and third centuries (e.g., Gnosticism, Marcionism, Montanism), focusing on their polemical relationship to orthodox Christianity.

RELI 211 Classical Hebrew I: A Linguistic Introduction to the Hebrew Bible (3). An introduction to the culture and history of ancient Israel through an exploration of the language of the Hebrew Bible. Students will learn the essentials for basic engagement with biblical Hebrew, then consider what this linguistic evidence reveals about the historical and cultural background of the Hebrew Bible.

RELI 212 Classical Hebrew II: A Linguistic Introduction to the Hebrew Bible (3). Prerequisite, RELI 211. This course explores the linguistic background of the Hebrew Bible, giving special attention to the literary aspect of biblical interpretation. Specific topics include the forms of the Hebrew verb, prose and poetic genres in the Hebrew Bible, wordplay and repetition, narration and dialogue.

RELI 217 Gnosticism (3). A comprehensive survey of ancient Christian Gnosticism, one of the earliest and most long-lived branches of early Christianity, with principal readings drawn from the famous "Nag Hammadi Library."

RELI 218 Christianity and Islam in the Middle Ages (GERM 218) (3). See GERM 218 for description.

RELI 222 Modern Western Religious Thought (3). Prerequisite, PHIL 134 or RELI 122, 126, 140, 161, or 163. Representative themes and approaches in the work of modern Western religious thinkers.

RELI 224 Modern Jewish Thought (3). This course examines how contemporary thinkers have considered philosophy, ethics, and theology from a Jewish perspective. Methodological points of inquiry include the role of interpretation in Judaism, revelation and redemption, authority and tradition, pluralism and inclusion, suffering and evil, gender and Jewish philosophy, and 20th-century approaches to God.

RELI 225 Christian Cultures (3). This course explores the range of cultural manifestation of Christianity in the modern world, focusing particularly on differences of race, ethnicity, gender, geography, and class.

RELI 232 Shrines and Pilgrimages (3). An introduction to the study of shrines and pilgrimage in multiple cultural contexts.

RELI 234 Historical Sociology of Christianity (SOCI 140) (3). See SOCI 140 for description.

RELI 235 Place, Space, and Religion (3). A consideration of the attitudes toward place and space as they are expressed in religious ritual and artifact.

RELI 236 Religious Things (3). An introduction to religion and visual culture in the United States. The course focuses on painting, ritual objects, and architecture.

RELI 239 German Culture and the Jewish Question (CMPL 270, GERM 270, JWST 239) (3). See GERM 270 for description.

RELI 240 Religion, Literature, and the Arts in America (3). Engages literary, performing, and visual arts to explore religion in American culture.

RELI 241 Messianic Movements in American History (3). The course examines messianic movements in American history raising the questions, What has been the impact of such movements on the nation? What makes America particularly conducive to such movements?

RELI 242 New Religious Movements in America (3). An introduction to new religious movements in the United States, with emphasis on the nature of conversion and the role of founders.

RELI 243 Introduction to American Judaism (JWST 243) (3). Course provides a comprehensive introduction to American Judaism, its various movements, institutions, theological, and liturgical characteristics, as well as its standing within the larger framework of religious life in America.

RELI 244 Gender and Sexuality in Western Christianity (WMST 244) (3). An examination of the development of teachings on issues of gender and sexuality through the history of Western Christianity, with particular focus on contemporary controversies.

RELI 245 Creolization and Latina/o Religious Transformation in the United States (3). The goal of this course is to orient students to the great diversity of Latina and Latino religious formations in the United States today. Focusing on Indigenous, African, and Catholic Creole "inspirations," this course will focus students on the emergence of a distinctly United States Latina/o religious experience.

RELI 246 Supernatural Encounters: Zombies, Vampires, Demons, and the Occult in the Americas (3). This course examines accounts of supernatural beings such as zombies and vampires and aims to understand them as popular ways of making sense of the world in the context of uneven and frequently unsettling processes of modernization, neoliberalism, and globalization.

RELI 248 Introduction to American Islam (3). This course surveys Muslim communities in North America in their religious, historical, political, social, and cultural dimensions. Discussion frames include methods for the study of American Muslims, the role of public and media representations of Islam and Muslims, and the place of American Muslims within the larger American religious landscape.

RELI 266 Medieval and Renaissance Christian Cultures (3). This course explores the cultural manifestations of Christianity in the medieval and Renaissance worlds, focusing particularly on interactions with other religions and on differences of gender, geography, and class.

RELI 283 The Buddhist Tradition: India, Nepal, and Tibet (ASIA 300) (3). Examines the diverse beliefs, practices, and cultures associated with Buddhism in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, and Tibet. Topics include Buddhism's development and spread, the cultural dynamics of Himalayan societies, monasticism, folk religion, revivalism, tourism, gender, globalization, and the role of the state in shaping Buddhist life and culture.

RELI 284 The Buddhist Tradition: East Asia (ASIA 284) (3). An examination of the development of Buddhism after its importation to East Asia.

RELI 285 The Buddhist Tradition: Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka (ASIA 285) (3). This course explores the Theravada school of Buddhism and themes in the social, cultural, and political lives of the Theravada Buddhist countries of Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka.

RELI 286 Premodern Japanese Religions (ASIA 301) (3). Historical survey of the major premodern religious traditions in Japan: Shinto, Buddhism, Shugendo, and Christianity.

RELI 287 Modern Japanese Religions (ASIA 302) (3). Survey of the major religious traditions in modern and contemporary Japan: Shinto, Buddhism, and the New Religions.

RELI 288 Chinese Religions (ASIA 303) (3). Historical introduction to Chinese religions: Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, and folk religion.

RELI 289 Muhammad and the Qur'an (3). An introduction the life and significance of the Prophet Muhammad and the sacred scripture of Islam, the Qur'an. It offers discussion of textual sources for Muhammad's biography; his emulation and veneration in Muslim societies, and the nature, compilation, reception history, and range of interpretations of the Qur'an.

RELI 322 Theories of Religion (3). This course addresses terms such as "the sacred," "the dead," "divinity," and "possession" to explore the limitations and new potentials of religious studies for describing human experience.

RELI 323 Social Theory and Cultural Diversity (3). Introduction to basic thinking about cultural difference (race, gender, nationality, religion, etc.). The course encourages students to examine the ways paradigms shape how we act, think, and imagine as members of diverse cultures in the United States.

RELI 325 Religion, Magic, and Science (3). Critical exploration of the ways in which religion, magic, and science have been constructed as distinct domains of knowledge in the West since the late 19th century.

RELI 332 The Protestant Tradition (3). The course comes to provide students with historical and theological knowledge and conceptual tools that will enable them to understand the very rich and diverse Protestant tradition.

RELI 338 Religion in American Law (3). An exploration of the position of religion in American legal and social theory, with particular focus on jurisprudence under the First Amendment.

RELI 340 Liberal Tradition in American Religion (3). An examination of the growth of liberal theological expressions, such as rationalism, romanticism, and modernism, from the early 18th century to the present.

RELI 342 African American Religious Experience (ANTH 342, FOLK 342) (3). Permission of the instructor. An introduction to the diversity of African American beliefs, experiences, and expressions from the colonial era to the present. Exploration will be both historical and thematic.

RELI 343 Religion in Modern Israel (JWST 343) (3). Examines the major religious groups that operate in the state of Israel and influence its social and cultural development; analyzes the relationship among religion, state, and society in Israel.

RELI 345 Black Atlantic Religions (3). This course is an introduction to Black Atlantic discourses from ethnographic and religious studies perspectives. Readings will privilege African-inspired performance and aesthetic forms as these are produced in religious practice.

RELI 352 Anthropology of Christianity (3). This course introduces students to the anthropology of Christianity. Students will explore major themes of interest in the field. This course aims to familiarize students with the diversity of Christian religious experience and expression globally and to explore the mechanisms through which that diversity takes shape in various cultural contexts.

RELI 362 Mary in the Christian Tradition (WMST 362) (3). In certain eras, Mary has been more central to Catholic devotion than Christ. This course explores doctrine, liturgy, and popular devotion centering on the Virgin in medieval European Christianity, her impact on colonial religion in the New World, and her roles in Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Islam.

RELI 365 Studies in Christian Theologies and Theologians (3). Permission of the instructor. An investigation of one writer or school in the history of Christian theology as an example of typical methods, positions, and problems within the tradition.

RELI 366 Medieval Religious Texts (3). Permission of the instructor. Restricted to students with a reading knowledge of Latin. Readings in one or two major texts in Latin that permit close study of several issues in the development of Christian life and thought during the Middle Ages.

RELI 367 The Art of Devotion in Medieval and Early Modern Europe (3). Prerequisites, RELI 161 and 163. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course examines creative expression at the service of religious belief from 1000 to 1700. Poetry, drama, art, architecture, and music will be the texts to understand the religious culture of this rich period.

RELI 371 Women Mystics (WMST 371) (3). An investigation of the forms, characteristics, and variety of the mystical experiences of women.

RELI 375 Archaeology of Cult (CLAR 375) (3). See CLAR 375 for description.

RELI 381 Religions of South Asia (3). Exploration of the major religious traditions of South Asia. Focuses on the beliefs and practices associated with different traditions, and the ways that these relate to one another and to broader political, historical, and cultural formations. Also addresses questions of modernization, reform, communal violence, and other transformations of religious life.

RELI 382 The Story of Rama in Indian Culture–Experiential (ASIA 382) (3). See ASIA 382 for description.

RELI 383 The Mahabharata: Remembered and Reimagined–Experiential (ASIA 383) (3). See ASIA 383 for description.

RELI 385 Modern Muslims and the Qur'an (3). This course introduces students to the multifaceted ways in which Muslims in the modern and contemporary periods have approached, experienced, and interpreted the Qur'an, including discussions of accessibility, hermeneutical methods, and exegetical themes.

RELI 390 Topics in the Study of Religion (3). Permission of the instructor. Subject matter will vary with instructor but will always be focused on a particular problem or issue.

RELI 401 Introductory Biblical Hebrew I (3). The first part of a two-semester introduction to the grammar of biblical Hebrew.

RELI 402 Introductory Biblical Hebrew II (3). Prerequisite, RELI 401. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. The second part of a two-semester introduction to the grammar of biblical Hebrew.

RELI 403 Intermediate Classical Hebrew I (3). Prerequisite, RELI 402. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A consolidation of the fundamentals of classical Hebrew grammar via readings of biblical texts of various genres (including both prose and poetry).

RELI 404 Intermediate Classical Hebrew II (3). Prerequisite, RELI 403. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Further readings of classical Hebrew texts, focusing on biblical poetry as well as early postbiblical material (e.g., nonbiblical texts from Qumran, Mishnah/Tosefta).

RELI 409 Greek New Testament (GREK 409) (3). Prerequisite, GREK 222. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.

RELI 410 Aramaic/Rabbinic Hebrew (3). Prerequisites, RELI 403 and 404. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Reading texts in rabbinic Hebrew or in biblical and/or talmudic Aramaic, with appropriate grammatical instruction.

RELI 411 Advanced Akkadian (3). Prerequisites, RELI 403 and 404. Readings in literary, epistolary, and juridical texts.

RELI 412 Ugaritic (3). Prerequisites, RELI 403 and 404. Readings in the alphabetic texts of Ras Shamra and a study of the elements of Ugaritic grammar.

RELI 413 Biblical Coptic and Early Egyptian Monasticism (3). Coptic, the last stage of Egyptian, a living language in the Roman and Byzantine period. Thorough grounding in the grammar of the Sahidic dialect as a basis for reading biblical monastic and Gnostic texts.

RELI 414 Syriac (3). An introduction to the grammar of Classical Syriac for the purpose of reading Syriac Christian texts from late antiquity. Knowledge of another Semitic language (e.g., Hebrew, Arabic) would be an asset but is not required.

RELI 420 Post-Holocaust Ethics and Theology (3). This course examines the challenges posed to ethics and theology by the Holocaust. We will address philosophical and moral issues such as the problem of evil, divine omniscience, omnipotence, suffering, theodicy, representation, testimony, and an ethics of memory.

RELI 421 Religion and Science (3). This course explores the complex relation between religion and science in the modern world. Public disputes over teaching evolution in American schools serve as a central case study of this.

RELI 423 Ethnicity, Race, and Religion in America (3). Prerequisite, RELI 140. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. A theoretical inquiry into ethnicity, race, and religion as constituents of personal and communal identity. Emphasis on global migrations, colonial and postcolonial relations, diasporic communities, and issues of religious pluralism.

RELI 424 Gender Theory and the Study of Religion (WMST 424) (3). An examination of contemporary gender theory, with particular focus on its application to the study of religion.

RELI 425 Psychology of Religion (3). A critical exploration of the concept of religious experience as defined by such authors as William James and Sigmund Freud.

RELI 426 The Sacrifice of Abraham (3). This course examines philosophical interpretations of the attempted sacrifice by Abraham of his beloved son, offering a comparative approach. The incident in Genesis is remarkably succinct for its controversial subject matter. We will compare this event with representations in Greek drama, the New Testament, and the Qur'an.

RELI 427 Spirit Possession (3). This course explores the phenomenon of spirit possession and introduces students to various theoretical and methodological approaches to its academic study. In addition to critically engaging with accounts of spirit possession from around the world, students will explore various related themes of gender, power, and religious and cultural change.

RELI 428 Religion and Anthropology (ANTH 428, FOLK 428) (3). See ANTH 428 for description.

RELI 429 Religion and Society (SOCI 429) (3). See SOCI 429 for description.

RELI 438 Religion, Nature, and Environment (3). A seminar on concepts of nature within religions and a variety of world-wide spiritual traditions. Emphasis on sacred space, place, and pilgrimage as a vital intersection of religion and nature.

RELI 441 History of Religion in America to 1865 (3). An examination of primary sources in the history of American religion from the precolonial era to the Civil War.

RELI 442 History of Religion in America since 1865 (3). An examination of primary sources in the history of American religion since the Civil War.

RELI 443 Evangelicalism in Contemporary America (3). Juniors or seniors only. Examination of evangelicalism and its role in American society, politics, and culture. Exploration of its various subdivisions and its relation to such movements as fundamentalism, pentecostalism, revivalism, and premillennialism.

RELI 444 Gender and Sexuality in Contemporary Judaism (JWST 444) (3). The seminar examines the developments in gender roles and in sexuality in contemporary Judaism.

RELI 445 Asian Religions in America (ASIA 445) (3). A study of intercultural interaction and interreligious encounter focusing on Asian religions in America, 1784 to the present.

RELI 446 Christian-Jewish Relations throughout the Ages (3). An exploration of the varied and complex relationships which have developed between Christianity and Judaism, from the first century to the 21st century.

RELI 450 Sexuality in Jewish Tradition and History (3). This course deals with various topics related to sexuality and marriage in Jewish tradition and history: sex outside of marriage, wedding ceremonies, regulation of marital sex, menstruation, homosexuality, and more.

RELI 454 The Reformation (HIST 454) (3). See HIST 454 for description.

RELI 463 Medieval Slavic Culture (SLAV 463) (3). See SLAV 463 for description.

RELI 465 Monotheistic Mysticism (3). In medieval Jewish Kabbalah, Christian mysticism, and Islamic Sufism, devotees attempt to express direct experiences of an infinite God. This course examines theories of mystical language, particularly the negation of language, the turn to the visual and the body, and the tension between communal and individual expressions of the divine.

RELI 480 Modern Muslim Literatures (3). Stresses the diversity of modern Islamic experience by examining the works of various Muslim authors. Genres may include travelogues, memoirs, novels, sermons, and treatises, among others.

RELI 481 Religion, Fundamentalism, and Nationalism (PWAD 481) (3). An exploration of explosive combinations of religion and politics in the Iranian revolution, the Palestinian movement, Hindu nationalism in India, and Christian fundamentalism in America.

RELI 485 Gender and Sexuality in Islam (3). This course approaches constructions of gender and sexuality in Muslim societies in diverse historical and geographical contexts. It focuses on changing interpretations of gender roles and sexual norms. Themes include gender in Islamic law, sexual ethics, masculinity, homosexuality, marriage, and dress.

RELI 487 Mountains, Pilgrimage, and Sacred Places in Japan (ASIA 487) (3). This course explores the role that mountains and pilgrimage have played in Japanese cosmology and how they relate to methodology of studying place and space.

RELI 488 Shinto in Japanese History (ASIA 488) (3). This course discusses the development of Shinto in Japanese history and covers themes such as myths, syncretism, sacred sites, iconography, nativism, religion and the state, and historiography.

RELI 489 Animals in Japanese Religion (ASIA 489) (3). Permission of the instructor. This course examines the cultural construction of animals in Japanese myth, folklore, and religion.

RELI 501 The History of the Bible in Modern Study (3). This course will examine how the modern historical-critical enterprise of biblical scholarship arose, out of what historical circumstances, for what purposes, and to what effect. What are its major aspects? How does it relate to other forms of academic and theological inquiry? How has this enterprise fared in recent times?

RELI 502 Myths and Epics of the Ancient Near East (FOLK 502) (3). Permission of the instructor. An examination of Babylonian, Canaanite, Egyptian, Hittite, and Sumerian texts from the prebiblical era, focusing on representative myths, epics, sagas, songs, proverbs, prophecies, and hymns.

RELI 503 Exploring the Dead Sea Scrolls (JWST 503) (3). A comprehensive introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls and the different Jewish groups connected with them.

RELI 504 Readings in Hebrew Bible (3). This course will examine a major corpus of the Hebrew Bible with attention to the full range of historical-critical issues. Attention will be paid as well to early forms of biblical interpretation and their use in the religious life of subsequent communities.

RELI 512 Ancient Synagogues (CLAR 512, JWST 512) (3). Prerequisite, RELI 110. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This is a course on ancient synagogues in Palestine and the Diaspora from the Second Temple period to the seventh century CE.

RELI 522 19th-Century Critiques of Religion (3). Permission of the instructor. An exploration of influential 19th-century critiques of religion, including texts by such thinkers as Feuerbach, Marx, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Stanton, Douglass, and Freud.

RELI 524 Ethnographic Approaches to Contemporary Religion (3). Critical exploration of exemplary contemporary ethnographies of religion focusing on the ways that ethnographic methods and writing styles shape knowledge of religious and cultural life in various traditions and parts of the world. Topics considered include field work, culture, ethics, and the challenges of interpreting and representing religious experience.

RELI 525 Seminar in Religion and Literature (3). Seminar topic varies.

RELI 527 Religious Metaphor and Symbol (3). This course explores the myriad and complex issues related to the function of metaphor and symbol in religious language.

RELI 528 Rituals and Rhetorics of Religion (3). An examination of ritual, allegory, and symbol as modes of religious expression in cultic and literary contexts.

RELI 530 Genealogies of Religion (3). This seminar explores the historical development of "religion" as a concept and object of academic scholarship through the critical study of key texts and foundational debates about religion in Western thought.

RELI 534 Religious Ethics and Issues in Contemporary Medicine (3). Seniors or graduate students only. Examination of religious-ethical dimensions of such issues as the dying patient, organ transplants, abortion, prolongation of life, and experimentation on human beings, drawing on theory from the traditional Western religions and the social sciences.

RELI 540 Mormonism and the American Experience (3). Prerequisite, RELI 140. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Exploration of the history, beliefs, and practices of Mormons. Will include visits to Latter-Day Saints services, guest speakers, and discussion of race and gender in the contemporary church.

RELI 541 Global Evangelicalism (3). The course will examine the evangelical tradition from a global perspective, exploring the tradition from its early rise in Europe to its impact on the Americas, Africa, and Asia.

RELI 542 Religion and the Counterculture (3). The course examines the interaction between the values and messages of the counterculture and religious groups, ideas, and practices during the Vietnam War era. It also investigates the impact of countercultural norms and styles on the current American religious scene.

RELI 565 Medieval Jews and the Bible (3). This course explores the Jewish interpretation of the Bible, focusing on important commentaries from influential medieval Ashkenazi and Sephardic thinkers.

RELI 566 Jewish Legal Literature (3). This course explores many aspects of the Halakhah, the Jewish traditional legal system, focusing on issues such as rituals, holidays, religious obligations and prohibitions, and laws regulating sexual activity.

RELI 569 Interfaith Marriages and Intimacy in World Religions (3). This seminar explores the topic of intimate relations between people who consider themselves, or are considered by others, to be part of different religious groups. We will explore cases in which such relations achieve the social sanction of marriage and cases in which the relations are of a more temporary nature.

RELI 574 Chinese World Views (ANTH 574, ASIA 574) (3). See ANTH 574 for description.

RELI 580 African American Islam (3). An historical examination of African American Islam in the United States. Explores the intellectual, cultural, social, and political roots of black Islam in addition to its diverse doctrinal, ritual, and institutional manifestations.

RELI 581 Sufism (ASIA 581) (3). Permission of the instructor. A survey of Islamic mysticism, its sources in the Qur'an and the Prophet Muhammad, and its literary, cultural, and social deployment in Arab, Persian, Indic, and Turkish regions.

RELI 582 Islam and Islamic Art in South Asia (ASIA 582) (3). A survey of the formation of Islamic traditions in the subcontinent from the eighth century to the present, with emphasis on religion and politics, the role of Sufism, types of popular religion, and questions of Islamic identity.

RELI 583 Religion and Culture in Iran, 1500–Present (ASIA 583) (3). Iran from the rise of the Safavid empire to the Islamic Republic. Topics include Shi'ism, politics, intellectual and sectarian movements, encounters with colonialism, art and architecture, music, literature.

RELI 584 The Qur'an as Literature (ASIA 584) (3). A nontheological approach to the Qur'an as a literary text, emphasizing its history, form, style, and interpretation.

RELI 585 Religion and Culture of Turkey (3). This course will cover the history of Turkey from the Byzantine period until contemporary times. Key aspects of Turkish culture (architecture, music, poetry to arts) will be covered.

RELI 586 Women and Gender in Japanese Religions (3). This seminar explores the roles of women in the religions of Japan (including Buddhism, Shinto, folk religions, pilgrimage, new religions movements, and new spirituality culture) from goddesses, shamans, nuns, and pilgrims to demons, temptresses, and lesser human beings. The course traces these themes across Japanese socioeconomic and religious history.

RELI 590 Topics in the Study of Religion (3). Permission of the instructor. Subject matter will vary with instructor but will always be focused on a particular problem or issue.

RELI 592 Religious Conflict and Narrative in India (HNUR 592) (3). See HNUR 592 for description.

RELI 602 What Is Scripture? Formations of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Canon (JWST 602) (3). The course traces the past and continued canonical processes that define what the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament has been and is today, with a focus on the history of biblical interpretation.

RELI 603 The Bible and Its Translation (3). This course explores the translation of the Hebrew Bible in the West, with a view toward identifying religious and ideological trends.

RELI 607 Problems in Early Christian Literature and History (3). Prerequisite, RELI 104, 207, or 208. Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.

RELI 608 The Messiah and the Apocalypse (3). Ideas concerning the Messiah and the end of the world held by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Emphasis on the beginning of the Christian era.

RELI 610 Readings in the Apostolic Fathers (3). Reading of the Apostolic Fathers. Students must have completed two courses in New Testament/Early Christianity and two years of Greek.

RELI 617 Death and Afterlife in the Ancient World (3). Examinations of practices and discourses pertaining to death and the afterlife in the ancient civilizations of Near East, Greece, and Rome.

RELI 662 Advanced Seminar in Contemporary Catholicism (3). This advanced seminar is for undergraduate and graduate students who have at least a basic knowledge about Catholicism. The range of topics to be discussed is open and will depend on students' interests and suggestions.

RELI 665 Body and Suffering in Christian Mysticism (3). Permission of the instructor for nonmajors. Medieval Christians consistently focused on the suffering body as a means of reflecting on Christ's sacrifice. This course considers how medical theories of cognition, gender, and pain influenced the potential role of the body in medieval mystical experience.

RELI 668 Spanish Religions: Peninsular Convivencia and Colonial Encounter (3). Strong background in medieval and early modern studies and permission of the instructor required for undergraduates. This course studies Muslims, Christians, and Jews in the medieval Iberian kingdoms, then interreligious discourse in the colonial expansion to Mexico, Peru, and the Philippines, by deploying theories concerning race, gender, sexuality, and postcoloniality.

RELI 681 Readings in Islamicate Literatures (ARAB 681, ASIA 681) (3). Permission of the instructor. Study of selected religious, literary, and historical texts in Arabic, Persian, or Urdu.

RELI 688 Observation and Interpretation of Religious Action (ANTH 688, FOLK 688) (3). See ANTH 688 for description.

RELI 691H Honors in Religious Studies (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Required of all students reading for honors in religious studies.

RELI 692H Honors in Religious Studies (3). Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Required of all students reading for honors in religious studies.

RELI 696 Independent Study (3). Advanced undergraduate or graduate standing and permission of the instructor. Subject matter should be arranged with a specific instructor.

RELI 697 Capstone: Undergraduate Seminar (3). Majors only. Concentrating on a different theme each year, this departmental seminar introduces the different areas and approaches in religious studies.

JWST–Jewish Studies

JWST 100 Introduction to Jewish Studies (RELI 123) (4). See RELI 123 for description.

JWST 101 Elementary Modern Hebrew I (HEBR 101) (4). See HEBR 101 for description.

JWST 102 Elementary Modern Hebrew II (HEBR 102) (4). See HEBR 102 for description.

JWST 103 Introduction to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Literature (RELI 103) (3). See RELI 103 for description.

JWST 106 Introduction to Early Judaism (RELI 106) (3). See RELI 106 for description.

JWST 107 Introduction to Modern Judaism (RELI 107) (3). See RELI 107 for description.

JWST 110 The Archaeology of Palestine in the New Testament Period (CLAR 110, RELI 110) (3). See RELI 110 for description.

JWST 143 Judaism in Our Time (RELI 143) (3). See RELI 143 for description.

JWST 153 Jewish History: From Medieval to Modern Times (HIST 153) (3). See HIST 153 for description.

JWST 203 Intermediate Modern Hebrew I (HEBR 203) (4). See HEBR 203 for description.

JWST 204 Intermediate Modern Hebrew II (HEBR 204) (4). See HEBR 204 for description.

JWST 206 Prophecy and Divination in Ancient Israel and Judah (RELI 206) (3). See RELI 206 for description.

JWST 239 German Culture and the Jewish Question (CMPL 270, GERM 270, RELI 239) (3). See GERM 239 for description.

JWST 243 Introduction to American Judaism (RELI 243) (3). See RELI 243 for description.

JWST 253 A Social History of Jewish Women in America (AMST 253, WMST 253) (3). See AMST 253 for description.

JWST 262 History of the Holocaust: The Destruction of the European Jews (HIST 262, PWAD 262) (3). See HIST 262 for description.

JWST 289 Jewish American Literature and Culture of the 20th Century (ENGL 289) (3). See ENGL 289 for description.

JWST 305 Advanced Modern Hebrew I (HEBR 305) (3). See HEBR 305 for description.

JWST 306 Advanced Hebrew II (HEBR 306) (3). See HEBR 306 for description.

JWST 308 The Renaissance and the Jews (HIST 308) (3). See HIST 308 for description.

JWST 311 Ghettos and Shtetls? Urban Life in East European Jewish History (HIST 311) (3). See HIST 311 for description.

JWST 330 Jesus and the Jews: From the Bible to the Big Screen (HIST 330) (3). See HIST 330 for description.

JWST 343 Religion in Modern Israel (RELI 343) (3). See RELI 343 for description.

JWST 360 The Jewish Writer in American Life (3). This course will investigate, through literature, film, and song, the encounter of Eastern European Jews and their descendants with Anglo-Protestant America over four generations.

JWST 412 20th-Century Polish Literature and Culture (PLSH 412) (3). See PLSH 412 for description.

JWST 444 Gender and Sexuality in Contemporary Judaism (RELI 444) (3). See RELI 444 for description.

JWST 451 1492: The Expulsion of the Jews from Spain (HIST 451) (3). See HIST 451 for description.

JWST 464 Imagined Jews: Jewish Themes in Polish and Russian Literature (SLAV 464) (3). See SLAV 464 for description.

JWST 465 Literature of Atrocity: The Gulag and the Holocaust in Russia and Eastern Europe (PWAD 465, SLAV 465) (3). See SLAV 465 for description.

JWST 469 Coming to America: The Slavic Immigrant Experience in Literature (SLAV 469) (3). See SLAV 469 for description.

JWST 476 Borderlands: Religion and Ethnicity in Modern East Central Europe (HIST 476) (3). See HIST 476 for description.

JWST 485 Modern East European Jewish History (HIST 485) (3). See HIST 485 for description.

JWST 486 Shalom Y'all: The Jewish Experience in the American South (AMST 486) (3). See AMST 486 for description.

JWST 503 Exploring the Dead Sea Scrolls (RELI 503) (3). See RELI 503 for description.

JWST 512 Ancient Synagogues (CLAR 512, RELI 512) (3). See RELI 512 for description.

JWST 602 What Is Scripture? Formations of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Canon (RELI 602) (3). See RELI 602 for description.

JWST 697 Capstone Course: Themes and Methodologies in Jewish Studies (3). Required of majors in religious studies with a concentration in Jewish studies; graduate students may enroll. Concentrating on a different theme each year, the course offers intensive grounding in key areas of and approaches to Jewish studies. Combines exploration of broad topics with scholarly rigor and specificity.