Japan: Women and War

(There were other handouts given to everyone in class Monday night so please refer to those as well).

Slogans of the Era:
“Good wife, Wise Mother”
“Rich Country, Strong Army”
“Be Fruitful and Multiply for the Prosperity of the Nation”
“Healthy Nation, Sturdy Soldiers”
“Labor in the Service of the State”

Time Line and important information:

 1889- Meiji Constitution: Japanese people were subjects of the emperor
 1890- Imperial Rescript on Education: teaching filial piety and loyalty to the state

 1898- Meiji Civil Code: family was patriarchal and the family was basic unit of the ruling order of the state.

 1918- World War I ends

1925- Peace Preservation Law- censorship of “unsound”, “antisocial” liberal, and communist thought.

1930’s- Nazi’s elected as 2nd largest political party in Germany
 -doubling expectations that Japan starts to create with women

1931- Japanese military aggression in Manchuria

1932- Roosevelt elected President in the US

1935- survey by Tanino Setsu says that 36% of population working in manufacturing, mining and transportation-communication was female

1937- Mother Protection Laws- Helped poor single mothers raise children less than 13 yrs of age by providing welfare and medical  assistance.

1938- National Mobilization Law- Neighborhood associations were the smallest unit of state administration

1940- article by Tanino Setsu called for the reform of women’s working conditions (Job training and increased pay)

1940- Japan joins Tripartite (axis)

1940- National Eugenics Law- sterilize people with hereditary diseases and prohibit birth control

1940- “On Rewarding of Excellent Families with Many Children”

1941- Outline for Establishing Population Growth Policy- women as loyal
subjects of Imperial Japan.

1941-  Outline for Population Policy- Increase quality of population in the name of the imperial mission to construct the “Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere”

1941- (July 26th)  Roosevelt freezes Japanese assets in US and suspends relations

1942- (Dec. 7th) Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor

1942- (Dec. 8th) US & GB declare war on Japan

1942-Average workday in Japan is 11 hours

1942- Control of Management of Important Plants Ordinance- daycare

1943- Wartime Special Ordinance for the Factory Act of 1923- allows children under the age of 16 and women to work night hours and hard jobs

1944- (Feb.) 13,246,000 women out of 31,657,000 workers in civilian labor force

1944- (Aug, 4th) Anne Frank and family found by Gestapo

1944- decision of the cabinet to draft women into work
1944- (March) Outline of Reinforcement of Women’s Volunteer Corps
1944- (Aug.) Ordinance on Women’s Volunteering Labor Corps
  *made women’s industrial service compulsory for one year

August 6, 1945- first atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima Japan
August 7, 1945- 3,000 bombs dropped on arsenal plant
August 8, 1945- Soviets declare war on Japan and invade Manchuria
August 9, 1945- second bomb dropped on Nagasaki Japan

August 14, 1945- Japanese sign unconditional surrender

September 2, 1945- V-J Day

Post War: 3 Million Women Fired = Idea that women’s real identity lies in the family