The Catholic Reformation and

Religious War, 1530-1648


Ignatius Loyola


Henry IV of France



Catherine de’ Medici



Š      How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?

Š       What was the nature and impact of the religious wars of the 16th century?

Key Terms

1)  Ignatius Loyola                            6) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

2)  Schmalkaldic War                       7) Edict of Nantes

3) Peace of Augsburg                        8) Protestant Union and Catholic League

4)  Spanish Armada                          9) Thirty Years War, 1618-1648

5) Concordat of Bologna                  10) Peace of Westphalia


I.  The Church Responds:  Catholic Reformation and Counterreformation


Š Initial Surprise and Consolidation of the Base (1517-1535)


Š The Catholic Reformation:

o From Below: Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) and the Society of the Jesus (The Jesuits)

§ Spiritual Exercises (1541)

o From Above:  The Council of Trent (1545-1563)



II. Religious Conflict and Peace in Germany, 1526 to 1555


Š The German Princes and Charles V

Š The Diets of Speyer, 1526 and 1529: The Princes “Protest”


Š The Augsburg Confession (1530)

Š Charles V: Overstretched Emperor (France and Turks)

Š The Schmalkaldic League (Hesse & Saxony) and the Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547)

Š  Charles V’s Ambitions and the Peace of Augsburg (1555)

o cuius regio, eius religio



III. Phillip II of Spain: Defender of the Catholic Faith


Š The Calvinist Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands, 1566-1609


Š Phillip II’s “English” (Elizabeth) Problem


Š The Spanish Armada (1588) and the Decline of Spanish Power


Š  The Dutch Republic (1609): Europe’s Most Prosperous State



IV. The French Civil War, 1562-1598


Š King Francis I (1515-1547) and Royal Centralization


Š  The Concordat of Bologna (1516) and the Gallican Church


Š  The Spread of Calvinism in France: The Huguenots


Š  Henry II (1547-1559), “Frail” Francis II (1559-1560), and Charles IX (1550-1574


Š  Catherine de’ Medici (1559-1589): A Machiavellian Princess?


Š  The Bourbons vs. the Catholic Guise


Š  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572

                 (Francois Dubois, 1529)


Š  Henry Navarre (Bourbon), 1589-1610

o    “Paris is worth a mass.”

o    The Edict of Nantes (1598)


 V. The Thirty Years War, 1618-1648


Š     Militant Calvinists and Catholics and the Eclipse of the Generation of 1555


Š     The Protestant Union and The Catholic League


Š     The Revolt of the Calvinist Bohemian Nobility

o  The Defenestration of Prague


Š     Emperor Ferdinand II and the Catholic League: The Reformation in Jeopardy?

Š            The Destruction of Magdeburg (1631)


Š     Swedish and French Intervention and the Destruction of Germany


Š     The Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the New European State System