The Roman Republic:

Politics, Society and Expansion, 509 - 146 B.C.E.


Š      What was the nature of Roman Republicanism?  Was it an effective balance between oligarchy and mass participation?


Š      What were “Roman Values”?  How did Hellenistic culture conquer them?


Š      How did Rome come to be an Empire?  What were the consequences of territorial expansion?


Key Terms

1) Patricians and Plebeians              6) patrons and clients

2) Struggle of the Orders                  7) Cincinnatus

3) Consul                                          8) Pyrrhic Wars

4) Tribune                                         9) Punic Wars

5) Senate                                          10) Carthaginian Peace



I.  The Contributions and Origins Ancient Rome



o  The Seven Hills of Rome





II.  The Evolution of the Roman Republic, 509-287 B.C


o  Senate

o  Consuls and Dictators

o  The Centuriate Assembly


o  Patricians vs. Plebeians

o  496   Plebeian Council and Tribunes

o  450   The Twelve Tables

o  445   Lex Canuelia (patrician/plebeian marriage)

Š     ius gentium and ius naturale

o  367   Right to Elect Consul (367)

o  287   Assembly of the Tribes (287)


o  Assimilating Wealthy Plebeians:  The New Patricianate/Aristocracy

o  The Aristocratic Senate



III. Republican Society and Culture





o  Rome’s George Washington: Cincinnatus and Roman Virtue




IV.  Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean:  Creating an Empire


o  Accommodation, Assimilation, and Citizenship (vs. Athens)


o  The Pyrrhic Wars (282-272):  The “Pyrrhic Victory”

o  Macedonian Wars (215-205, 200-197, 171-168)

o  Carthage and Three Punic Wars (264-241, 218-201, 149-146)

§  Hannibal’s Threat, Battle of Cannae, and Roman Tenacity

§  The “Carthaginian Peace”