The Crisis of the Late Republic

and the Imperial Solution




Key Terms


1) Spartacus                        6) princeps and the “Principate

2) Latifundia                       7) Augustus’ Family Values Campaign

3) Gracchi Brothers

4) The Rubicon

5) Augustus



I.  The Consequences of Expansion


o  Corrupt Provincial Governors



o  Spartacus Slave Revolt (73 BCE)

o  Latifundia and the Decline of the Farmer Citizen

o  Mass Impoverishment, Social Inequality, and the Urban Underclass



o  Marius and Sulla

o  Julius Caesar

o  The First Triumvirate:  Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

o  Caesar Crosses the Rubicon 2

o  The Senate and the Assassination of Julius Caesar



II. The Roman Civil War and the Imperial Solution



o  The Battle of Actium (31 BCE)











o  Virgil’s Aeneid