Marcia (1966) The development of identity status
Different model of identity development that has been empirically tested.
Suggests that identity development
depends on resolution of crises and the attendent commitment to life path that subsequently occurs.
identity status - states of ego development that depend on the
presence or absence of crisis and commitment
identity status interview - 30 minute, semi-structured interview that assesses the presence or absence of crises
ego development state can be assessed by the presence or absence of 2 factors, crisis and commitment
crisis - period of conscious decision making
related to identity formation
commitment - personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs
Depending on where children are in working through these two factors
leads to 4 observable patterns of ego
development. Most children will resolve both issues and move on into adulthood.
identity achievement - Adolescent has struggled to, and resolved
issues of identity, and has made a commitment to
a given life path.
moratorium - Adolescent is in the process of resolving issues of identity, will probably make a decision on a
foreclosure - Adolescent has decided to follow a life path dictated by others (usually parents or guardians)
identity confusion - Adolescent has not considered identity issues,
has no commitment towards any life path or goal
Elkind and the patchwork self (1998)
According to Elkind, there are two paths to identity:
differentiation and integration - Becoming
aware of one's own individuality, and then integrating these into a
unique, unified whole
patchwork self - Constructing one's identity
by accepting, in pieces, parts of a self-identity from diverse others.
Tends to lead to low self-esteem.
The bottom line - all of these models seem to share the
basic idea that the formation of the distinct identity in
adolescence is the internalization and synthesis of externally defined self-concepts into an integrated and unique
whole. They all seem to share the same idea that the inability to develop an identity that is one's own is problematic.
Ethnicity and Identity, Phinney (1993)
Argued that development for minorities within a culture differ from
those in the majority because of the need to
accommodate both the ethnic identity and the identity of the dominant culture. In his model, development of the
self has four outcomes that depend on the ethnic identity and the achievement of acculturation with the dominant culture
Sexual Orientation and Identity
Homosexuality - Sexual orientation is toward the same sex.
Bisexuality - Sexual orientation is toward both the same sex and the other sex
Remafedi et al., 1992
Survey of 38,000 students from grades 7 through 12, 88% said they were heterosexual, 1% said they were
homosexual or bisexual, and 11% said they weren't sure.
Sexuality may be influenced by a complex process of hormonal and neurological factors
Adolescence and Rebellion
Adolescent Rebellion - A pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic
of a minority of adolescents, which may
involve conflict with family, alientation rom adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adults' values.
Research suggests that this adolescent "storm and stress" is not typical
for adolescents. While there is a high
level of bickering between parents and children during adolescents that revolves around the negotiation of the
emergence independence of teenagers, only a few really go through "adolescent rebellion".
Offer & Offer, 1975
15-25% of boys between ages 12 and 14 had significant conflict with parents
Arguments typically focus on "how much" or "how soon".
Most arguments relate to day to day matters - chores, schoolwork, dreww, money, curfews, dating and friends
Instead, the major change in adolescence is the movement away from family
and towards friends. In a study of
220 white middle class suburban youngsters, the amount of time spent with family members declined from 35% to
18% from ages 10 to 18 (Larson, et al. 1997).
Juvenile deliquency - Antisocial behavior that is chronic (everybody
does something stupid). The hallmark of
delinquency is repeated antisocial acts. Tends to peak around the age of 15 and then tapers off.
factors that are associated with delinquency.
1.) parental influence - Children whose emotional needs are not met
by parents, or parents who engage in
extremely harsh and inconsistent.
parents - parents with deeply held convictions, and strong expectations
Although they have strong expectations concerning behavior, they take the time to
listen to their kids and explain why they expect the things they expect. This parent
will be more likely to be successful with their children.
parents - the "my way or the high way" parent. Do not listen to kids
and don't care if the
kids understand or agree with their parenting choices. This is less good
2.) peer groups - Children with behavior problems early in life are
rejected by peers, and may congregate with
other rejected children, which then may goad one another into antisocial behavior.
3.) neighborhoods - Delinquency tends to be concentrated in poor,
overcrowded urban neighborhoods.
Probably not related to the neighborhood per se, but the factors that are common in these
neighborhoods (poor or absent parenting, poverty, drug abuse etc.)
Finally, the universal teenager... does he (or she) really exist??
Offer, et al., 1988
Asked children in 10 countries to answer questions about 5 aspects of themselves.
9 in 10 children had ...
positive feelings toward their parents
valued work and friendship
tried to learn from failure
gender differences crossed lines as well.
In general boys were more...
sure of themselves
proud of their bodies
more interested in sex
more in control of their emotions
girls were more...
committed to work and school