poem "White Man's Burden," with some comment on the context of the
Spanish-American war, may be seen at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_man's_burden.
Omar ibn Sayyid (d. 1864) and his Arabic autobiography (written in
Bladen County, NC), may be seen at http://docsouth.unc.edu/nc/omarsaid/menu.html.
full text of Macaulay's Minute on Education, recommending education in
English instead of the classical languages of India, is available at http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/macaulay/txt_minute_education_1835.html
classic Christian missionary text attacking Muhammad is William Muir, The
life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira (4
vols., London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1858), has been made available
on a Christian anti-Muslim web site http://www.answering-islam.org.
modern critique of the Qur'an is found in Toby Lester, "What Is the
Koran?"The Atlantic Monthly (January 1999); an online version is
available at http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99jan/koran.htm.
recent unfavorable treatment of the Qur'an is given in Kenneth L.
Woodward, “In the Beginning, There Were the Holy Books,” Newsweek
(Feb. 11, 2002); the article is available online at http://www.bintjbeil.com/articles/en/020211_islam.html.
Review of Bernard
Lewis' "What Went Wrong: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response,"
by Juan Cole, Global Dialogue, 27 January 2003. See
Is Wrong with What Went Wrong?" by Adam
Sabra of Western Michigan University, in Middle East Report Online.
II “Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian
Religions” is available on line at http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decl_19651028_nostra-aetate_en.html.
Arthur Goldberg’s distinction between “teaching religion” and “teaching
about religion,” in Schempp (1963), quoted in Charles C. Haynes et al.,
Finding Common Ground: A First Amendment Guide to Religion and
Public Education (3rd ed., Nashville, TN: First
Amendment Center, 1998), p. 4.8 (available online at http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=3979).
a perceptive and thoughtful discussion of problems of defining
religious membership and categories of religion, see the Frequently
Asked Questions section of the web site http://www.adherents.com.
the problem of the commodification of religion and its definition by
the state as intellectual property, see "Islam and Fundamental Rights
in Pakistan: The case of Zaheer-ud-din v. The State and its impact on
the fundamental right to freedom of religion," by Martin Lau
(available online at http://www.soas.ac.uk/cimel/materials/yearbook/intro/),
as well as the Mecca-Cola web site (http://www.mecca-cola.com/).
Mallat, "The Middle East in the 21st Century: An agenda for reform,"
lecture delivered at the School of Oriental and African Studies, 22
October 1996 (available online at http://www.soas.ac.uk/cimel/materials/21st/)
See the Islamic Family
Law website (http://www.law.emory.edu/IFL/),
maintained by Prof. Abdullah An-Na'im,
which contains extensive documentation about the status of Islamic law
and its implementation in different countries around the world. His
work on The
Future of Shari`a is another important
also the film “Divorce Iranian Style,” directed by Kim Longinotto and
Ziba Mir-Hosseini, which describes how women negotiate their way
through the Iranian judicial system (available from Women Make
basic reference works on Islamic art and links to major museum
collections, see the Islamic Art and Architecture web page at the
Sloane Art Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (http://www.lib.unc.edu/art/islamicart.html).
extensive visual and textual resources on Islamic architecture, see the
ArchNet web site at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning (http://archnet.org/lobby.tcl).
contemporary examples of Islamic architectural ornamentation, see http://www.Bonner-design.com/index.htm.
The penmanship of Rasheed
Butt, who contributed the calligraphic epigraphs for Following
Muhammad, is available on his web site. The text of
the Hilya (hilyat al-nabi,
"adornment of the Prophet,") is available here.
the Double Hilye," by contemporary calligrapher Mohamed Zakariya
with a slide show of the process.
the meditative aspect of Persian calligraphy, Carl W. Ernst, "The
Spirit of Islamic Calligraphy: Baba Shah Isfahani's Adab al-mashq," Journal of the American Oriental
Society 112 (1992), pp.
For a brief overview, see Mamoun
Sakkal, “The Art of Arabic Calligraphy” (http://www.sakkal.com/ArtArabicCalligraphy.html).
The Library of
Congress has a good page on Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman calligraphy.
wonderful recent treatment of Orientalist Art is provided by Holly
Dreams, Wicked Pleasures: Orientalism in
1870-1930 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
pictures of the shrines at Medina before and after the
may be seen at http://www.al-islam.org/gallery/photos/image2nd.htm.
of contemporary Shi`i biographies of Muhammad, see Mohammad Baqir
as-Sadr, The Revealer, The Messenger, The Message, trans.
Mahmoud M. Ayoub (Tehran: World Organization for Islamic Services,
Sayyid Mujtaba Musavi Lari, Seal of the Prophets and His Message:
Lessons on Islamic Doctrine, trans. Hamid Algar (Potomac, MD:
Islamic Education Center, n.d.), http://www.al-islam.org/Seal/.
a detailed Shi`i justification of the use of the clay pillow from
Kerbela, see http://www.al-islam.org/beliefs/practices/turba.htm.
a biography of Zaynab, see M. H. Bilgrami, The Victory of Truth:
The Life of Zaynab bint ‘Ali (Karachi: Zahra Publications Pakistan,
1986); an online version is available at http://www.al-islam.org/victory/.
comprehensive information on the Isma`ili tradition, see the web site
of the Institute of Isma`ili Studies (http://www.iis.ac.uk/home.asp?l=en).
information on the Dawoodi Bohras, see http://www.mumineen.org/.
extensive online collection of early Shi`i authoritative texts and
multimedia resources has been assembled by the Ahlul Bayt Digital Islam
office of Iran's supreme leader, Ayatullah Khamenei, has an official
website with the Arabic text and audio recordings of Qur’anic
recitation is available at http://islamicity.com/mosque/ArabicScript/sindex.htm.
also Resources for the Study of the Qur'an.
Philosophy, Science, Ethics, Politics
site with detailed information on Islamic philosophy, see http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/.
an online version of the Constitution of Iran, see http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/ir__indx.html.
Internet resources on liberal Islam, see the extensive web site
developed by Charles Kurzman: http://www.unc.edu/~kurzman/LiberalIslamLinks.htm.
thoughtful survey of Islamic ethics is provided by Azim Nanji, “Islamic
Ethics,” in A Companion to Ethics, ed. Peter Singer
Blackwells, 1991), pp 106 – 118.
a website devoted to the thought of the philosopher Abdul-Karim
Soroush, see www.seraj.org.
stimulating and erudite re-evaluation of the history of science is
given by George Saliba, "Whose Science is Arabic Science in Renaissance
Europe?” available online at http://www.columbia.edu/~gas1/project/visions/case1/sci.1.html
critical perspective on scientific studies in early modern Muslim
countries can be found in Mohamad Tavakoli-Targhi, Refashioning
Iran: Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Historiography (New York:
Palgrave, 2001); chapter 1 is available online at http://www.palgrave.com/pdfs/0333949226.pdf.
Islamic Culture and Contemporary Issues
The "Passport to
Paradise" exhibit of Mouride art at UCLA is documented at http://www.fmch.ucla.edu/paradise/main001.htm.
a documentary on images of Middle Eastern women in American films, see
Harems,” produced and written by Tania Kamal-Eldin (Women
Make Movies, 1999.
an insightful discussion of Wahhabi iconoclasm directed at both
Muslim and non-Muslim art, see Michael A. Sells, "Erasing Culture:
Wahhabism, Buddhism, Balkan Mosques" (http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/reports/WahhabismBuddhasBegova.htm).
a list of suggested novels from Muslim majority countries, see http://www.unc.edu/~cernst/novels.htm.
contours of Islam on the Internet are sketched by Gary R. Bunt, Virtually
Islamic: Computer-Mediated Communication and Cyber Islamic Environments
(University of Wales Press, 2000); http://www.lamp.ac.uk/cis/liminal/
modified June 19, 2008.