Psychological Disorders

A constellation of symptoms that create significant distress or impairment in work, school, family, relationships, or daily living

DSM-IV: Official categorization of psychological disorders in U.S. I. Axis I: Anxiety Disorders: Feelings of excessive fear & anxiety and/or extreme attempts to avoid fear & anxiety

A. Panic Disorder: Sudden, unexpected attacks – overwhelming anxiety; Heart palpitations, difficulty breathing, chest pain, nausea, sweating, dizziness; Fear of dying or losing one’s mind; Can lead to agoraphobia: fear of places which may cause a panic attack

B. Phobias: Simple – intense, irrational fear of a specific object or situation; Social – fear public scrutiny and embarrassment (Most common phobia) C. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): After a traumatic event (especially crimes, war), symptoms include reexperiencing trauma (dreams, flashbacks), avoidance of anything associated with trauma, and constant state of hypervigilance; Sense of no control over traumatic event – “the world is a dangerous place”; Drug abuse is high w/ PTSD – negative reinforcement (avoidance of symptoms with use) D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): Obsessions – recurrent, intrusive thoughts; Compulsions – recurrent urges to perform ritualistic actions; Washing: thoughts of contamination; Checking: Did I lock the car? Counting: Count to 100 so that the obsessive thought of disaster will not happen II. Axis I: Mood Disorders: Emotional disturbances that interfere with normal life functioning

A. Major Depressive Disorder – at least 2 weeks of depressed mood/loss of interest along with several other symptoms, including…Significant weight loss (but not through a diet), Insomnia or hypersomnia, Restlessness or sluggishness, Indecisiveness, lack of concentration, Thoughts of death or suicide

B. Bipolar Disorder: Manic phases, which last at least a week and are characterized by intense agitation and/or elation, are followed by depression episodes; Left untreated, these extreme shifts in mood can progress to a constant state III. Axis I: Somatoform Disorders

A. Psychosomatic; genuine physical ailments caused in part by psychological factors

B. Somatoform: No authentic organic basis; due entirely to psychological factors

IV. Axis I: Dissociative Disorders: Lose contact with part of conscious and/or memory; Result is interruption of sense of identity

A. Dissociative amnesia: Sudden loss of memory for personal info, usually about a traumatic event
B. Dissociative fugue (~ 0.2% of U.S. population): Loss of memory for entire life, including personal identity
C. Dissociative identity disorder (a.k.a. MPD: ~ 1% of U.S. population): Coexistence of 2 or more personalities; Host usually unaware of other personalities; Experienced repeatedly severe physical abuse as a child

V. Axis I: Eating Disorders: 90% of diagnoses are women

A. Anorexia nervosa: Intense fear of gaining weight – constant desire to keep losing weight (weight usually less than 85% of average weight for height); Distorted body image; Loss of menstrual periods (amenorrhea); ~ 10% die from this disorder

B. Bulimia Nervosa: recurrent binge eating followed by purging, fasting, and/or intense exercising VI. Axis 1: Schizophrenic Disorders: Grossly impaired/altered functioning; Social: withdrawn, few friends, usually since childhood
Affect (emotional): flat affect, inappropriate displays; Cognitive: delusions, hallucinations; Motor: tracing patterns in the air or holding one pose for hours; Positive (presence of abnormal behavior) vs. negative (absence of normal functioning) symptoms

A. Catatonic: Bizarre, immobile, or relentless motor behaviors
B. Paranoid: Hallucinations (voices), delusions of persecution and/or grandeur (Jesus), suspicion; Intellect and affect are usually normal
C. Disorganized: Personality deterioration, bizarre behavior (public urination), disorganized speech; Or flat, inappropriate affect (laughter)
D. Undifferentiated: no specific category is appropriate

About 1 in 100 develop schizophrenia worldwide

VII. Axis 2: Personality Disorders: Stable, inflexible, and maladaptive personality traits, causing distress in normal functioning, especially noticeable over repeatedly interactions A. Anti-social personality disorder: pattern of disregard for others, violation of the rights of others; Lack of conscience, empathy, remorse; While only 1-2% of U.S. population, ~ 60% of male prisoners are estimated to have this personality disorder; Important Note for all of these disorders: Hypothesized Causes…It is very, very important to know that the causes listed here are merely scientific “guesses”, which often seem to work in tandem with each other to increase likelihood of particular disorder; No one “guess” is likely to cause the disorder in isolation