Table of Contents page

Evidence-based Library & Information Practice

Course Bibliography & Resource List


Evidence-based Medicine

Background reading for evidence-based library and information practice - where it all began.

* Citations marked with an asterisk designate core readings.

Booth 2004  Booth A (2004). Netting the Evidence (a virtual library).

Cochrane Collaboration
The Cochrane Collaboration. Example of a Cochrane review: Corticosteroids prior to preterm delivery.

Cochrane Collaboration The Cochrane Collaboration. What is the Cochrane Collaboration?

EBM Tutorial  Schardt C & Mayer, J. (2004). Introduction to evidence-based medicine. Duke University Medical Center Library and Health Sciences Library, UNC-Chapel Hill.

* Greenhalgh & Taylor  Greenhalgh T, Taylor R. How to read a paper. BMJ series.

Haynes, et al 1994  Haynes RB, Wilczynski N, McKibbon KA, Walker CJ, Sinclair JC.(1994, Nov-Dec). Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound studies in MEDLINE. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 1(6):447-58.

Miettinen 2001 Aug 21  Miettinen OS. (2001, Aug 21). The modern scientific physician: 1. Can practice be science? CMAJ, 165(4):441-2.

Miettinen 2001 Sept 4  Miettinen OS. (2001, Sep 4). The modern scientific physician: 2. Medical science versus scientific medicine. CMAJ, 165(5):591-2.

Olsen, et al 2001  Olsen O, Middleton P, Ezzo J, Gøtzsche P, Hadhazy V, Herxheimer A, Kleijnen J, McIntosh H. (2001, Oct 13). Quality of Cochrane reviews: assessment of sample from 1998. BMJ, 323:829-832.

Sackett, et al 1996  Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. (1996, January 13). Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. BMJ, 13:312(7023):71-2.

* Sackett D, Strauss S, Richardson W, Rosenberg W, & Haynes, R. (2000). Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach EBM (2nd ed.). London, UK: Harcourt Publishers, Ltd.

Note: Link not available. This is the 'bible' of EBM.


Evidence-based Library & Information Practice

Readings from the pioneers of the EBL/IP initiative, and research studies examining the current status of research and publication by LIS practitioners.

* Citations marked with an asterisk designate core readings.

Bao 2000  Bao XM. (2000, Nov). An analysis of the research areas of the articles published in C&RL and JAL between 1990 and 1999. College & Research Libraries, 61(6)6:536-44.

* Bayley & Eldredge 2003  Bayley L & Eldredge J. (2003). The structured abstract: an essential tool for researchers. Hypothesis, 17(1):1,11-13.

Booth - EBL web page  Booth A. Evidence-based Librarianship.

Booth 2001  Booth A. (2001). Turning research priorities into answerable questions. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 18:130-32.

* Booth 2003  Booth A. (2003). Bridging the research-practice gap? The role of evidence based librarianship. New Review of Information and Library Research, 9:3-23.

Booth & Brice 2003  Booth A & Brice A. (2003). Clear cut?: facilitating health librarians to use information research in practice. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 20(Supp. 1):45-52.

* Booth A & Brice A. (2004). Evidence-based practice for information professionals: a handbook. London, England: Facet Publications.
Note: No link available.

Booth & Eldredge 2003  Booth A & Eldredge JD. (2003, Jun). Editorial. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 20(1 Supp.1):1-2.

Bradley & Marshall 1995   Bradley J & Marshall J. (1995, Sept). Using scientific evidence to improve information practice. Health Libraries Review, 12(3):147-157.

Burdick, et al 1990  Burdick AJ, Doms CA, Doty CC, Kinzie LA. (1990, Oct). Research activities among health sciences librarians: a survey. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 78(4):400-402.

Crumley & Koufogiannakis 2002  Crumley E & Koufogiannakis D. (2002). Developing evidence based librarianship: practical steps for implementation. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 19(2):61-70.

Dimitroff 1992  Dimitroff A. (1992, Oct). Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 80(4):340-6.

Eldredge 1997  Eldredge J. (1997, Fall). Evidence-based librarianship. Hypothesis, 11(3):4-7.

Eldredge 2000
Eldredge J. (2000). Evidence-based librarianship: an overview. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 88(4):289-302.

* Eldredge 2000  Eldredge_2000c.pdf ( 955719 Bytes ) Eldredge J. (2000). Evidence-based librarianship: formulating EBL questions. Bibliotheca Medica Canadiana, 22(2):74-7.

* Eldredge 2000  Eldredge JD. (2000). Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 19(3): 1-18.

Eldredge 2001  Eldredge J. (2001). The most relevant and answerable research questions facing the practice of health science librarianship. Hypothesis, 15(1):9-17.

Hartley et al 1996  Hartley J, Sydes M, & Blurton A. (1996). Obtaining information accurately and quickly: are structured abstracts more efficient? Journal of Information Science, 22(5):349-356.

Hernon 1999  Hernon, P. (1999, July). Editorial: Research in library and information science: reflections on the journal literature. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 25(4):263.

Hernon 2001  Hernon P. (2001, March). Editorial: Components of the research process: where do we need to focus attention? Journal of Academic Librarianship 27(2):81-89.

Koufogiannakis & Slater 2004  Koufogiannakis D & Slater L. (2004). A content analysis of librarianship research Journal of Information Science, 30(3):227-239. Marshall 2003.

Marshall J. (2003). Library and information association of New Zealand conference, presentation.
Note: Accessed June 25, 2005 at no longer available through this site.

Marshall & Neufeld 1981  Marshall JG & Neufeld VR (1981). A randomized trial of librarian educational participation in clinical settings. Journal of Medical Education, 56(5):409-16.

MLA 1999 Medical Library Association. (1999). MLA Research Section Research bibliography. Chicago, IL: The Association.

Powell 1992  Powell RR. (1992, Jul-Sep). Impact assessment of university libraries: a consideration of issues and research methodologies. Library & Information Science Research, 14(3) 245-57.

Powell, et al 2002 Powell RR, Baker LM, Mika JJ. (2002). Library and information science practitioners and research. Library & Information Science Research, 24:49-72.

Scherrer & Dorsch 1999  Scherrer CS & Dorsch JL. (1999, Jul). The evolving role of the librarian in evidence-based medicine. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 87(3):322-8.

Schneider, et al 1995  Schneider E, Mankin CJ, & Bastille JD. (1995, Jan). Practical library research: a tool for effective library management. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 83(1):22-6.

Searing 2004  Searing S. (2004). Strategies for finding LIS information (pathfinder).

Searing 2004  Searing S. (2004). Which is better - Library Lit or LISA?

Segal 2000 Segal J. (2000). Collaboration between theory and evidence-based practice - two cultures: librarians and professors. 66th IFLA Council and General Conference Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August.

Stoffle, et al 2003  Stoffle CJ, Allen B, Morden D, Maloney K. (2003). Continuing to build the future: Academic libraries and their challenges. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 3(3): 363-380.

Summerskill 2005  Summerskill W. (2005 Jul). Literature searches: look before you leap. Lancet;366(9479):13-14.

Trahan 1993 Trahan E. (1993). Applying meta-analysis to library and information science research. Library Quarterly, 63(1):73-91.

Turner 2002  Turner K. (2002). Do information professionals use research published in LIS journals? 68th IFLA Council and General Conference, August 18-24, 2002.

 Williams & Winston 2003  Williams JF & Winston MD. (2003). Leadership competencies and the importance of research methods and statistical analysis in decision making and research and publication: A study of citation patterns. Library & Information Science Research, 25:387-402


Exemplars of Evidence-based Research in LIS

Evidence-based research studies from LIS and healthcare, and articles for critical evaluation.

Blecic 2000  Blecic DD. (2000, Apr). Monograph use at an academic health sciences library: the first three years of shelf life. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 88(2):145-51.

Brettle 2003  Brettle A. (2003). Information skills training: a systematic review of the literature. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 20(Suppl. 1):3-9.

Burright 2005   Burright, MA, et al. (2005, May). Understanding information use in a multidisciplinary field: a local citation analysis of neuroscience research. College & Research Libraries, 66(3):198-210.

Hahn, et al 2002   Hahn KL, et al. (2002 May). Evaluative usage-based metrics for the selection of e-journals. College & Research Libraries, 63(3):215-27.

Hersh & Hickam 1998  Hersh WR & Hickam DH. (1998, Oct 21). How well do physicians use electronic information retrieval systems: a framework for investigation and systematic review. JAMA, 280(15):1347-52.

Koufogiannakis 2005   Koufogiannakis D. (2005, Oct 18). Effective methods for teaching information literacy skills to undergraduate students: what does the library research literature reveal? Evolution of Evidence: Global Perspectives on Linking Research with Practice. Paper delivered at the 3rd EBIP Conference in Brisbane, Australia.

Leu 2004  Leu EZ. (2004). A Pilot Study of Workshop-Based Instruction Via the Web. International Journal of Instructional Media, 31(4):401-10.

Marshall 1992   Marshall JG. (1992, Apr). The impact of the hospital library on clinical decision making: the Rochester study. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 80(2):169-78.

Marshall & Neufeld 1981  Marshall JG & Neufeld VR (1981). A randomized trial of librarian educational participation in clinical settings. Journal of Medical Education, 56(5):409-16.

McKnight 2000  McKnight M. (2000, Jul). Interlibrary loan availability of nursing journals through DOCLINE and OCLC: a five-state survey. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 88(3):254-5.

Miller, et al 2005  Miller ER, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E. (2005, Jan 4). Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Annals of Internal Medicine 142(1):37-46.

Nichols 2003   Nichols J, et al. (2003, Sept). Changing the face of instruction: is online or in-class more effective? College & Research Libraries, 64(5):378-88

Library Association Research Policies

ACRL 2000
Association of College and Research Libraries (2000). ACRL Statement on Professional Development. Chicago, IL: American Library Association.

MLA 1999
Medical Library Association, Research Task Force. (1999). Using scientific evidence to improve information practice: the research policy statement of the Medical Library Association. Chicago, IL: The Association.

SLA 2001
Special Library Association. (2001). Putting our values to work: A new research statement June 2001, the role of research in special librarianship. Alexandria, VA: SLA.

Class Speakers

Biographies, slides, and readings

Mark Fraser, MSW PhD., John A. Tate Distinguished Professor for Children in Need
M.S.W., Denver University
Ph.D., University of Washington
Professional interests
Children and Families at Risk; Antisocial and Aggressive Behavior in Childhood, Early Adolescence, and Adolescence; Risk and Resilience in Childhood; Prevention of Conduct Problems in Childhood and Adolescence.

Evidence-based practice in social work  Powerpoint on evidence-based practice in social work ( 889344 Bytes )


Intervention research in social work: a basis for evidence-based practice and practice guidelines ( 6524943 Bytes )
The attached chapter is from Rosen A & Proctor EK. (Eds.) (2003). Developing practice guidelines for sociial work intervention. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Christie C. Silbajoris, MSLS, AHIP is a medical librarian with significant consumer health and public service experience. She received her MSLS with a concentration in Health Sciences librarianship, from the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Ms. Silbajoris has worked at the Duke Patient and Family Resource Center, where she assisted cancer patients and family members in finding health information. She has provided reference services to the public, medical students, physicians and other health services providers at the Health Sciences Library at UNC-CH. Currently, she is working as the Project Director for NC Health Info, a collection of local health services web sites linked to MedlinePlus, the consumer health database produced by the National Library of Medicine. Ms. Silbajoris teaches classes on consumer health topics through the UNC University Library Community Workshop series at area public libraries and also other local organizations. Ms. Silbajoris is a member of the Academy of Health Information Professionals, the Medical Library Association, and CAPHIS, the Consumer and Patient Health Information Section of MLA.


Evidence-based Patient Choice and Consumer health informatics in the Internet age
Joanne Marshall will be sharing the presentation, and asks that we read this linked article:

Eysenbach G, Jadad JR. (2001). Evidence-based Patient Choice and Consumer health informatics in the Internet age. JMIR, 3(2):e19
MedlinePlus Goes Local in NC: Context and Concept

MedlinePlus Goes Local in NC: The Development and Implementation of NC Health Info   If you cannot get to this link off-campus (as I cannot), try this pdf: jenkins_marshall_mcduffee.pdf ( 77101 Bytes )

NCHealthInfo powerpoint presentation  MarshallNN_2005.ppt ( 1443328 Bytes )

Additonal links to quality standards and evaluative criteria:

MedlinePlus: Evaluating Health Information (which contains the links to many other evaluative criteria that she'll point out)

MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing (handy, concise guide)

MLA User’s Guide to Finding and Evaluating Health Information on the Web (from our own association)

Alice R. (DeeDee) Boyington, PhD, RN, Associate Professor in the School of Nursing, received her PhD in Nursing with a minor in Exercise Physiology from the University of Florida. She has also completed graduate coursework at the School of Information and Library Science at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Boyington was principal investigator on a K01 mentored research scientist award, funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institutes of Health. The K01 study included the development and testing of the effectiveness of an interactive computer program to deliver continence health promotion to elderly women. Her primary research interests are in the area of consumer health informatics with a focus on the application of Web-delivered interventions to promote health and to assist those with health-related conditions amenable to self-management. Her interests also include development and conduct of Web-based health surveys and investigation of the presence of nursing on hospital Web sites. For several years, Dr. Boyington has taught Health Care Informatics, an online graduate course in the School of Nursing.

Notes from DeeDee's talk, including links  EBP_lecture_Fall_05.doc ( 64000 Bytes )


Kitson A, Harvey G, & McCorn B. (1998). Enabling the implemention of evidence-based practice: a conceptual framework. Quality in Healthcare,7:149-158.McDonald 2001

Florence_Nightingale_EVP_2005.pdf ( 172659 Bytes )
McDonald L.(2001). Florence Nightingale and the early origins of evidence-based nursing.

Evidence Based Nursing, 4:68-69.  Williams & Zipperer 2003
Williams_med_libr_2003.pdf ( 1601890 Bytes )

Williams L & Zipperer L. (2003 Jul-Aug). Improving access to information: librarians and nurses team up for patient safety. Nursing Economics, 21(4):199-201

Gerald Gartlehner MD, MPH is a Research Fellow of the Sheps Center for Health Services Research and the Associate Director of the RTI-UNC Evidence-based Practice Center. Dr. Gartlehner is trained in family and emergency medicine and received his MPH in “Health Care and Prevention” at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. He has conducted and participated in numerous systematic reviews for the Agency of Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP). In addition, he was the lead author on two methods projects for AHRQ. He is currently the principal investigator of a DERP drug class review on the comparative effectiveness and tolerability of targeted immune modulators and a systematic review of the comparative effectiveness and tolerability of second-generation antidepressants for the Medicare Modernization Act. His main research interests are in methodological issues of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.


Atkins, Fink & Slutsky 2005
Better_information_for_better_health___Atkins_2005.pdf ( 101479 Bytes )
Atkins D, Fink K, & Slutsky J. (2005). Better information for better health care: The Evidence-based
Practice Center Program and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Annals of Internal Medicine, 142:1035-1041.

Mulrow CD. (1994, Sept.3). Systematic Reviews: Rationale for systematic reviews. BMJ, 309:597-599.Rationale_for_Systematic_Reviews___Mulrow_1994.pdf ( 264567 Bytes )

Systematic reviews - powerpoint   EPC_systematic_reviews.ppt ( 262656 Bytes )


Standards & Resources

Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ)
Main functions: AHRQ sponsors and conducts research that provides evidence-based information on health care outcomes; quality; and cost, use, and access. The information helps health care decisionmakers—patients and clinicians, health system leaders, purchasers, and policymakers—make more informed decisions and improve the quality of health care services.

AHRQ's Strategic Goals
AHRQ's strategic goals reflect the needs of its customers. These goals are to:
* Support improvements in health outcomes. The field of health outcomes research examines the end results of the structure and processes of health care on the health and well-being of patients and populations. A unique characteristic of this research is the incorporation of the patient's perspective in the assessment of effectiveness. Public and private-sector policymakers are also concerned with the end results of their investments in health care, whether at the individual, community, or population level.
* Strengthen quality measurement and improvement. Achieving this goal requires developing and testing quality measures and investigating the best ways to collect, compare, and communicate these data so they are useful to decisionmakers. AHRQ's research will also emphasize studies of the most effective ways to implement these measures and strategies in order to improve patient safety and health care quality.
* Identify strategies that improve access, foster appropriate use, and reduce unnecessary expenditures. Adequate access and appropriate use of health care services continues to be a challenge for many Americans, particularly the poor, the uninsured, members of minority groups, rural and inner city residents, and other priority populations. The Agency will support studies of access, health care utilization, and expenditures to identify whether particular approaches to health care delivery and payment alter behaviors in ways that promote access and/or economize on health care resource use.
(from )

American Psychiatric Association (APA) Practice Guidelines
The evidence base for practice guidelines is derived from two sources: research studies and clinical
consensus. Where gaps exist in the research data, evidence is derived from clinical consensus,
obtained through extensive review of multiple drafts of each guideline (see section VI). Both research
data and clinical consensus vary in their validity and reliability for different clinical situations;
guidelines state explicitly the nature of the supporting evidence for specific recommendations so that
readers can make their own judgments regarding the utility of the recommendations. (from the APA practice guideline development process, )

Appraisal of Guidelines Research & Education (AGREE)
"Where does it come from?  The AGREE Collaboration started in 1998 as a research project ‘Appraising clinical guidelines' under the Biomedicine and Health Research (BIOMED 2) Programme, funded by the European Union - . The project was coordinated by the Department of Public Health Sciences at St George's Hospital Medical School and ended in June 2001. The main objective was to develop an appraisal instrument to assess clinical guidelines and to harmonise guideline development across Europe in order to minimize duplication of efforts.

In November 2002 the AGREE Collaboration received additional funding from the Accompanying Measures EU funded programme of the 5 th Framework until April 2004 to further disseminate and implement the AGREE Instrument. This was coordinated by the Department of Public Health Sciences at St George's Hospital Medical School in London. The central aim of the project was to enhance effective health care policy in Europe by promoting the diffusion of a comprehensive approach to the production, dissemination and evaluation of high-quality clinical guidelines through established networks." (from the site)

Campbell Collaboration
" The systematic reviews of research evidence prepared and maintained by contributors to the Campbell Collaboration's Review Groups will be designed to meet the needs of those with a strong interest in high quality evidence on "what works". These include members of the public who want to keep abreast of the best evidence on the effects of social and educational policies and practices, service providers, policy makers, educators and their students, and professional researchers. Campbell systematic reviews will be published electronically so that they can be updated promptly as relevant additional evidence emerges, and amended in the light of criticisms and advances in methodology.

The Campbell Collaboration will collaborate closely with its sibling organization, the Cochrane Collaboration, which prepares and maintains systematic reviews of the effects of interventions in health care. " (from the site)

Canadian Health Services Research Foundation
From the email announcing the launch of this amazing (and inspirational!) site:
Managers and policy makers in healthcare organizations often look to their peers for examples of “what works.” That’s why the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation is proud to launch its new series, Promising Practices. These stories highlight organizations that are finding innovative ways to
increase their capacity to use research for evidence-based decision-making.

Each Promising Practice story profiles how an organization is investing in its people, processes, or structure to build capacity. For example, one of our three stories shows how the Need to Know team in Manitoba brings together decision makers from rural health authorities with researchers to
learn from each other and create health-related research that can make health services more effective and people healthier.

The Southern California Evidence-Based Practice Center is part of the Evidence-Based Practice Program sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. One of 13 such Centers nationwide, the Center:
* conducts systematic reviews and technology assessments of all aspects of health care;
* performs research on improving the methods of synthesizing the scientific evidence and developing evidence reports and technology assessments; and
* provides technical assistance to other organizations in their efforts to translate evidence reports and technology assessments into guidelines, performance measures, and other quality-improvement tools.
(from the site)

Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration (SAHMSA)
There are a number of sections of interest throughout this large site, such as a registry of effective practices, but I haven't found one central area for EB practice documents yet.