votive E100
The Azoria Project
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Iowa State University
Excavations at Azoria in Eastern Crete

The Azoria Project is the excavation of an Early Iron Age and Archaic site (ca. 1200-500 B.C.) on the island of Crete in the Greek Aegean. Fieldwork is conducted by permission of the Greek Ministry of Culture under the auspices of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens and the Archaeological Service of Eastern Crete (24th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities). The main supporting institutions are the Department of Classics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Classical Studies Program at Iowa State University, the Curriculum in Archaeology and the Research Laboratories of Archaeology at UNC, the Institute for Aegean Prehistory Study Center for East Crete (INSTAP-SCEC), and the Duke-UNC Consortium for Classical and Mediterranean Archaeology (CCMA).

General Application Information for Students

D700 and D1600-1
Northwest Building


The Azoria Project Overview (Research Design)

Azoria Project Bibliography

Summary Field Reports

2002 Summary Report 
2003 Summary Report
2004 Summary Report
2005 Summary Report

2006 Summary Report

2013 Summary Report
2013 Summary Report (in Greek)
2013 Summary Report (zooarchaeology)
2014 Summary Report
2014 Summary Report (in Greek)
2015 Summary Report

Detailed Field Reports and Articles

2002 Detailed Report

2003-2004 Detailed Report Part 1 (Archaic Buildings)
2003-2004 Detailed Report Part 2 (Neolithic-Early Iron Age)
2005-2006 Detailed Report (Archaic Civic Buildings)
2005-2006 Detailed Report (Archaic Houses)

The Early Iron Age-Archaic Transition in Crete (Dark Ages Revisited)
A Tholos Tomb from Azoria Kavousi (AEK 1, 2010)
Kritiko Panorama (2007) PDF
Social Organization and Aggregated Settlement Structure in an Archaic Greek City on Crete
Informal and Practical Uses of Writing in Graffiti from Azoria, Crete
(cf. XIVth  International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, Berlin, 2012)


Site Conservation 2014 (technical report)
Site Conservation 2013 (technical report)
Site Conservation 2003-2007 (technical report)HCA
The Conservation of an Archaic Greek City on Crete
Best Practices in Site Preservation
Archaeological Institute of America, Site Preservation Program, 2012

Staff Lists

Staff List 2014
Staff List 2013
Senior Staff
Staff Lists 2002-2012

Advisory Board (2013-2017)
Public Engagement and Programming

Visitor List 2013
Facebook Group
Radio Vereniki News (2013)
Interactive Educational Programs in Crete
Maura High, An Archaeology of Now and Then
The Southern Review 48.2 (2012)

Azoria Project Archive

The Azoria Project Archive,
stored in the Carolina Digital Repository of the University Archives and Records Management Services of Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, is the permanent archive of the Azoria Project excavations. The Azoria Project Archive is a collection of original documents and publications generated from fieldwork and research of the Azoria Project. The documents in this collection comprise an archive of publications; original field notes; excavation and directors notebooks; stratigraphic sections; manuscript drafts; artifact catalogs; and illustrations (plans, artifact and architectural drawings, maps, and photographs) produced by this research project.

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E100The Azoria Project is the excavation of an Archaic city (7th-6th c. B.C.) on the island of Crete in the Greek Aegean. Fieldwork has been conducted in two stages, an initial five years of excavation in 2002-2006, and a second stage, begun in 2013 (-2017), separated by six seasons of study, publication, and site conservation. The goals are to document the form of an early Greek city, with a view to understanding the sociopolitical and economic structure, and processes of urbanization (Haggis et al. 2004; 2007; 2011). The focus of current work is on the transition from the Early Iron Age (1200-700 B.C.) to Archaic periods, the early development of the city, and material correlates for emerging social and political institutions in the 6th c. B.C. The excavation constitutes the first case study of the political economy of Archaic Crete, while augmenting our knowledge of the agropastoral resource base of Aegean communities in early stages of urbanization and city-state formation. Our immediate goals are to recover stratigraphic evidence for culture change in the late 7th and 6th c., and to reevaluate interpretive frameworks and develop new models of nascent urban social organization. Current excavation is producing evidence for the structure and organization of households of 6th-c. date; public buildings indicating various levels of communal participation in feasting and sacrifice; and stratigraphic discontinuities suggesting the complex relationships between the Archaic inhabitants and their Early Iron Age cultural and archaeological landscapes.

Funding for the Azoria Project has been provided by the
National Science Foundation (BCS-0438073); the National Geographic Society (7193-02; 7614-04; 9164-12); the National Endowment for the Humanities (RZ-20812; RZ-50334; RZ-51427); the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (Gr 6875; Gr 8644); the Institute for Aegean Prehistory; the Loeb Classical Library Foundation; the American Philosophical Society (Franklin Research Grant program); the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation; the Shelby White-Leon Levy Program for Archaeological Publications; the Stavros Niarchos Foundation; the College of Arts and Sciences and the Office of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Economic Development at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the James Penrose Harland Fund of the Department of Classics (UNC-CH); Social Science Seed Grant for Multidisciplinary Research, H. W. Odum Institute for Research in Social Science (UNC-CH); the Iowa State University (ISU) Center for Excellence in the Arts and Humanities Fellowship for Scholarship and Creativity; College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Small Grants (ISU); and the Azoria Project Fund (0-65305).

Donate to the Azoria Project


Principal grants and contributions