References

ADAMS, R.M.  1965.  The Evolution of Urban Society.  Chicago: Aldine.
ANDERSEN, H.D., HORSNAES, H.W., HOUBY-NIELSEN, S., and RATHJE, A. 1997.  Urbanization in the Mediterranean in the 9th to the 6th centuries B.C.  Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.
BORGNA, E.  1997.  Kitchen Ware from LM IIIC Phaistos: Cooking Traditions and Ritual Activities in LBA Cretan Societies.  SMEA 39: 189-217.
BOTTEMA S. 1994.  "The prehistoric environment of Greece. A review of the palinological record." In Kardulias P. N. (ed.) Beyond the site. Regional studies in the Aegean area, pp. 45-68.  Lanham: University Press of America.
BOYD, H.A.  1901.  Excavations at Kavousi, Crete, in 1900.  AJA 5: 125-157.
BOYD, H.A.  1904.  Gournia- Report of the American Exploration Society's Excavations at Gournia, Crete, 1902-1905, Transactions of the Department of Archaeology: Free Museum of Science and Art University of Pennsylvania I: 7-44.
BRAIDWOOD, R.J. and WILLEY, G.R.  1962.  Courses Toward Urban Life.  Chicago: Aldine.
CAVANAGH, W.G. and M CURTIS, eds.  1998.  Post-Minoan Crete (BSA Studies 2).  London: The British School at Athens.
CHANIOTIS, A.  1995.  Problems of 'Pastoralism' and 'Transhumance' in Classical and Hellenistic Crete. Orbis Terrarum 1: 39-89.
CHERRY, J.F.  1984.  The Emergence of the State in the Prehistoric Aegean.  Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 210: 18-48.
CHERRY, J.F.  1988.   "Pastoralism and the role of animals in the pre- and protohistoric economies of the Aegean," in C.R. Whittaker (ed.): 6-34.
CHILDE,V.G.  1950  The Urban Revolution.  Town Planning Review 21: 3-17.
CHRISTAKIS, K. S.  1999.  "Pithoi and food storage in Neopalatial Crete: a domestic perspective."  World Archaeology 3: 1-20.
COLDSTREAM, J.N.  1984.  "Dorian Knossos and Aristotle's Villages," in Aux Origines de l'Hellénisme: la Crète et la Grèce.  Hommages à Henri Van Effenterre, pp. 311-322.  Paris: Centre G. Glotz.
COLDSTREAM, J.N.  1991.  "Knossos: An Urban Nucleus in the Dark Age?," in La Transizione dal Miceneo all' alto arcaismo dal palazzo alla città.  Edited by D. Musti, A. Sacconi, L. Rocchetti, M. Rocchi, E. Scafa, L. Sportiello, M.E. Giannotta, pp. 287-299.  Rome: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
COULSON, W.D.E., HAGGIS, D.C., MOOK, M.S., and TOBIN, J.  1997.  Excavations on the Kastro at Kavousi: An Architectural Overview.  Hesperia 66: 315-390.
CRABTREE, P. 1990.  "Zooarchaeology and complex societies: some uses of faunal analysis for the study of trade, social status and ethnicity."  Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 2: 155-205.
DAY, L.P., COULSON, W.D.E., and GESELL, G.C. 1986.  Kavousi, 1983-1984: The Settlement at Vronda.  Hesperia 55: 355-388.
DAY, L.P., and GLOWACKI, K.T.  1993.  Spatial Analysis of a Late Minoan IIIC/Subminoan Domestic Complex in Eastern Crete.  AJA 97: 349.
DELAND P.M. 1994.  "Consumption and the State: The Economics and Politics of Maya Meat Eating."  In: Brumfiel, E.B. (ed.) The Economic Anthropology of the State. University Presses of America, pp. 121-149.  Lanham: University Press of America.
DONLAN, W. and THOMAS, C.G.  1993.  The Village Community of Ancient Greece: Neolithic, Bronze and Dark Ages.  SMEA 31: 61-72.
DOUGHERTY, C. and KURKE, L., eds.  1993.  Cultural Poetics in Archaic Greece.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
EFFENTERRE, H. VAN.  1948.  La Crète et la monde grec.  Paris: E. de Boccard.
EHRENREICH, R.M., CRUMLEY, C.L., LEVY, J.E. (eds.).  1995.  Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. Washington: American Anthropological Association.
FISHER, N. and VAN WEES, H., EDS.  1998.  Archaic Greece: New Approaches and New Evidence.  Swansea: Classical Press of Wales.
FLINT-HAMILTON, K.B.  2000.  The Paleoethnobotany of Iron Age Crete.  AJA 104: 368.
FLINT-HAMILTON, K.B.  1999.  Legumes in Ancient Greece and Rome.  Hesperia 68: 371-386.
FOXHALL, L.  1995.  Bronze to Iron: Agricultural Systems and Political Structures in Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Greece.  BSA 90: 239-250.
GAILEY, C.W., PATTERSON,  T.C. (eds.) 1987.  Power Relations and State Formation. Washington: American Anthropological Association.
GERNET, L.  1981.  The Anthropology of Ancient Greece.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
GESELL, G.C.,  COULSON, W.D.E., AND DAY, L.P.  1991.  Excavations at Kavousi, Crete, 1988," Hesperia 60: 145-178.
GESELL, G.C., DAY, L.P. and COULSON, W.D.E.  1983.  Excavations and Survey at Kavousi, 1978-1981.  Hesperia 52: 389-420.
GESELL, G.C., DAY, L.P. and COULSON, W.D.E. 1985.  Kavousi 1982-1983: The Kastro.  Hesperia 54: 327-355.
GESELL, G.C., DAY, L.P. and COULSON, W.D.E.  1988.  Excavations at Kavousi, Crete, 1987. Hesperia 57: 279-301.
GESELL, G.C., DAY, L.P. and COULSON, W.D.E.  1990.  Tombs and Burial Practices in Early Iron Age Crete.   Expedition 32: 22-30.
GESELL, G.C., DAY, L.P. and COULSON, W.D.E.  1995.  Excavations At Kavousi, Crete, 1989 And 1990.  Hesperia 64: 67-120.
GITIN, S., MAZAR, A., and STERN, E., eds.  1998.  Mediterranean Peoples in Transition : Thirteenth to Early Tenth Centuries BCE: In Honor of Professor Trude Dothan.  Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society.
GUMERMAN, G.  1997.   "Food and Complex Societies."  Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4: 105-139.
HÄGG, R., ed.  1983.  The Greek Renaissance of the Eighth Century B.C.: Tradition and Innovation.  Stockholm: Svenska institutet i Athen.
HAGGIS, D.C.  1992.  The Kavousi-Thriphti Survey: An Analysis of Settlement Patterns in an Area of Eastern Crete in the Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Dissertation.
HAGGIS, D.C. 1993.  Intensive Survey, Traditional Settlement Patterns, and Dark Age Crete: The Case of Early Iron Age Kavousi.  JMA 6: 131-174.
HAGGIS, D.C.  1996.  Archaeological Survey at Kavousi, East Crete: Preliminary Report.  Hesperia 65: 373-432.
HAGGIS, D.C.  2001 a. "A Dark Age Settlement System in East Crete and a Reassessment of the Definition of Refuge Settlements," in Defensive Settlements of the Aegean and the Eastern Mediterranean After ca. 1200 BC.  Edited by V. Karageorghis and C. Morris, pp. 41-59.  Nicosia: The A.G. Leventis Foundation.
HAGGIS, D.C.  2001 b.  "Integration and Complexity in the Late Prepalatial Period: A View from the Countryside in Eastern Crete," in Y. Hamilakis, ed., Labyrinth Revisited: Rethinking Minoan Archaeology (Oxford 2001) 120-142.
HAGGIS, D.C.  Forthcoming.  The Archaeological Survey of the Kavousi Region. Kavousi, Vol..
HAGGIS, D.C., and MOOK, M.S..  1993.  The Kavousi Coarse Wares: A Bronze Age Chronology for Survey in the Mirabello Area, East Crete.  AJA 97:  265-293.
HAGGIS, D.C., and NOWICKI, K.  1993.  Khalasmeno and Katalimata: Two Early Iron Age Settlements in Monastiraki, East Crete.  Hesperia 62: 303-338.
HALL, E.  1914.   Excavations in Eastern Crete: Vrokastro, University of Pennsylvania, The University Museum Anthropological Publications III, iii, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum.
HALLAGER, E. AND HALLAGER, B.P.  eds. 1997.   Late Minoan III Pottery: Chronology and Terminology (Monographs of the Danish Institute at Athens, vol. 1).   Aarhus: The Danish Institute at Athens.
HALSTEAD, P.  1981.  "From determinism to uncertainty: social storage and the rise of the Minoan palace."  In Economic Archaeology: Towards the integration of ecological and social approaches.  Edited by A. Sheridan and G. Bailey.   BAR I.S. 96, pp. 187-213.
HALSTEAD, P.  1988.  "On Redistribution and the Origins of Minoan-Mycenaean Palatial Economies.  In Problems in Greek Prehistory.  Edited by E.B. French and  K.A. Wardle, pp. 519-530.  Bristol: Bristol University Press.
HANSEN, J. M. 1991. The Palaeoethnobotany of Francthi Cave (Excavation at Francthi Cave, Greece, fasc. 7), Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
HANSEN, J. M. 1994.  "Palaeoethnobotany in Regional Perspective." In Beyond the Site. Regional Studies in the Aegean Area.  Edited by P.N. Kardulias, pp. 173-190.  Lanham: University Press of America.
HAYDEN, B.J.  1995 (1997).  Rural Settlement of the Orientalizing through Early Classical Period:  The Meseleroi Valley, Eastern Crete.  Aegean Archaeology 2: 93-144.
HAYDEN, B.J., and MOODY, J.A.  1990.  The Vrokastro Survey Project, Providing a Context for an Early Iron Age Site.  Expedition 32: 42-53.
HAYDEN, B.J., MOODY, J.A. and RACKHAM, O.  1992.  The Vrokastro Survey Project, 1986-1989: Research Design and Preliminary Results. Hesperia 61: 293-353.
HELBAEK, H. 1956.  "Vegetables in the Funeral Meals of Pre-urban Rome." In Early Rome. Edited by E. Gjerstad, pp. 287-294.   Lund: Gleerup.
HILLMAN, G. 1984.  "Interpretation of Archaeological Plant Remains: The Application of Ethnographic Models from Turkey." In Plants and Ancient Man. Edited by W. Van Zeist and W.A. Casparie, pp. 1-41.  Rotterdam: Balkema.
HOFFMAN, G. 1997.  Imports and Immigrants: Near Eastern Contacts with Iron Age Crete. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
HUMPHREYS, S.C., 1978.  Anthropology and the Greeks.  London: Routledge & K. Paul.
HUXLEY, G.  1994.  "On Knossos and her Neighbors (7th Century to Mid-4th Century B.C.)" in Knossos: A Labyrinth of History.  Edited by D.Evely, H. Hughes-Brock, and N. Momigliano.  Oxford: British School of Archaeology at Athens.
JAMESON, M.H.  1990.  "Domestic Space in the Greek City-State," in  Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space.  Edited by S. Kent, pp. 92-113.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
JONES, D.W.  2000.  External Relations of Early Iron Age Crete 1100-600 B.C.  Philadelphia: Archaeological Institute of America.
JONES, G.   "The LMII plant remains." In The Minoan unexplored mansion at Knossos, Edited by M.R. Popham, pp. 303-306.  London: British School at Athens.
JONES, G.E.M. 1984.  "Interpretation of Archaeological Plant Remains: The Application of Ethnographic Models from Greece."  In Plants and Ancient Man.  Edited by W. Van Zeist and W.A. Casparie, pp. 43-61.  Rotterdam: Balkema.
KLIPPEL, W.E. and SNYDER. L.M.  1991. Dark-Age Fauna from Kavousi, Crete: the Vertebrates from the 1987 and 1988 Excavations.  Hesperia 60: 179-186.
KLIPPEL, W.E. and SNYDER, L.M.  1999.  "Harvest Profiles, Domestic Ovicaprids, and Bronze Age Crete."  in The Practical Impact of Science on Near Eastern and Aegean  Archaeology (Wiener Laboratory Monograph 3).  Edited by S. Pike & S. Gitin., pp. 53-61.  London.
KLUCKHOHN, C.  1961.  Anthropology and the Classics.  Providence: Brown University Press.
LANGDON, S. ED.  1993.  From Pasture to Polis: Art in the Age of Homer.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
LANGDON, S. ED.  1997.  New Light on a Dark Age: Exploring the Culture of Geometric Greece.  Columbia: University of Missouri Press.
MAZARAKIS AINIAN, A.J.  1997.  From Rulers' Dwellings to Temples: Architecture, Religion, and Society in Early Iron Age Greece (1100-700 B.C.).  Jonsered.
MCDONALD, W.A., COULSON, W.D.E., and ROSSER, J. eds.  1983.  Excavations at Nichoria in Southwest Greece.  Vol. III.  The Dark Age and Byzantine Occupation.  Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
MITCHELL, L.G. and P.J. RHODES, eds.  1997.  The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece.  London: Routledge.
MOODY, J., NIXON, L., PRICE, S., and RACKHAM, O.  1998.  “Surveying poleis and larger sites in Sphakia,” in Cavanagh and Curtis, pp. 87-95.
MOODY, J., RACKHAM, O and RAPP. G.  1996.  “Environmental Archaeology of Prehistoric NW Crete,” JFA 23, 273-297.
MOOK, M.S.  1994.  The Development of a Domestic Architectural Unit throughout the Early Iron Age: The Northwest Building on the Kastro, East Crete. AJA 99: 335-336.
MOOK. M.S. and COULSON, W.D.E.  1992.  The Late Minoan IIIC Pottery from the Kastro Kavousi, East Crete.  AJA 97: 351.
MOOK, M.S. and COULSON, W.D.E. 1997.  "Late Minoan IIIC Pottery from the Kastro at Kavousi," in Hallager and Hallager, pp. 337-370.
MORGAN, C.  1990.  Athletes and Oracles.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MORRIS, I.  1987.  Burial and Ancient Society: The Rise of the Greek City-State.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MORRIS, I.  1991.  "The Early Polis as City and State," in City and Country in the Ancient World.  Edited by J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, pp.  25-58.  London: Routledge.
MORRIS, I.  1994.  Classical Greece: Ancient Histories and Modern Archaeologies.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
MORRIS, I.  1996.  "Negotiated Peripherality in Iron Age Greece, Accepting and Resisting the East," Journal of World Systems Research 2 (2).
MORRIS, I.  1998.  "Archaeology and Archaic Greek History," in N. Fisher and Hans van Wees, eds., pp. 1-92.
MORRIS, I.  2000.   Archaeology as Cultural History. Oxford: Blackwell.
MORRIS, S.  1992.  Daidalos and the Origins of Greek Art.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.
MORRIS, W.M.  1994.  A Pedological Investigation of Catchment Basins Below Late Minoan Period Archaeological Sites in Eastern Crete, Greece.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Dissertation.
MOTTA,  L.  forthcoming.  "Planting the seed of Rome", Vegetation History and Archaeobotany.
NEGBI, O.  1992.  Early Phoenician Presence in the Mediterranean Islands: A Reappraisal.  AJA 96: 599-615.
NIXON, L., MOODY, J., and RACKHAM, O.  1988.  Archaeological Survey in Sphakia, Crete.  Echos du Monde Classique/Classical Views 32, n.s.7: 159-173.
NOWICKI, K. 1987.  Topography of Refuge Settlement in Crete.  Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, Mainz 34:  213-234.
NOWICKI, K.  1999.  "Economy of Refugees: Life in the Cretan Mountains at the Turn of the Bronze and Iron Ages," in The Cretan Economy.   Edited by Chaniotis, A., pp. 145-172.  Stuttgart: Habes.
NOWICKI, K.  2000.  Defensible Sites in Crete ca. 1200-800 B.C.  Liège: Aegaeum.
OSBORNE, R.  1996.  Greece in the Making 1200-479.  London: Routledge.
POLLOCK, S.  1999.  Ancient Mesopotamia.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
POSTGATE, J.N.  1994.  In Search of the First Empires.  BASOR 293: 1-14.
PEÑA-CHOCARRO, L.  1999.  Prehistoric Agriculture in Southern Spain During the Neolithic and the Bronze Age: The Application of Ethnographic Models.  Oxford: Archaeopress.
PRENT, M.  1996-7.  The 6th century B.C. in Crete: the best candidate for being a dark age?  Caelucus 3: 35-46.
RENFREW, C.  1980.  The Great Tradition versus the Great Divide: Archaeology as Anthropology.  AJA 84: 287-98.
RICH J. AND WALLACE-HADRILL, A., eds.  1991.  City and Country in the Ancient World.  London: Routledge.
RUTTER, J. 1992.  "Cultural Novelties in the Post-palatial Aegean World: Indices of Vitality or Decline? in Ward and Joukowsky, pp. 61-78.
SACKETT, L.H., ED.  1992.  Knossos from Greek City to Roman Colony.  Oxford: British School at Athens.
SCARRY, C.M.  1993.  "Variability in Mississippian Crop Production Strategies."  In Foraging and Farming in the Eastern Woodlands, edited by C. M. Scarry, pp. 78-90. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
SCARRY, C.M AND STEPONAITIS, V.P.  1997 "Between Farmstead and Center: The Natural and Social Landscape of Moundville."  In People, Plants, and Landscapes: Studies in Paleoethnobotany, edited by K. Gremillion, pp. 107-122. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
SCHWARTZ, G.M.  1994.  "Rural Economic Specialization and Early Urbanization in the Khabur Valley, Syria," in  Archaeological Views from the Countryside: Village Communities in Early Complex Societies.  Edited by G.M. Schwartz and S.E. Falconer,  pp. 19-36. Washington: Smithsonian.
SHANKS, M. 1999. Art and the Early Greek State.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
SHERRATT, S. AND SHERRATT, A.  1993.  The Growth of the Mediterranean Economy in the First Millennium B.C. World Archaeology 24: 361-378.
SMALL, D.B.  1995.   "Heterarchical Paths to Evolution: The Role of External Economies," in Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies.  Edited by R.M. Ehrenreich, C.L. Crumley, and J.E. Levy, pp. 77-79.  Arlington: American Anthropological Association.
SMITH, C.J.  1996.  Early Rome and Latium.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
SNODGRASS, A.  1977.  Archaeology and the Rise of the Greek State.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
SNODGRASS, A.M.  1987.   An Archaeology of Greece: The Present State and Future Scope of a Discipline.  Berkeley: University of California Press.
SNODGRASS, A.M.  1991.  "Archaeology and the Study of the Greek City," in J. Rich and A. Wallace-Hadrill, eds., pp. 1-24.
SNODGRASS, A.M.  1993.  "The Rise of the Polis: The Archaeological Evidence," in The Ancient Greek City-State.  Edited by Hansen, M.H., pp. 30-40.  Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
SNYDER, L. M. and KLIPPEL, W.E.  1999.  "Dark Age Subsistence in East Crete: Exploring Subsistence Change and Continuity During the Late Bronze Age - Early Iron Age Transition," in. Aspects of Paleodiet in the Aegean.  Edited by S.J. Vaughan & W.D.E. Coulson.   Oxford: Oxbow.
SOUTHALL, A.  1998.  The City in Time and Space.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
TANDY, D.  1997.  Warriors into Traders.  The Power of the Market in Early Greece.  Berkeley: University of California Press.
THOMAS, C.G. and CONANT, C.  1999. Citadel to City-State: The Transformation of Greece, 1200-700 B.C.E. Bloomington: Indiana University.
TIMPSON, M.  1992.  An Investigation of the Pedogenesis of Soils Developed in Quaternary Alluvial Deposits of Eastern Crete.  Knoxville: University of Tennessee Dissertation.
VAN DE MIEROOP, M.  1999.  The Ancient Mesopotamian City.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
VAN DER VEEN,  M.  1992.  Crop Husbandry Regimes. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press.
WALLACE, S.A.  1997.   Settlement Pattern Change, Land Use, and Economy at the Bronze Age-Iron Age Transition in Crete (Late Minoan IIIC-Subminoan).  Edinburgh: Univ. of Edinburgh, Unpublished M.A. Thesis.
WARD, W.A. and JOUKOWSKY, M.S.  1992.  The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. From the Danube to the Tigris.  Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt.
WATROUS, L.V.  1982.  Lasithi: A History of Settlement on a Highland Plain in Crete.  Princeton: American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
WATROUS, L.V.  1998.  “Crete and Egypt in the seventh century BC: Temple A at Prinias,” in Cavanagh and Curtis, pp. 75-79.
WATROUS, L.V., XATZI-VALLIANOU, D., POPE, K., MOURTZAS, N., SHAY, J.,  SHAY, T., BENNET, J.,  TSOUNGARAKIS, D.,  ANGELOMATI-TSOUNGARAKIS, E., VALLIANOU, C., and BLITZER, H..  1993.  A Survey of the Western Mesara Plain in Crete: Preliminary Report of the 1984, 1986, and 1987 Field Seasons.  Hesperia 62: 191-248.
WATTENMAKER, P. 1998.  Household and State in Upper Mesopotamia.   Washington: Smithsonian.
WEBER, S.  1999.  "Seeds of Urbanism: Palaeoethobotany and the Indus Civilization." Antiquity 73: 813-826.
WELLS, P.S.  1984.  Farms, Villages, and Cities: Commerce and Urban Origins in Late Prehistoric Europe.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
WENKE, R.J.  1989.  Egypt: Origins of Complex Societies.  Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 18: 129-55.
WENKE, R.J.  1990.  Patterns in Prehistory.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.
WHITLEY, J. 1991a.  Style and Society in Dark Age Greece: The Changing Face of a Preliterate Society 1100-700 BC.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
WHITLEY, J.  1991b.  Social Diversity in Dark Age Greece.  BSA 86: 341-365.
WHITTAKER, C.R. ed. 1988.  Pastoral Economies in Classical Antiquity (The Cambridge Philological Society, Supplementary Volume no. 14).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.