FRANK R. BAUMGARTNER
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE
Published Journal Articles
Click on the links below to view PDF reprints of some articles I've published. This is not a complete list, but includes all that are available in PDF form. See my CV for a complete list of articles. Note that some of the articles are not available as page proofs and the versions included here are manuscripts, in which case the final printed version should be consulted before citing page numbers or exact wordings. I also include here selected media mentions or blog posts with significant discussion of various articles.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Leah Christiani, Derek A. Epp, Kevin Roach, and Kelsey Shoub. 2017. Racial Disparities in Traffic Stop Outcomes. Duke Forum for Law and Social Change, forthcoming. Click here for a copy of the spreadsheet showing traffic stop statistics for over 600 police jurisdictions throughout the country, on which our study is based.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Marcello Carammia, Derek A. Epp, Ben Noble, Beatriz Rey, and Tevfik Murat Yildirim. 2017. Budgetary Change in Authoritarian and Democratic Regimes. Journal of European Public Policy, forthcoming. On-line appendix.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2017. Creating an Infrastructure for Comparative Policy Analysis. Governance 30, 1: 59–65.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Emma Johnson, Colin Wilson, and Clarke Whitehead. 2016. These Lives Matter, Those Ones Don’t: Comparing Execution Rates by the Race and Gender of the Victim in the US and in the Top Death Penalty States. Albany Law Review 79, 3: 797–860.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Woody Gram, Kaneesha R. Johnson, Arvind Krishnamurthy, and Colin P. Wilson. 2016. The Geographic Distribution of US Executions. Duke Journal of Constitutional Law and Public Policy 11, 1&2: 1–33.
Epp, Derek A. and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2016. Complexity, Capacity, and Budget Punctuations. Policy Studies Journal, forthcoming.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Derek A. Epp, Kelsey Shoub, and Bayard Love. 2016. Targeting Young Men of Color for Search and Arrest during Traffic Stops: Evidence from North Carolina, 2002-2013. Politics, Groups, and Identities, forthcoming.
- Media coverage
Dignity Matters: Research shows that police do subject African Americans
to much greater unwarranted scrutiny and harsher treatment, Reason.com,
by Ronald Bailey, July 15, 2016
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2016. Agenda Setting in Comparative Perspective. Perspectives on Politics 14, 2: 456-60. (Review Essay)
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Tim Lyman. 2016. Louisiana Death-Sentenced Cases and their Reversals, 1976-2015. Southern University Law Center Journal of Race, Gender, & Poverty 7 (Spring 2016): 58–75.
- See additional graphics by Tim Lyman.
- See the underlying data in xlsx format.
- Media coverage
--- Few on Louisiana’s death row are ever executed, largely owing to reversals, analysis finds, by Della Hasselle, April 27, 2016, The Advocate.
--- A Death Sentence in Louisiana Rarely Means You’ll be Executed, by Maurice Chammah, April 28, 2016, The Marshall Project.
--- Death Penalty Study Gives Louisiana Public Defender Funding Story New Spin, by Shafaq Hasan, April 29, 2016, Nonprofit Quarterly.
--- Is the death penalty worth what we are losing? By Michael Gorman, April 29, 2016, Houma Today.
--- STUDIES: Louisiana Death Penalty Staggeringly Error-Prone, Racially Biased, Death Penalty Information Center.
--- Study urges review of state’s death penalty system, by Fritz Esker, May 2, 2016, The Louisiana Weekly.
--- Louisiana conservatives rethinking the death penalty, by Della Hasselle, May 2, 2016, Best of New Orleans Gambit.
Public defense budget woes aren’t new, by Robert Burns, Chairman,
La. Public Defender Board, May 4, 2016, The Advocate.
Vliegenthart, Rens, Stefaan Walgrave, Frank R. Baumgartner, Shaun Bevan, Christian Breunig, Sylvain Brouard, Laura Chaqués Bonafont, Emiliano Grossman, Will Jennings, Peter B. Mortensen, Anna M. Palau, Pascal Sciarini, and Anke Tresch. 2016. Do the Media set the Parliamentary Agenda? A Comparative Study in Seven Countries. European Journal of Political Research 55: 283-301.
Baumgartner, Frank R. Forthcoming 2016. John Kingdon and the Evolution Approach to Public Policy and Agenda-Setting. In Nikolaos Zahariadis, ed. Handbook of Public Policy Agenda-Setting. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Lowery, David, Frank R. Baumgartner, Joost Berkhout, Jeffrey M. Berry, Darren Halpin, Marie Hojnacki, Heike Klüver, Beate Kohler-Koch, Jeremy Richardson, and Kay Lehman Schlozman. 2015. Images of an Unbiased Interest System. Journal of European Public Policy 22, 8: 1212-31.
Hojnacki, Marie, Kathleen M. Marchetti, Frank R. Baumgartner, Jeffrey M. Berry, David C. Kimball, and Beth L. Leech. 2015. Assessing Business Advantage in Washington Lobbying. Interest Groups and Advocacy 4: 205–24.
--- See a blog post on the Washington Post Monkey Cage entitled Business doesn’t always get its way by Marie Hojnacki, Jeffrey Berry, Beth Leech and Kathleen Marchetti, June 10, 2015.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Amanda Grigg, and Alisa Mastro. 2015. #BlackLivesDon’tMatter: Race-of-Victim Effects in US Executions, 1977-2013. Politics, Groups, and Identities 3, 2: 209-21.
--- Click here for the Supplemental Materials referred to in the article: Appendix A and B.
--- Click here to download a spreadsheet with data reported in the article, as well as additional data on homicide rates among different categories of the population. The spreadsheet includes information on the source of the data.
Selected press coverage of this article:
Disparate Racial Impact of the American Death Penalty, by David Mendoza,
7 June 2015. TheMendozaLine.org
The Death Penalty: A Symbol of Which Lives Matter, and Which Lives Don’t,
24 April 2015. 90MillionStrong.org.
--- Blacks are much more likely to be executed for killing whites than whites who have killed blacks. London School of Economics blog on American Politics and Policy from February 2015.
--- Study: Killers are less likely to be executed if their victims are black, 25 February 2015, by Jenée Desmond-Harris, updated 24 April 2015 with the new title: This is what made researchers call a paper on race and the death penalty "#BlackLivesDon'tMatter".
--- Study Finds Black Lives Don’t Matter to Capital Punishment System, 25 February 2015, by Prachi Gupta.
See the following state-by-state reports drawn from our article:
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2016. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Geography on Ohio Executions.
Selected press coverage of the Ohio report:
--- Study finds racial, gender bias in Ohio executions, by Alan Johnson, January 28, 2016, The Columbus Dispatch.
--- Cleveland man exonerated after being sentenced to death wants capital punishment abolished; UA panel discusses racial issues with death penalty, by Stephanie Warsmith, Akron Beacon Journal, February 2, 2016.
--- About the study, by Stephanie Warsmith, Akron Beacon Journal, February 2, 2016.
--- Ohio and its death penalty disparities, By the editorial board, Akron Beacon Journal, February 6, 2016
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2016. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Geography on Florida Executions.
Selected press coverage of the Florida report:
--- New study finds vast racial and geographic disparities in Florida executions, by Mitch Perry, January 14, 2016, FloridaPolitics.com.
--- Florida's Unconstitutional Death Penalty Is Even Worse Than The Supreme Court Said: No white person in modern history has been executed for killing a black person in the state, by Michael McLaughlin, January 15, 2016, The Huffington Post.
--- More death penalty evidence I wish were not true, by Tom Lyons, Sarasota Herald-Tribune, January 16, 2016.
--- Editorial: Cheers and jeers, January 16, 2016, Gainesville Sun.
--- Florida’s death penalty riddled with too many inconsistencies, by Martin Dyckman, January 20, 2016, Saint Peters Blog.
--- Racial bias plagues Florida’s death penalty, by Frank R. Baumgartner, The Gainesville (FL) Sun, January 26, 2016 (print edition Sunday January 31).
Column: Study shows racial bias in death penalties in Florida, by
Frank R. Baumgartner, The Florida Times Union (Jacksonville),
February 5, 2016
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Tim Lyman. 2015. Race-Of-Victim Discrepancies in Homicides and Executions, Louisiana 1976-2015. Loyola University of New Orleans Journal of Public Interest Law 17: 128-44.
--- See the underlying data here, consisting of a record for each inmate sentenced to death in Louisiana since the modern death penalty began in 1976.
Selected press coverage of the Lousiana report:
--- Murders of whites more likely to mean death penalty in Louisiana, though blacks make up most homicide victims, study finds, by Maya Lau, September 12, 2015. The Advocate.
--- Study: Death penalty rare in Louisiana for killers who murder black males, by Andy Grimm. New Orleans Times-Picayune, September 16, 2015
--- New study shows disparities in Louisiana executions, by Marie Simoneaux, The Loyola Maroon, September 18, 2015
--- New study says Louisiana’s system of execution is one in ‘disrepair’, by Mason Harrison, Louisiana Weekly, September 21, 2015
--- Study: Killers of Black Men Less Like to Get Death Penalty, by Janell Hazelwood, Black Enterprise, September 22, 2015
--- Killers of black men less likely to get the death penalty (VIDEO), by Wynton Yates, Eyewitness News, WWL4 TV (New Orleans, LA), September 22, 2015
--- Murderers Are Almost Never Executed Unless They Kill A White Person, by Ian Millhiser, ThinkProgress September 23, 2015
--- Pretty much the only way to get the death penalty in America is to kill a white person, by Shaun King, Daily Kos, September 23, 2015
--- Related OpEd: Racial bias plagues state’s death penalty, by Frank R. Baumgartner, Shreveport Times, September 24, 2015.
In Louisiana, Death Penalty Reserved Almost Exclusively for Cases with
White Victims: Someone who kills a white woman is 48 times more likely
to be executed than someone who kills a black man. By Kenrya Rankin,
ColorLines, September 24, 2015.
--- What the Freddie Gray Jury Says About America's Criminal Justice System, by Jamilah King, Mic.com, December 2, 2015
--- In Louisiana, a white man has never been executed for killing a black man, By Josie Duffy, Daily Kos, Jan 11, 2016
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2015. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Geography on Missouri Executions.
Selected press coverage of the Missouri report:
Political scientist assails Missouri death penalty stats, by Bob Watson.
Jefferson City News Tribune. Friday, July 17, 2015.
--- Public Defender Director Calls for Immediate Moratorium on the Death Penalty Following Latest Report Showing Racial Bias, Missouri Office of the Public Defender, July 17, 2015.
Public Defender calls for moratorium on death penalty, Missouri
Lawyers Weekly, July 17, 2015
--- Study points to race and gender disparity in Missouri executions, by Jeremy Kohler. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Saturday July 18, 2015
--- STUDY: Missouri Study Finds Significant Racial and Geographic Disparities in Application of Death Penalty, Death Penalty Information Center, July 20, 2015
Capital punishment is biased, by Alonzo Weston, St. Joseph News-Press,
July 22, 2015
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Laura Chaqués Bonafont. 2015. All News is Bad News: Newspaper Coverage of Politics in Spain. Political Communication 32, 2: 268-91.
Lovett, John, Shaun Bevan, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2015. Popular Presidents Can Influence Congressional Attention, for a Little While. Policy Studies Journal, 43,1: 22-43.
- See a discussion of our article in the London School of Economics blog on American Politics and Policy from November 2014.
Mahoney, Christine and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2015. Partners in Advocacy: Lobbyists and Government Officials in the Policy Process. Journal of Politics 77, 1: 202–15.
- See a discussion of our article in the London School of Economics blog on American Politics and Policy from October 2014.
Bunea, Adriana, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2014. The State of the Discipline: Authorship, Research Designs, and Citation Patterns in Studies of EU Interest Groups and Lobbying. Journal of European Public Policy 21, 10: 1412-34. Article. Supplemental Materials.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Sylvain Brouard, Emiliano Grossman, Sebastien G. Lazardeux, and Jon Moody. 2014. Divided Government, Legislative Productivity, and Policy Change in the US and France. Governance 27, 3: 423–447. Click here for the data on the US, here for the data on France (CSV format)
- See this write-up about our article from Harvard's Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy entitled Measuring the media agenda: How to research news coverage trends on topics from May 27 2014.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2013. Ideas and Policy Change. Governance 26, 2: 239-58.
Wolfe, Michelle, Bryan D. Jones, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2013. A Failure to Communicate: Agenda Setting in Media and Policy Studies. Political Communication 30, 2: 175-192.
Chaqués Bonafont, Laura, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2013. Newspaper Attention and Policy Activities in Spain. Journal of Public Policy 13, 1: 1-24.
Rose, Max, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2013. Framing the Poor: Media Coverage and US Poverty Policy, 1960–2008. Policy Studies Journal 41, 1: 22-53.
Media / blog coverage of our article:
--- Center for Economic and Policy Research, from March 27, 2013.
--- NYTimes discussion of our paper from June 8, 2013.
--- London School of Economics blog posting about our paper from September 19, 2013.
Baumgartner, Frank R. and Arco Timmermans. 2012. Analyzing Patterns of Government Attention and What Drives Them: The Comparative Agendas Project. Council for European Studies, Perspectives on Europe 42, 2: 7-13. (Part of special issue on the Comparative Agendas Project.)
Baumgartner, Frank R., Martial Foucault and Abel François. 2012.
Public Budgeting in the EU
Commission: A Test of the Punctuated Equilibrium Thesis. Politique
Européenne 38: 70–99
Jones, Bryan D. and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2012.
From There to Here: Punctuated Equilibrium to the General Punctuation
Thesis to a Theory of Government Information Processing. Policy
Studies Journal 40, 1 (January): 1-19.
Kimball, David C., Frank R. Baumgartner, Jeffrey M. Berry, Marie Hojnacki, Beth L. Leech, and Bryce Summary. 2012. Who Cares About the Lobbying Agenda? Interest Groups and Advocacy 1, 1: 1–21.
Hojnacki, Marie, David C. Kimball, Frank R. Baumgartner, Jeffrey M. Berry, and Beth L. Leech. 2012. Studying Organizational Advocacy and Influence: Reexamining Interest Group Research. Annual Review of Political Science 15: 9.1-9.21.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Bryan D. Jones and John Wilkerson. Comparative Studies of Policy Dynamics. Comparative Political Studies 44, 8 (August 2011): 947–72.
Walker, Edward T. , John D. McCarthy, and Frank Baumgartner. 2011. Replacing Members with Managers? Mutualism among Membership and Nonmembership Advocacy Organizations in the United States. American Journal of Sociology 116, 4 (January): 1284-1337.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Beth L. Leech, Heather A. Larsen, and Paul Rutledge. 2011. Congressional and Presidential Effects on the Demand for Lobbying. Political Research Quarterly 64 (1): 3-16. (click here for the do-file and here for the three Stata datasets called for in the do-file: 1, 2, 3).
Lowery, David, Virginia Gray and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2011. Policy Attention in State and Nation: Is Anyone Listening to the Laboratories of Democracy? Publius 41 (2): 286-310. (click here for appendix)
Wonka, Arndt, Frank R. Baumgartner, Christine Mahoney and Joost Berkhout. 2010. Measuring the Size and Scope of the EU Interest Group Population. European Union Politics 11 (3): 463-76.
Jones, Bryan D., Frank R. Baumgartner, Christian Breunig, Chris Wlezien, Stuart Soroka, Martial Foucault, Abel François, Christoffer Green-Pedersen, Chris Koske, Peter John, Peter B. Mortensen, Frédéric Varone, and Stefaan Walgrave. 2009. American Journal of Political Science 53, 4 (October): 855-73. .
Baumgartner, Frank R., Christian Breunig, Christoffer Green-Pedersen, Bryan D. Jones, Peter B. Mortensen, Michiel Neytemans, and Stefaan Walgrave. 2009. . American Journal of Political Science 53, 3, (July): 602-619.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Martial Foucault, and Abel François. 2009. Public Budgeting in the French Fifth Republic: The End of La République des partis? West European Politics 32: 2, 404-422.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2009. Interest Groups and Agendas. In L. Sandy Maisel and Jeffrey M. Berry, eds., Oxford Handbook of American Political Parties and Interest Groups. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 519–33.
Baumgartner, Frank R., David Lowery, and Virginia Gray. 2009. Federal Policy Activity and the Mobilization of State Lobbying Organizations. Political Research Quarterly, 62, 3: 552-567
Wilkerson, John, Frank R Baumgartner, Sylvain Brouard, Laura Chaqués, Christopher Green-Pedersen, Emiliano Grossman, Bryan D. Jones, Arco Timmermans, and Stefaan Walgrave. 2009. Le Projet Agendas Comparés : Objectifs et Contenus. Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 16, 3: 365-79.
Brouard, Sylvain, John Wilkerson, Frank R. Baumgartner, Arco Timmermans, Shaun Bevan, Gerard Breeman, Christian Breunig, Laura Chaqués, Christopher Green-Pedersen, Will Jennings, Peter John, Bryan D. Jones, and David Lowery. 2009. Comparer les Productions Législatives : Enjeux et Méthodes. Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée 16, 3: 381-404.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Christine Mahoney. 2008.The Two Faces of Framing: Individual-Level Framing and Collective Issue-Definition in the EU. European Union Politics 9, 3 (2008): 435-49.
Mahoney, Christine, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2008. Converging Perspectives on Interest-Group Research in Europe and America. West European Politics, 31, 6: 1251-71.
Dardis, Frank E., Frank R. Baumgartner, Amber E. Boydstun, Suzanna De Boef, and Fuyuan Shen. 2008. Media Framing of Capital Punishment and Its Impact on Individuals' Cognitive Responses. Mass Communication and Society 11, 2: 115-140.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2007. EU Lobbying: A View from the US. Journal of European Public Policy 14, 3 (March): 482-488.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2006. "3. Jack L. Walker, Jr. 1969. 'The Diffusion of Innovations Among the American States.' American Political Science Review 63 (September): 880-99. Cited 482 times." American Political Science Review 100, 4 (November): 672. (Part of the APSR Centennial Issue commentaries on the top 20 most cited articles.) (Click here to read a slightly longer version of the same article, with a little more detail.)
Baumgartner, Frank R., Christoffer Green-Pedersen and Bryan D. Jones. 2006. Comparative Studies of Policy Agendas. Journal of European Public Policy 13 (7): 959-74.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Martial Foucault and Abel François. 2006. Punctuated Equilibrium in French Budgeting Processes. Journal of European Public Policy 13 (7): 1086-1103.
Martin, Andrew W., Frank R. Baumgartner, and John McCarthy. 2006. Measuring Association Populations Using the Encyclopedia of Associations: Evidence from the Field of Labor Unions. Social Science Research 35: 771-778.
Jones, Bryan D., and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2005. A Model of Choice for Public Policy. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 15, 3 (July): 325-51.
Leech, Beth L., Frank R. Baumgartner, Timothy La Pira, and Nicholas A. Semanko. 2005. Drawing Lobbyists to Washington: Government Activity and Interest-Group Mobilization. Political Research Quarterly 58, 1 (March): 19-30.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Christine Mahoney. 2005. Social Movements, the Rise of New Issues, and the Public Agenda. In David S. Meyer, Valerie Jenness, and Helen Ingram, eds., Routing the Opposition: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy. (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press), pp. 65-86.
Jones, Bryan D., and Frank R. Baumgartner. 2004. Representation and Agenda-Setting Policy Studies Journal 32, 1 (January): 1-24.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Beth L. Leech. 2001. Issue Niches and Policy Bandwagons: Patterns of Interest Group Involvement in National Politics. Journal of Politics 63, 4 (November): 1191-1213.
ERRATUM: Note that a series of typos affect the pecentages reported in Figure 5, p. 1202. The percentages reported in the left-hand column do not accurately reflect the number of issues. The numbers of issues are correct, and the correct percentages can easily be obtained by dividing by the total number of issues, 137.
Lobby Disclosure Reports, 1996 (with Beth Leech) (This is a complete dataset of the 19,000 reports filed with the U.S. Senate under the Lobby Disclosure Act of 1995, the basis of our 2001 JOP article above. Each lobbyist was required to report on the total amount of money spent and to the list particular issues on which the group was active.) Codebook and dataset description (PDF) Data (Excel 2007 version). / Data (Access 2000 database) / Data (Access 97 version)
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2001. Political Agendas. In Niel J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences: Political Science (New York: Elsevier Science and Oxford: Pergamon), pp. 288-90.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 2001. Interest Groups. In Paul Barry Clarke and Joe Foweraker, eds., Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), pp. 371-74.
Baumgartner, Frank R., Bryan D. Jones, and Michael C. MacLeod. 2000. The Evolution of Legislative Jurisdictions. Journal of Politics 62, 2 (May): 321-49.
Jones, Bryan D., Frank R. Baumgartner, and James L. True. 1998. Policy Punctuations: US Budget Authority, 1947-95. Journal of Politics 60, 1 (February): 1-33.
Jones, Bryan D., James L. True and Frank R. Baumgartner. 1997. Does Incrementalism Stem from Political Consensus or Institutional Gridlock? American Journal of Political Science 41, 4 (October): 1319-39.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Beth L. Leech. 1996. The Multiple Ambiguities of Counteractive Lobbying. American Journal of Political Science 40, 2 (May): 521-42.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Beth L. Leech. 1996. Good Theories Deserve Good Data. American Journal of Political Science 40, 2 (May): 565-69.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 1996. Public Interest Groups in France and the United States. Governance 9,1: 1–22.
Baumgartner, Frank R. and Jeffery C. Talbert. 1995. From Setting a National Agenda on Health Care to Making Decisions in Congress. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 20, 2: 437–45.
Talbert, Jeffery C., Bryan D. Jones, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 1995. Nonlegislative Hearings and Policy Change in Congress. American Journal of Political Science 39, 2: 383-406.
Jones, Bryan D., Frank R. Baumgartner, and Jeffery C. Talbert. 1993. The Destruction of Issue Monopolies in Congress. American Political Science Review 87, 3 (September): 673-87.
Jones, Bryan D., and Frank R. Baumgartner. 1991. Agenda Dynamics and Policy Subsystems. Journal of Politics 53, 4 (November): 1044-74.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Jack L. Walker, Jr. 1990. Measurement Validity and the Continuity of Results in Survey Research. American Journal of Political Science 34, 3 (August): 662-70.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Jack L. Walker, Jr. 1989. Educational Policy Making and the Interest Group Structure in France and the United States. Comparative Politics 21, 3 (April): 273-88.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 1989. Independent and Politicized Policy Communities: Education and Nuclear Energy in France and the United States. Governance 2 (1989): 42-66.
Campbell,John Creighton, with Mark A. Baskin, Frank R. Baumgartner, and Nina P. Halpern. 1989. Afterword on Policy Communities: A Framework for Comparative Research. Governance 2, 1: 86–94.
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Jack L. Walker, Jr. 1988. Survey Research and Membership in Voluntary Associations. American Journal of Political Science 32, 4 (November): 908-28.
Baumgartner, Frank R. 1987. Parliament's Capacity to Expand Political Controversy in France. Legislative Studies Quarterly 12, 1 (February): 33-54.
Goldenberg, Edie N., Michael W. Traugott, and Frank R. Baumgartner. 1986. Preemptive and Reactive Spending in U.S. House Races. Political Behavior 8, 1: 3-20.
updated: February 16, 2017