Psychodynamic Model

•      Behavior determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which the person is not consciously aware

•      Internal forces are dynamic

•      Abnormal symptoms result of conflicts between forces

•      Deterministic assumption

Freud’s Structural Model
of Personality

•      Conscious


•      Preconscious


•      Unconscious


Freud’s Structural Model
of Personality

•      The Id

–   Instinctual needs, drives, and impulses

–   Pleasure principle

•      The Ego

–   Reality principle

–   Ego defense mechanisms

•      The Superego

–   The “conscience”


Ego Defense Mechanisms

•      Repression- Not allowing painful or dangerous thoughts to become conscious


•      Denial- Refusing to acknowledge the existence of an external source of anxiety


•      Projection- Attributes own unacceptable impulses, motives, or desires to others


•      Rationalization- Creates socially acceptable reason for an action that actually reflects unattractive motives


•      Reaction formation- Adopts behavior exact opposite of impulses they are afraid to acknowledge


•      Displacement- Displaces hostility away from a dangerous object and onto a safer substitute


•      Regression- Retreats from upsetting conflict to an early developmental stage at which no one is expected to behave maturely or responsibly


•      Sublimation- Expresses sexual or aggressive energy in ways that are acceptable to society


Freud’s Developmental Stages

•      Each stage of development focuses on a different sexually erogenous of the body


•      Fixation and regression


•      Libidinal or erogenous zones

–    Oral stage (age 0-1)

–    Anal stage (age 1-2,3)

–    Phallic or Oedipal stage (age 3 - 6)

–    Latency stage (age 6-12)

–    Genital stage (puberty…)

Psychodynamic Therapies

•      Free association

•      Dream analysis

•      Role of analyst: Blank screen (neutral)

•      Resistance

•      Transference

•      Catharsis

Assessing the Psychodynamic Model

•      First theory to state that normal and abnormal behavior may stem from same process

•      First theory to utilize psychological (rather than biological) treatments

•      Concepts difficult to define and research

•      Extremely outdated view of women’s psychological health

Freud’s Couch