Bibliography


Note: asterisks (*) indicate a citation with more than one listing.



Books

General Reference

Alexander, James E. "Waccamaw, the Fallen Star." American Indian 3, no. 30 (1950): 30-39.

American Indian Policy Review Commission. Final Report: Report on Terminated and Non Federally Recognized Indians (Task Force 10). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976.

Anderson, Terry. "Federal Recognition: The Vicious Myth," American Indian Journal (May 1978): 7-19.

*Anonymous. "Bridal Names and Other 'Inconsequential' Details: A Statistical Glimpse of Legal Laxity in North Carolina." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81, no. 3 (September 1993).

*Anonymous. "Files of the Eugenics Record Office: A Resource for Genealogists," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 82, no. 2 (June 1994).

*Anonymous. "In Praise of Errors Made by Census Enumerators," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81, no. 1 (March 1993).

*Anonymous. "The Jena Choctaw: A Case Study in the Documentation of Indian Tribal Identity," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 75, no. 3 (September 1987).

*Anonymous. "Notes on Color Classifications Cited Within US Federal Censuses," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81, no. 4 (1993).

Anonymous. "Scotch Indians in Scotland," Quarterly Journal of Society of American Indians 3 (1915).

*Anonymous. "Tracing Free People of Color in the Antebellum South: Methods, Sources, and Perspectives," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 78, no. 4 (December 1990).

*Anonymous. "Update: More Praise for Census Errors," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 82, no. 3 (September 1994).

*Anonymous. "Updates: Triracial Families of the Upper South," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80, no. 2 (June 1990).

*Anonymous. "Updates: Triracial Families of the Upper South," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80, no. 3 (September 1990).

*Apess, William. On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, a Pequot. Edited by Barry O'Connell. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1992.

Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: International Publishers, 1943.

_______. "Maroons Within the Present Limits of the United States," In Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas, ed. Richard Price. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Baird, W.D. "Are there 'real' Indians in Oklahoma? Historical perceptions of the five civilized tribes," Chronicles of Oklahoma 68 (1990): 4-23.

Barnwell, Joseph W. "The Tuscarora Expedition Letters of Colonel John Barnwell," South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine 9 (January 1908): 28-54.

______. "The Second Tuscarora Expedition," South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine 10 (January 1909): 33-48.

Barth, Fredrik. "Ethnic Groups and Boundaries." In The Social Organization of Culture Difference. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co., 1969.

*Beale, Calvin L. "American Triracial Isolates: their status and pertinence to genetic research," Eugenics Quarterly 4: 187-96.

*______. "Census Problems of Racial Enumeration," In Race, Individual and Collective Behavior, ed. Edgar T. Thompson and Everett C. Hughes. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1958, 537-540.

Beaulieu, David L. "Curly Hair and Big Feet: Physical Anthropology and the Implementation of Land Allotment on the White Earth Chippewa Reservation." American Indian Quarterly 7: 281-313.

Berlin, Ira. Slaves without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1976.

*Berry, Brewton. Almost White: A Study of Certain Racial Hybrids in Eastern United States. New York, NY: Macmillan Company, 1963.

______. "America's Mestizos." In Blending of Races: Marginality and Identity in World Perspective, ed. Noel P. Gist and Anthony Dworkin. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1972: 191-212.

______. "Marginal Groups." In Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 15: Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978.

Bieder, Robert E. "Scientific Attitudes Toward Indian Mixed-Bloods in Early Nineteenth Century America," Journal of Ethnic Studies 8, no. 2 (Summer 1980): 17-30.

Brow, James. "Notes on Community, Hegemony, and the Uses of the Past," Anthropological Quarterly 63, no. 1: 1-6.

Brown, Douglas Summers. The Catawba Indians: The People of the River. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1966.

Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches and Anxious Patriarchs: Gender, Race and Power in Colonial Virginia. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Bryant, Julie. "South Carolina's Native Americans." Status Report prepared for the Government Office. Columbia, SC: Division of Economic Development and Transportation, 1979.

Buffalo Child Long Lance. Long Lance: The Autobiography of a Blackfoot Chief. New York, NY: Cosmopolitan, 1928.

Burleigh, Michael, and Wolfgang Wippermann. The Racial State: Germany, 1933-1945. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Busia, Abena P.A. "Miscegenation as Metonymy: Sexuality and Power in the Colonial Novel," Ethnic and Racial Studies 9, no. 3 (July 1986): 369-72.

Byrd, William. Histories of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina. With an introduction by William K. Boyd, and a new introduction by Percy G. Adams. New York: Dover, 1967.

Carter, Kent. "Wantabees & Outalucks: Searching for Indian Ancestors in Federal Records." Chronicles of Oklahoma 66, no. 1 (1988): 94-104.

Castile, George Pierre and Gilbert Kushner, eds. Persistent Peoples: Cultural Enclaves in Perspective. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 1981.

Cheney, John L. Jr., ed. North Carolina Government 1585-1979: A Narrative and Statistical History. Raleigh, N.C.: Department of the Secretary of State, 1981.

Churchill, Ward. "The Earth is Our Mother: Struggles for American Indian Land and Liberation in the Contemporary United States." In State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization , and Resistance, ed. M. Annette Jaimes. Boston, MA: South End Press, 1992.

Clifton, James A., ed. The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990.

Cox, Earnest Sevier. The South's part in mongrelizing the nation. Richmond, VA: White America Society, 1926.

______. Let my people go. Richmond, VA: White America Society, 1928.

______. Teutonic unity. Richmond, VA.

Crispell, Diane. "Interracial Children Pose Challenge for Classifiers." Wall Street Journal (January 27, 1993): B1 (W).

Crow, Jeffrey J., Paul D. Escott, and Flora J. Hatley. A History of African-Americans in North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: Division of Archives and History, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 1992.

Cumming, William P. The Southeast in Early Maps. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1962.

Dane, J.K., and B. Eugene Griessman, "The Collective Identity of Marginal Peoples: The North Carolina Experience," American Anthropologist 74 (1972): 694-704.

Davis, F. James. "The Hawaiian Alternative to the One-Drop Rule," In American Mixed Race: The Culture of Microdiversity, ed. Naomi Zack. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Dearborn, Mary V. Pocahontas's daughters: gender and ethnicity in American culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

DePrater, Chester. Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Chiefdoms in the Southeastern United States, Ph.D. diss. Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1983.

DePrater, Chester and Marvin T. Smith. "Sixteenth Century European Trade in the Southeastern United States: Evidence from the Juan Pardo Expeditions (1566-1568)." In Spanish Colonial Frontier Research: Spanish Colonial Borderlands Research, no. 1, ed. Henry Dobyns. Albuquerque, NM: Center for Anthropological Studies, 1980.

De Vorsey, Louis. The Indian Boundary in the Southern Colonies, 1763-1775. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1966.

Deloria, Vine. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969.

_____. God Is Red. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1973

Dempsey, Hugh A. "Sylvester Long, Buffalo Child Long Lance," In American Indian Intellectuals. 1976 Proceedings of the American Ethnological Society. St. Paul, MN: West, 1978, 197-203.

Devens, Carol. "Separate Confrontations: Gender as a Factor in Indian Adaptation to European Colonization in New France," American Quarterly 38: 461-80.

*Dominguez, Virginia. White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

Donaldson, Laura E. Decolonizing Feminisms: Race, Gender, and Empire-building. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1992.

*Dunlap, Arthur R. and Clinton A. Weslager. "Trends in the Naming of Tri-Racial Mixed-Blood Groups in the Eastern United States," American Speech 22 (1947): 81-87.

Ellis, Clyde. "'Truly Dancing Their Own Way:' Modern Revival and Diffusion of the Gourd Dance." American Indian Quarterly (Winter 1990): 19-33.

Elston, R.C., "The Estimation of Admixture in Racial Hybrids," Annals of Human Genetics 35 (1971): 9-17.

Escott, Paul D. Many Excellent People: Power and Privilege in North Carolina, 1850-1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1985.

*Estabrook, Arthur H. and Ivan E. McDougle. Mongrel Virginians: The WIN Tribe. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1926.

Fausz, J. Frederick. "The 'Barbarous Massacre' Reconsidered: The Powhatan Uprising of 1622 and the Historians," Explorations in Ethnic Studies 1 (January 1978): 16-36.

______. "The Invasion of Virginia: Indians, Colonialism and the Conquest of Cant-A Review Essay on Anglo-Indian Relations in the Chesapeake," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (April 1987): 133-56.

______. "Patterns of Anglo-Indian Aggression and Accommodation along the Mid-Atlantic Coast, 1584-1634." In Cultures in Contact: The Impact of European Contacts on Native American Cultural Institutions, A.D. 1000-1800. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

______. "Present at the 'Creation': The Chesapeake World That Greeted the Maryland Colonists," Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (1984): 7-20.

______. "Profits, Pelts, and Power: English Culture in the Early Chesapeake, 1620-1652," Maryland Historian 14 (1983): 15-30.

*______. "The Powhatan Uprising of 1622: A Historical Study of Ethnocentrism and Cultural Conflict," Ph.D. diss. College of William and Mary, 1977.

*Feest, Christian F. "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey," In The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies, ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990.

Ferguson, Alice L., and Henry G. Ferguson. The Piscataway Indians of Southern Maryland. Accokeek, MD: Alice Ferguson Foundation.

Ferguson, Leland G., and Eugene J. Crediford. Contemporary Native Americans in South Carolina. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Committee for the Humanities, 1986.

Forbes, Jack D. Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1993.

______. "Envelopment, Proletarianization, and Inferiorization: Aspects of Colonialism's Impact Upon Native Americans and other People of Color in Eastern North America," Journal of Ethnic Studies 18, no. 4 (1991): 95-122.

______. "The Evolution of the Term Mulatto: A Chapter in Black-Native American Relations," Journal of Ethnic Studies 10 (1982).

______. "Frontiers in American History," Journal of the West 1 (1) July 1962.

______. "Frontiers in American History and the Role of the Frontier Historian." Ethnohistory 15 (1968): 203-205.

______. "The Historian and the Indian: Racial Bias in American History," The Americas: Academy of American Franciscan History XIX, no. 4 (April 1963).

______. "The Manipulation of Race, Caste, and Identity: Classifying Afro-Americans, Native Americans and Red-Black People," Journal of Ethnic Studies 17, no. 4 (1990): 23-24.

______. "Mulattoes and People of Color in Anglo-North America: Implications for Black-Indian Relations," Journal of Ethnic Studies 12 (1984).

______. "Undercounting Native Americans: The 1980 census and the manipulation of racial identity in the United States." Storia Nordamericana 5 (1988): 5-47.

Fitzhugh, William W., ed. Cultures in Contact: The Impact of European Contacts on Native American Cultural Institutions, A.D. 1000-1800. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Frankenburg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

*Gilbert, William H., Jr. "Memorandum concerning the characteristics of the larger mixed-blood racial islands of the eastern United States," Social Forces 24 (1945/46): 438-47.

______. "Mixed Bloods of the Upper Monongahela Valley, West Virginia," Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences XXXVI (1946): 1-13.

______. "Race, Cultural Groups, Social Differentiation," Social Forces (May 1946): 438-47.

*_____. "Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States," Annual Report Smithsonian Institution (1948): 407-38.

Gist, Noel P., and Anthony G. Dworkin, ed. The Blending of Races: Marginality and Identity in World Perspective. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience, 1972.

Glass, Bentley. "On the Unlikelihood of Significant Admixture of Genes from the North American Indian in the Present Composition of the Negroes of the United States," American Journal of Human Genetics 7 (1955).

*Gregg, Alexander. History of the Old Cheraws; containing an account of the aborigines of the Peedee, the first white settlements, their subsequent progress, civil changes, the struggle of the revolution, and growth of the country afterward, extending from about A.D. 1730 to 1810, with notices of families and sketches of individuals. Spartanburg, SC: Reprint Co., 1965.

Griessman, B. Eugene. "The American Isolates," American Anthropologist 74, no. 1 (1976): 693-94.

Hanson, Allan. "The Making of the Maori: Culture Invention and Its Logic," American Anthropologist 91: 890-902.

*Harrington, Daniel J. "Sociological Concepts and the Early Church: A Decade of Research," Theological Studies 41, no. 1 (March 1980): 181.

Harriot, Thomas. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1903.

Harris, Herbert W., H.C. Blue and E.H. Griffith, ed. Racial and Ethnic Identity: Psychological Development and Creative Expression. New York, NY: Routledge, 1995.

Harte, Thomas J. "Trends in Mate Selection in a Tri-Racial Isolate," Social Forces 37 (1959): 215-221.

Hasian, Marouf Arif, Jr. The rhetoric of eugenics in Anglo-American thought/Eugenics. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Hathaway, James R.B., ed. "Relating to the Indians, 1703," North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register 2 (1901): 193-194.

______. "War Declared against the Core & Nynee Indians, 1703," North Carolina Historical and Genealogical Register 2 (1901): 204.

Hegeman, Susan. "Native American 'Texts' and the Problem of Authenticity," American Quarterly 41: 265-83.

Hoffman, Paul. A New Andalucia and a Way to the Orient: A History of the Southeast During the Sixteenth Century. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1990.

Hollingsworth, J.G. History of Surrey County, or Annals of Northwest North Carolina (private printing). NC: 1935.

Horsman, Reginald. "Scientific Racism and the American Indian in the Mid-Nineteenth Century," American Quarterly 27 (1975): 152-68.

Hudson, Charles M., The Catawba Nation. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1970.

______. The Juan Pardo Expeditions: Explorations of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1990.

______. The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1976.

Hudson, Charles M., and Carmen Chaves Tesser, ed. The Forgotten Centuries: Indians and Europeans in the American South, 1521-1704. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1994.

Hudson, Joyce Rockwood. Looking for DeSoto: A Search Through the South for the Spaniard's Trail. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1993.

Hulton, Paul. America 1585: The Complete Drawings of John White. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Jennings, Francis. "Indians and Frontiers in Seventeenth Century Maryland." In Early Maryland and the Wider World, ed. David Beers Quinn. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1982.

_______. The Invasion of America: Indians, Colonialism, and the Cant of Conquest. Williamsburg, VA: Institute of Early American History and Culture, W.W. Norton & Co., 1975.
Johnson, Guy Benton. Folk Culture on St. Helena Island. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1930.

Johnston, James Hugo. "Documentary Evidence of the Relations of Negroes and Indians," Journal of Negro History 14 (1929): 21-43.

______. Race Relations in Virginia & Miscegenation in the South, 1776-1860. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1970.

Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.

*Kaplan, Sidney. "Historical Efforts to Encourage White-Indian InterMarriage in the United States and Canada," International Social Science Review 65 (3) 1990: 126-132.

Katz, William Lorenz. Proudly Red and Black: Stories of African and Native Americans. New York, NY: Atheneum, 1993.

Keller, Kenneth W., "What about the Scotch-Irish?" In Appalachian Frontiers: Settlement, Society & Development in the Preindustrial Era, ed. R. Mitchell. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1991.

Krupat, Arnold, and Brian Swann, ed. I Tell You Now: Autobiographical Essays by Native American Writers. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

*Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. Rowman & Allanheld Publishers, 1984.

______. Settling With the Indians: The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640. Totowa, NJ: Rowan and Allanheld, 1980.

Lauber, Almon Wheeler. Indian Slavery in Colonial Times Within the Present Limits of the United States. Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law 54, no. 3. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Reprint. Williamsburg, MA: Cornerhouse, 1970.

Lavender, Abraham D. "United States Ethnic Groups in 1790: Given Names as Suggestions of Ethnic Identity," Journal of American Ethnic History 9, no. 1 (1989): 36-66.

Lawson, John. A New Voyage to Carolina. ed. Hugh Talmadge Lefler, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Leaming, Hugh Prosper. Hidden Americans: Maroons of Virginia and the Carolinas. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995.

*Lederer, John. The Discoveries of John Lederer. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, Inc. 1966.

Lee, E. Lawrence. Indian Wars in North Carolina, 1663-1763. Raleigh, NC: Carolina Charter Tercentenary Commission, 1963.

Lerch, Patricia B. "Articulatory Relationships: The Waccamaw Struggle Against Assimilation." In Sea and Land: Cultural and Biological Adaptations in the Southern Coastal Plain, Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings. No. 21, ed. James L. Peacock and James C. Sabella. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988: 76-91.

Lewis, Clifford M. and Albert J. Loomie. The Spanish Jesuit Mission in Virginia, 1570-1572. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1953.

Locke, Alain LeRoy. Race Contacts and Interracial Relations: Lectures on the Theory and Practice of Race. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1992.

Lorenz, Brenna E. "Origins of Unusual Given Names from the Southern United States," Names 37, no. 3 (1989): 20-230.

Lowery, Woodbury. The Spanish Settlements Within the Present Limits of the United States, 1513-1561. New York, 1905.

*Lowry, D.F. "No Mystery." The State 17 (2 July 1949): 11. Rev. D.F. Lowry traces his ancestry back to 1587 Roanoke.

Ludmerer, Kenneth M. Genetics and American Society: A Historical Appraisal. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Lurie, Nancy Oestreich. "Indian Cultural Adjustment to= European Civilization." In Seventeenth-Century America: Essays in Colonial History, ed. James Morton Smith. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1959.

*Marks, Stuart A. Southern Hunting in Black and White: Nature, History, and Ritual in a Carolina Community. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

*Maynor, Waltz. "Economic and Personal Growth of Native Americans in North Carolina." In Paths Toward Freedom: A Biographical History of Blacks and Indians in North Carolina, ed. The Center for Urban Affairs. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1976: 36-37.

*McCoy, Isaac. History of Baptist Missions: Embracing Remarks on the Former and Present Condition of Aboriginal Tribes, and their Settlement with the Indian Territory, and their Future Prospects, 1840. Reprint. New York, NY: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.

*McGlothlen, Mike. Melungeons and other mestee groups.

McLean, Angus W., et. al. Lumber River Scots and Their Descendents. Richmond, VA: William Byrd Press, 1942.

*McLoughlin, William Gerald. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

*McWhiney, Grady and McDonald, Forrest. "Celtic Names in the Antebellum Southern United States," Names 3 (2) 89-102.

Merrell, James H. "Cultural Continuity among the Piscataway Indians of Colonial Maryland," William and Mary Quarterly 36: 548-70.

______. The Indians' New World: Catawbas and their neighbors from European contact through the era of removal. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Meyer, Duane. The Highland Scots of North Carolina, 1732-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: 1961.

Michaels, Walter Benn. "The No-Drop Rule," Critical Inquiry 20: 758-785.

Milanich, Jerald T., ed. Earliest Hispanic/Native American Interactions in the American Southeast. New York: Garland, 1991.

Milling, Chapman J. Red Carolinians. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1940.

Mook, Maurice A. "Algonkian Ethnohistory of the Carolina Sound," Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 34, no. 7 (July 15, 1944): 213-228.

Morgan, Edmund. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: W.W. Norton, 1975.

Nash, Gary B. Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall History of the American People Series, 1974.

______. "The Image of the Indian in the Southern Colonial Mind," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 29 (1972): 197-230.

Nielson, A.M. "A Study of Certain "Racial Islands" in the Eastern United States," MA Thesis. Ohio State University, 1947.

Nunn, Louise V., "A Comparison of the Social Situation of Two Isolated Indian Groups in Northern North Carolina," MA Thesis. New York, NY: Columbia University, 1937.

O'Donnel, James Howlett III. Southeastern Frontiers: Europeans, Africans and American Indians, 1513-1840. Bloomington, IN: Newberry Library American Indian Bibliographical Series, 1982.

Olsen, Evelyn Guard. Indian Blood. Parsons, WV: McClain Printing Company, 1967.

Paredes, J. Anthony, ed. Indians of the Southeastern United States in the Late 20th Century. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1992.

*Parsons, Elsie C., "Folklore of the Cherokees of Robeson County, N.C." Journal of American Folklore 32, no. 125 (July-September 1919): 384-93.

*Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, 1979.

Peterson, Jacqueline, and Jennifer S.H. Brown. The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press, 1985.

Pollitzer, William S. "The Physical Anthropology and Genetics of Marginal People of the Southeastern United States," American Anthropologist 74 (1972): 719-34.

______. "Hemoglobin Patterns in American Indians," Science 129 (1959): 216.

*Pollitzer, William S., and William H. Brown, "Survey of Demography, Anthropometry, and Genetics in the Melungeons of Tennessee: An Isolate of Hybrid Origin in Process of Dissolution," Human Biology 41 (1969): 388-400.

Porter, Frank W. III, ed. Strategies For Survival: American Indians in the Eastern United States. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

______. "A Century of Accommodation: The Nanticoke Indians in Colonial Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine 74 (1979): 175-92.

______. "Anthropologists at Work: A Case Study of the Nanticoke Indian Community," American Indian Quarterly 4 (1978): 1-18.

______. "Backyard Ethnohistory: Understanding Indian Survivals in the Middle Atlantic Region." Virginia Social Science Journal 17 (1982): 41-48.

______. "Behind the Frontier: Indian Survivals in Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 75, no. 1 (1980): 42-54.

______. "Strategies for Survival: The Nanticoke in a Hostile World," Strategies For Survival: American Indians in the Eastern United States. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986: 139-171.

*Posey, Darrell A. "Origin, Development and Maintenance of a Louisiana Mixed-Blood Community: The Ethnohistory of the Freejacks of the First Ward Settlement." Ethnohistory 26, no. 1 (1979): 177-92.

*Potter, Stephen R. "An Analysis of Chicacoan Settlement Patterns," Ph.D. diss. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, 1982.

______. "The Dissolution of the Machoatick, Cekacawon, and Withcomoco [Wighconcomoco] Indians [1648-1719], Northumberland County Historical Society Bulletin 13 (1976): 4-33.

______. "An Ethnohistorical Examination of Indian Groups in Northumberland County, Virginia: 1608-1719," M.A. thesis. Chapel Hill, NC: Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina, 1976.

Powers, William K. Beyond the Vision: Essays on American Indian Culture. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

*Price, Edward T. "A Geographic Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mixtures in the Eastern United States," Association of American Geographers Annals 43 (June 1953): 138-55

*_____. "The Melungeons: A Mixed-Blood Strain of the Southern Appalachians," The Geographical Review 41 (1951): 256-271.

*_____. 'Mixed-blood populations of eastern United States as to origins, localization and persistence.' Thesis (Ph.D.). Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1950. [Library Photographic Service, University of California.]

*Price, Richard, ed. Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

*Quattelbaum, Paul. The Land Called Chicora: The Carolinas under Spanish Rule with French Intrusions, 1520-1670. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1956.

Quinn, David Beers. Set Fair For Roanoke: Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1606. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1985.

Quinn, William W. Jr., "The Southeast Syndrome: Notes on Indian descendent recruitment organizations and their perceptions of Native American culture," American Indian Quarterly 14: 147-154.

*Reed, John Shelton. "Mixing in the Mountains," Southern Cultures 3, no. 4 (Winter 1997/98): 25-36.

*Richardson, Arnold. "Migrations of North Carolina Indians." In Paths Toward Freedom, ed. The Center for Urban Affairs. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1976.

*Rights, Douglas L. The American Indian in North Carolina. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1947.

Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. New York, NY: Verso, 1991.

Rose, Wendy. "Backlash," In The Halfbreed Chronicles. Minneapolis, MN: West End Press, 1985.

Rountree, Helen C. "Being an Indian in Virginia: Four Centuries in Limbo," Chesopiean 10, no. 1 (1972): 1-7.

______. "Change Came Slowly: The Case of the Powhatan Indians of Virginia," Journal of Ethnic Studies 3, no. 3 (1975): 1-20.

______. "Ethnicity Among the 'Citizen' Indians of Tidewater Virginia, 1800-1930." In Strategies For Survival: American Indians of the Eastern United States, ed. Frank W. Porter III. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1986: 173-209.

______. "Indian Land Loss in Virginia: A Prototype of Federal Indian Policy," (Ph.D. diss). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1973.

______. "The Indians of Virginia: A Third Race in a Biracial State." In Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era, ed. Walter L. Williams. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1979: 27-48.

______. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

______. "Powhatan's Descendants in the Modern World: Community Studies of the Two Virginia Indian Reservations, with Motes on Five Non-Reservation Enclaves," The Chesopiean 10 (1972): 62-69.

______. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

______. "The Termination and Dispersal of the Nottoway Indians of Virginia," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (1987): 193-214.

Russell, Kathy. The Color Complex: The Politics of Skin Color Among African Americans. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanich, 1992.

Sakolsky, Ron and James Koehnline, eds. Gone to Croatan: Origins of North American Dropout Culture. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia, 1993.

Salley, Alexander S., Jr. Narratives of Early Carolina. New York, NY: Barnes and Noble (reprint 1959).

*Saunders, William L., ed.The Colonial Records of North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: P.M. Hale, 1886.

Schermerhorn, R.A. "Ethnicity in the Perspective of the Sociology of Knowledge," Ethnicity 1, (1974): 1-14.

Sherman, Richard B. "The Last Stand: The Fight for Racial Integrity in Virginia in the 1920s." Journal of Southern History 54: (1988): 69-92.

Shuffelton, Frank, ed. A Mixed Race: Ethnicity in Early America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Shoemaker, Nancy. "How the Indian Got to be Red," American Historical Review 102, no. 3 (June 1997): 625-44.

Simmons, Marc. The Last Conquistador: Juan de Oñate and the Settling of the Far Southwest. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.

Smith, Abbot Emerson. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1947.

Smith, John. Virginia Disouered and Described by Captayn John Smith, 1606. Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library, 1608.

Smith, John David, ed. Racial determinism and the fear of miscegenation, post-1900. New York, NY: Garland Publishers, 1993.

______. The eugenic assault on America: scenes in red, white, and black. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1993.

Smith, Martin T. Archeology of Aboriginal Culture Change in the Interior Southeast: Depopulation During the Early Historic Period. Gainesville, FLA: University of Florida Press, 1987.

Smits, David D. "Abominable Mixture": Toward the Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage in Seventeenth Century Virginia. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (1987): 157-192.

Smith, Donald B. Long Lance: The True Story of an Impostor. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

South, Stanley A. Tribes of the Carolina Lowland. Peedee-Sewee-Winyaw-Waccamaw-Cape Fear-Congaree-Wateree-Santee. Columbia: Institute of Archeology and Anthropology. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1972. Manuscript.

Speck, Frank G. "The Catawba Nation and Its Neighbors," North Carolina Historical Review 16 (1939): 404-17.

______. "The Ethnic Position of the Southeastern Algonkian," American Anthropologist 26 (1924): 184-200.

______. "The Road to Disappearance: Creek Indians Surviving in Alabama, A mixed Culture Community." American Anthropologist 51 (1949): 681-82.

______. "Remnants of the Machapunga Indians of North Carolina," American Anthropologist 18 (1916): 271-276.

Spicer, Edward. "Persistent Identity Systems," Science 174 (1971) 795-800.

Sprunt, James. Chronicles of the Cape Fear River 1660-1916, 2nd edition. Raleigh, NC: Edwards and Broughton, 1916.

*Standing Bear, Zug G. "To Guard Against Invading Indians: Struggling for Native Community in the Southeast," American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18, no. 4 (1994): 301-20.

Staub, Michael E. "(Re)Collecting the Past: Writing Native American Speech," American Quarterly 43: 425-56.

Stern, Theodore. "Chickahominy: The Changing Culture of a Virginia Indian Community." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96 (1952): 157-225.

Stevens, Charles J., "Demographic Variation and Ethnic Differentiation: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Poarch Creek Indians and Their Neighbors in the 1900 United Census of Selected Precincts of Escambia and Monroe Counties, Alabama." M.A. Thesis. Tallahassee, FLA: Florida State University, 1983.

*Stopp, G. Harry J., "On Mixed-Racial Isolates," American Anthropologist 76 (1974): 343-44.

Stratchey, William. The Historie of Travall into Virginia Britania, 2nd Series, vol. 103, ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund. Cambridge, UK: The Hakluyt Society, [1612] 1953.

Sturtevant, William C., and Samuel Stanley. "Indian Communities in the Eastern States," Indian Historian 1 (1968): 15-19.

______. "Anthropology, History, and Ethnohistory," Ethnohistory XIII (1966): 1-51.

______. "Spanish-Indian Relations in Southeastern North America," Ethnohistory 9, no. 1 (1962): 41-93.

______. "Testimony: November 14, 1995; William Sturtevant, Curator of North American Ethnology Smithsonian Institution House Hearing and Markup Burt Lake Band Before the House Subcomm. On Native American and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, regarding the bill to establish 'The Indian Federal Recognition Administrative Procedures Act of 1995'" Committee On Resources, 104th Cong. (1995).

Sundquist, Eric J. To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

*Swanton, John R. Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission. 76 Cong., 1st Sess., House Doc. 71. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1939.

*______. "Early history of the eastern Siouan tribes." In Ethnology of the Southeastern= Indians, ed. Charles M. Hudson. New York, NY: Garland Publishing, 1985: 371-381.

*______. "Probable Identity of the 'Croatan' Indians." In U.S. Senate Reports, Siouan Indians of Lumber River: 3-6. Report no. 204, 73rd Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1934.

______. The Indian Tribes of North America. Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 145. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1952.

*______. The Indians of the Southeastern United States: Bureau for American Ethnology Bulletin 137 (1946). Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.

Tamarin, Alfred. We Have Not Vanished. Eastern Indians of the United States. Chicago, IL: Follet, 1974.

Taylor, Rosser Howard. "Slave Conspiracies in North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review 5 (January 1928): 24.

Taylor, Rosser Howard. Slaveholding in North Carolina: An Economic View. James Sprunt Historical Publications, vol. 18, 1-2. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1926.

Tennessee Commission on Indian Affairs. Private Indian Organizations in Tennessee. Unpublished list. Tennessee Commission on Indian Affairs, 701 N. Broadway, Nashville, TN 37219-5237, 1987.

*Thomas, Maud. Away Down Home: A History of Robeson County, North Carolina. Lumberton, N.C.: n.p., 1982.

*Treat, James, ed. Native and Christian: Indigenous Voices on Religious Indentity in the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge: 1996.

*U.S. Bureau of the Census. The First Census of the U.S.: 1790. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States: North Carolina. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1908.

Vizenor, Gerald. Manifest Manners: Postindian Warriors of Survivance. London, CT: University Press of New England, 1994.

*_____. "Blue Moon Ceremonial," In Earthdivers: Tribal Narratives on Mixed Descent. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1981.

*_____. "Trickster Discourse," Wicazo Sa Review 5 (1989): 2-7.

Walker, Amelia Bell. "Instant Indians: An Analysis of Cultural Identity in the American South," Southern Anthropologist 6, no. 2 (1977): 15-24.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

White, Wes. Some of the Written Memory of the Natchez-Kussoo Indians of Edisto River. 1980. Written as part of the "Historical Overview" portion of the tribe's Petition for Federal Recognition.

Wiktop, C.J., et al. "Medical and Dental Findings in the Brandywine Isolate." Alabama Journal of Medical Science 3 (1966): 382-403.

*Williams, Robert A., Jr. "Documents of Barbarism: The Contemporary Legacy of European Racism and Colonialism in the Narrative Traditions of Federal Indian Law," Arizona Law Review 31(1989): 231-78.

Williams, Walter L., ed. Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1979.

Williamson, Joel. New People: Miscegenation and Mulattoes in the United States. New York, NY: Free Press, 1980.

_______. The Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.

Willis, William S. "Divide and Rule: Red, White and Black in the Southeast," Journal of Negro History 48 (1963): 157-76.

Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono Rebellion. New York: Knopf, 1974.

_______., Gregory A. Waselkov and M. Thomas Hatley, eds. Powhatan's Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Woodbridge, H.C. "Glossary of names in colonial Latin America for crosses among Indians, Negroes and Whites," Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 38 (1948): 353-362.

Wright, J. Leitch, "The Only Land They Knew:" The Tragic Story of American Indians in the Old South. New York, NY: The Free Press, 1981.

______. Anglo-Spanish Rivalry in North America. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1971.

Young, M. "Racism in red and black: Indians and Other Free People of Color," Georgia Historical Quarterly 73 (1989): 492-518.

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Lumbees

Amanullah, Mohammod. The Lumbee Indians: Patterns of Adjustment. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1069.

Anonymous. "Indians of North Carolina Series-The Lumbees," Greensboro Daily News, January 17-20, 1971

*Anonymous. "Looking at Legends-Lumbees & Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-racial Isolate Settlements," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81, no. 1 (March 1993).

Ater, Elma Louise. "A Historical Study of the Singing Conventions of the Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina." (M.A. Thesis) Ohio State University, 1942.

Barton, Lew. "Me Told Tales Along the Lumbee," North Carolina Folklore Journal 19 (1971): 173-76, Boone, NC.

______. The Most Ironic Story in American History. Charlotte, NC: Associated Printing Corporation, 1967.

*Beale, Calvin L. "American Tri-Racial Isolates: Their Status and Pertinence to Genetic Research," Eugenics Quarterly 4 (December 1957): 187-96.

*_____. "Census Problems of Racial Enumeration," In Race, Individual and Collective Behavior, ed. Edgar T. Thompson. Glencoe: The Free Press, 1958.

*Berry, Brewton. Almost White: A Study of Certain Racial Hybrids in the Eastern United States. New York, NY: MacMillan Company, 1963.

______. "The Myth of the Vanishing Indian," Phylon 21 (1960): 51-57.

Blu, Karen I. The Lumbee Problem: The Making of an American Indian People. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

______. "'Reading back' to Find Community: Lumbee ethnohistory," In North American Indian Anthropology: essays on society and culture, ed. Raymond J. DeMallie and Alfonso Ortiz. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994: 278-95.

______. "Varieties of Ethnic Identity: Anglo-Saxons, blacks, Indians and Jews in a Southern County," Ethnicity 4 (1977): 263-286.

______. "Where Do You Stay At?" In Senses of Place, ed. Steven Feld and Keith H. Basso. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press, 1996.

*Burnt Swamp Baptist Association. "Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Session of the Burnt Swamp Baptist Association," 17-19 November 1910. Lumber River Legal Services Archives, Pembroke, N.C. Pamphlet.

Chavers, Dean. "The Lumbee Story, Part I-Origin of the Tribe," Indian Voice 1, no. 10 (1971-72): 11-24.

Coyle, Norman. "Adoption problems among ethnic groups: Lumbee Indian children," Residential Group Care and Treatment 2, no. 1-2 (1983): 149-60.

Craven, Charles. "The Robeson County Indian Uprising Against the KKK," The South Atlantic Quarterly LVII (1958): 433-442.

*DeMarce, Virginia Easley. "Looking at Legends-Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-Racial Isolate Settlements," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81 (March 1993): 24-45.

*_____. "Verry Slitly Mixt': Tri-racial Isolate Families of the Upper South- A Genealogical Study," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80 (March 1992): 5-35.

Dial, Adolph L. The Lumbee (Indians of North America book series). Chelsea House Publications, NY 1993.

______. "From Adversity to Progress," Southern Exposure 13, no. 6: 85-89.

Dial, Adolph L., and Davis K. Eliades. The Only Land I Know: A History of the Lumbee Indians. San Francisco, CA: Indian Historian Press, 1975.

______. "The Lumbee Indians: Still a Lost Colony?" New World Outlook (May 1972): 19-22.

______. "The Lumbee Indians of North Carolina and Pembroke State University," Indian Historian 4, no. 4 (1971): 20-24.

Evans, William McKee. To Die Game: The Story of the Lowry Band: Indian Guerillas of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971.

______. Ballots and Fence Rails: Reconstruction on the Lower Cape Fear. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

______. "The North Carolina Lumbees: From assimilation to revitalization," Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era, ed. Walter L. Williams. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1979: 49-71.

Gaillard, Frye. "Desegregation denies justice to Lumbee Indians," Indian Historian 4 (3) 1971: 17-22; 43.

*Gilbert, William H., Jr. "Memorandum concerning the characteristics of the larger mixed-blood racial islands of the eastern United States," Social Forces 24 (1945/46): 438-47.

*______. "Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States," Annual Report Smithsonian Institution (1948): 407-38.

*Gregg, Alexander. History of the Old Cheraws; containing an account of the aborigines of the Peedee, the first white settlements, their subsequent progress, civil changes, the struggle of the revolution, and growth of the country afterward, extending from about A.D. 1730 to 1810, with notices of families and sketches of individuals. Spartanburg, SC: Reprint Co., 1965.

Harper, Roland M. "A Statistical Study of the Croatans," Rural Sociology 2, no. 4 (December 1937): 444-56. Pembroke, NC: Pembroke Library at North Carolina State.

______. "The Most Prolific People in the United States," Eugenics News 23, no. 2 (March-April 1938).

Johnson, Guy Benton. Personal Papers, 1937-1970. [Southern Historical Collection, UNC-CH]

Knick, Stanley. Along the Trail: A Reader about Native Americans. Pembroke, NC: Pembroke State University, 1992.

*_____. "Lumbee Indians: No Identity Problem," Wall Street Journal, 1995 December 15, Section A (Column 2): 15. (Response to Dana Milbank, Wall Street Journal, November 13, 1995).

Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. Rowman & Allanheld Publishers, 1984.

Lawrence, Robert C. The State of Robeson. New York: Little and Ives, 1939.

*Milbank, Dana. "What's In A Name? For the Lumbees, Pride and Money" Wall Street Journal 1995 November 13, Section A (Column 4): 1. (See Stanley Knick's response, Wall Street Journal, December 15, 1995).

*Mooney, James. "Croatan." In Handbook of Indians North of Mexico. Bulletin 30, Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology, 1907.

*Lederer, John. The Discoveries of John Lederer. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms, Inc. 1966.

Lefler, Hugh Talmadge and Albert Ray Newsome. North Carolina: The History of a Southern State. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973.

Locklear, Janie Maynor, and Drenna J. Oxendine. "The Lumbee Indians: A bibliography by Janie Maynor Locklear and Drenna J. Oxendine," Indian Historian 7, no. 1 (1974): 52-54.

Lowery, Clarence E. The Lumbee Indians of North Carolina. Lumberton, NC: Private Publication, 1962.

*Lowry, D.F. "No Mystery." The State 17 (2 July 1949): 11. Rev. Lowry traces ancestry back to 1587 Roanoke.

Lucas, John Paul, Jr., and Bailey T. Groome. The King of Scuffletown: A Croatan Romance. Richmond, VA: Garrett and Massie, Inc. 1940.

Magdol, Edward. "Against the Gentry: An Inquiry Into A Southern Lower-Class Community and Culture, 1865-1870." Journal of Social History 6 no. 3 (Spring 1973).

Makofsky, Abraham. "Struggling to Maintain Identity: Lumbee Indians in Baltimore," Anthropological Quarterly 55 (1983): 74-83

______. "Tradition and change in the Lumbee community of Baltimore," Dissertation Abstracts International, 1972 February, 32 (8-B): 4372.

Makofsky, Abraham and David Makofsky. "Class consciousness and culture: class identifications in the Lumbee Indian community of Baltimore," Anthropological Quarterly 46 (1973): 261-77.

*Marks, Stuart A. Southern Hunting in Black and White: Nature, History, and Ritual in a Carolina Community. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

*Maynor, Waltz. "Economic and Personal Growth of Native Americans in North Carolina." In Paths Toward Freedom: A Biographical History of Blacks and Indians in North Carolina, ed. The Center for Urban Affairs. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1976: 36-37.

McKay, Arnold A. "Nobody Knows Anything about the Croatans," The State (February 24, 1934).

McMillan, Hamilton. The Lost Colony Found: An Historical Sketch of the Discovery of the Croatan Indians. With: Their Advance Movement: Condition Before and after the War, Progress in Civilization and Religion. By the Rev. J. Blanks. Lumberton: Robensonian Job Print, c.1898- Chapel Hill: UNC Wilson Library (states C.Wilkins from Raft Swamp Church was father of Croatan Religion.)

*McPherson, O. "Report on Conditions and Tribal Rights of the Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina," Indians of North Carolina (Senate Documents, Vol.4; 63rd Congress, #677. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914.

*McWhiney, Grady and McDonald, Forrest. "Celtic Names in the Antebellum Southern United States," Names 3, no. 2: 89-102.

Mooney, James. "Croatan," In Handbook of Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30, 1907.

*Parsons, Elsie C., "Folklore of the Cherokees of Robeson County, N.C," Journal of American Folklore 32, no. 125 (July-September 1919): 384-93.

Peck, John Gregory. "Education of Urban Indians: Lumbee Indians in Baltimore," The National Study of American Indian Education, Series II, no. 3 (1969).

______. "Urban Station-Migration of the Lumbee Indians," Ph.D. diss. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1972.

Eloise F., and John B. Funderburg. Native Americans: The People and How They Lived. Raleigh: North Carolina Museum of Natural Science, 1986.

*Price, Edward T. "A geographic analysis of white-Indian-Negro racial mixtures in the Eastern United States," Association of American Geographers (1953): 138-55.

*_____. "Mixed-blood populations of eastern United States as to origins, localization and persistence. (Ph.D. diss.) University of California, Berkeley, 1950. [Library Photographic Service, University of California.]

Purcell, J.E. Jr., "The Croatan Indians," Davidson College Magazine 21, no. 6 (1905): 263-265.

*Reising, Robert W. "Literary Depictions of Henry Berry Lowry: Mythic, Romantic and tragic," MELUS 17, no. 1 (June 1991): 87-103.

______. "The Literature of the Lumbee Indians: An Introduction." Pembroke Magazine 13 (1981): 48-54. PSU Library (bibliography).

Revels, Ruth. "Economic Status." In Public Policy and Native Americans in North Carolina: Issues for the '80s, ed. Susan M. Presti. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1981.

*Richardson, Arnold. "Migrations of North Carolina Indians." In Paths Toward Freedom, ed. The Center for Urban Affairs. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1976.

*Rights, Douglas L. The American Indian in North Carolina. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1947.

Robeson County, Records Concerning slaves and free persons of color, 1814-1839 (broken series) [North Carolina Archives, Raleigh, North Carolina]

Ross, Thomas E., ed. "The Lumbees: population growth of a non-reservation tribe," In A Cultural Geography of North American Indians. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987: 297-309.

*Saunders, William L., ed.The Colonial Records of North Carolina. Raleigh, N.C.: P.M. Hale, 1886.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "The Root Doctors and the Courtroom." North Carolina Folklore Journal 29 no. 2 (Fall-Winter 1981): 102-105.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "Criminal Justice-Related Magical Practices Among the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina." Paper presented at the Conference of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, May 1980.

Seltzer, Carl. "Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1936," In The American Indian and the United States, Wilcomb Washburn, ed. New York, NY: Random House, 1973.

Sider, Gerald M., "Lumbee Indian Histories, " Race, Ethnicity and Indian Identity in Southern United States," New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

______. "Lumbee Indian cultural nationalism and ethnogenesis," Dialectical Anthropology 1 1979: 161-72.

*Smith, Joseph Michael and Lula Jane Smith. The Lumbee Methodists: Getting To Know Them. Raleigh: Commission of Archives and History, North Carolina Methodist Conference, 1990.

Starr, Glenn Ellen. The Lumbee Indians: An Annotated Bibliography with Chronology and Index. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company, 1994.

*Steedly, Mary Margaret. "The Evidence of Things Not Seen:" Faith and Tradition in a Lumbee Healing Practice. (MA Thesis) Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1979.

Stopp, G. Harry J., "On Mixed-Racial Isolates." American Anthropologist 76 (1974): 343-44.

*Swanton, John W. Final Report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission. 76 Cong., 1st Sess., House Doc. 71. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1939.

*Swanton, John R. "Probable Identity of the 'Croatan' Indians." In U.S. Senate Reports, Siouan Indians of Lumber River: 3-6. Report no. 204, 73rd Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1934.

Temple, Dennis Michael. "Comparative Approach to the Study of a White-Indian-Negro Caste System in Robeson County, North Carolina." (MA Thesis) North Carolina State University, 1979.

*Thomas, Maud. Away Down Home: A History of Robeson County, North Carolina. Lumberton, N.C.: n.p., 1982.

*Townsend, George A. (compiler) The Swamp Outlaws: Or, The North Carolina Bandits, Being A Complete History of The Modern Rob Roys And Robin Hoods. New York, NY: Robert M. De Witt, Publisher, 1872.

*Tyson, Ruel W., James L. Peacock and Daniel W. Patterson, eds. Diversities of Gifts: Field Studies in Southern Religion. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1988.

*U.S. Bureau of the Census. The First Census of the U.S.: 1790. Heads of Families at the First Census of the United States: North Carolina. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1908.

U.S. House of Representatives. Hearings before the Committee on Indian Affairs on S. 3258 to acquire a site and erect a building for a school for the Indians of Robeson County, N.C., and for other purposes. 14 February. 62nd Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1913.

U.S. Senate Reports. Siouan Indians of Lumber River. Report no. 204, vol. 1. 73rd Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1934.

Vizenor, Gerald. "Blue Moon Ceremonial," In Earthdivers: Tribal Narratives on Mixed Descent. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1981.

______. "Vampires Anonymous and critical race practice," Michigan Law Review 95, no. 4 (February 7, 1997): 41-65.

Weeks, Stephen Beauregard. "Raleigh's Settlement on Roanoke Island: An Historical Survival," Magazine of American History 25, no. 2 (February 1891): 127-139.

______. "The Lost Colony of Roanoke: Its Fate and Survival," Papers of the American Historical Association 5, no. 4 (1891) 107-146.

*______. "The Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina," Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 15. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1896.

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Lumbee Culture Hero: Henry Berry Lowry

Barton, Lewis R. "Henry Berry Lowry, Lumbee Guerilla Warrior of Reconstruction Days," Indian Voice 1, no. 7 (September 145, 1972).

Buie, Catherine McGeachy Papers [Special Collections, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina]

Chaffin, Washington Sandford Papers [Special Collections, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina]

Cox, William Norment. "The Scuffletown Outlaws," Southwest Review, 1926.

Dunnagan, Claude. "Henry Lowry's Private Six-Year War Against the South," Male 11, no. 7 (July 1971).

*Evans, William McKee. To Die Game: The Story of the Lowry Band, Indian Guerillas of Reconstruction. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1971.

Hawthorne, Sally Reminiscence [North Carolina Archives, Raleigh, North Carolina]

Maynor, Malinda. Violence and the Racial Boundary: Fact and Fiction in the Swamps of Robeson County, 1831-1871. A.B. thesis, Harvard University, 1995.

Norment, Mary C. The Lowrie History, as Acted in Part by Henry Berry Lowrie, the Great North Carolina Bandit, with Biographical Sketches of his Associates, Being a Complete History of the Modern Robber Band in the County of Robeson and the State of North Carolina. Wilmington, N.C.: Daily Journal Printer, 1875; reprint Lumberton, N.C.: Lumbee Publishing Company, 1909. [North Carolina State Library, Raleigh, North Carolina]

*Reising, Robert W. "Literary Depictions of Henry Berry Lowry: Mythic, Romantic and tragic," MELUS 17, no. 1 (June 1991): 87-103.

Robeson County, Criminal Action Papers Concerning Henry Berry Lowry, 1862-1875 [North Carolina Archives, Raleigh, North Carolina]

*Townsend, George A. (compiler) The Swamp Outlaws: Or The North Carolina Bandits. New York, NY: Robert M. De Witt Publishers, 1872.

Wilkins, David E. "Henry Berry Lowry: Champion of the Dispossessed," Race, Gender & Class 3, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 97-111.

Wishart Family Papers [Southern Historical Collection, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, North Carolina]

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Lumbee Dialect

Brewer, Jeutonne P. and Reising, R.W. "Tokens in the Pocosin: Lumbee English in North Carolina," American Speech 57, no. 2 (1982): 108-20.

Gardner, Susan. "Not for Publication Or, On Not (Yet Anyway) Producing Lumbee Bicultural Auto-Ethnography," Studies in American Indian Literatures: The Journal of the Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures, 8, no. 2 (Summer 1996): 29-45.

Payne, Alton W. "A Fool's Errand: The Discovery of a Proto-Lumbee Language. The True Origin of the Lumbee Indians." Unpublished typescript, Sept. 1989. [Indian Education Resource Center, Pembroke, North Carolina]

Wolfram, Walt. "Delineation and Description in dialectology: the case of perfective 'I'm' in Lumbee English," American Speech 71 (Spring 1996): 5-26.

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Lumbee Federal Recognition

1915. "Indians of North Carolina: Report on Condition and Tribal Rights of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina," 63rd Congress, 3rd Session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Document No. 677.

1977. "Report on Non-Federally Recognized Indians," American Indian Policy Review Commission Report, Task Force 10, U.S. Congress, submitted May 17, 1977.

1980. "Lumbee petition demands federal recognition of tribal status," Wassaja: The Indian Historian 13 (1).

1987. "Lumbee Petition for Federal Acknowledgment," microfilm reel Z.1.57. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State Archives.

Authors: Jack Campisi, Julian Pierce, Cynthia Hunt-Locklear, and Wes White.

1988. "A Bill to Provide Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina." 100th Congress 29 July. Similar bill (H.R. 5042) introduced by Rose, July 14.

1988. "Federal recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina: hearing before the Select

Committee on Indian Affairs, U.S. Senate, 100th Congress, 2nd session, on S. 2672... August 12, 1988," S. hrg. U.S. Congress Senate 1988: 100-881. Washington DC: U.S. G.P.O. (iii): 160.

Hearing on S. 2672. Reprints testimony from Ross O. Swimmer, Jack Campisi, Adolph Dial, Suzan Harjo, & others. Includes letters and resolutions from several tribes.

1988. "Providing for federal recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina: report (to accompany S. 2672)," U.S. Congress Senate: 100-579. Washington DC: U.S. G.P.O.: 37-38.

1989. "To Provide Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina." Hearing, House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs 9on H.R. 2335]. Serial No. 101-57. 235p. Dated 26 Sept.Y4.In8/14:101-57. Washington: GPO, 1992. Includes letter of support from James H. Merrell. Jack Campisi on 18th century documentation presented in the petition. Ruth Locklear on tribal membership criteria. Arlinda Locklear on legal history of tribe's attempts at federal recognition, discussing congressional action on other tribes.

1990. "Providing for the recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina: report (to accompany H.R. 2335) (including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office)," U.S. Congress House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. U.S. Congress House Report 101-685. Washington D.C.: U.S. GPO (1990): 12.

1991. "Providing for the recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina and other purposes: report together with additional and minority views (to accompany H.R. 1426) (including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office)," U.S. Congress House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. U.S. Congress House Report 102-215. Washington D.C.: U.S. G.P.O. Supt. Of Docs, Congressional Sales Office (1991): 21

1992. "To provide federal recognition for the Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina: hearing for the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, first session, on H.R. 2335, Lumbee Recognition Act, hearing held in Washington, DC, September 26, 1989." U.S. Congress House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Washington, DC: U.S. G.P.O., Supt. Of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, 1992 (iii): 235.

1993. "Providing for the recognition of the Lumbee Tribe of Cheraw Indians of North Carolina: joint hearing before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate102nd Congress, 1st session, on H.R. 1426, Lumbee Recognition Act, and S. 1036, Lumbee Recognition Act: hearing held in Washington DC, August 1, 1991," U.S. Congress House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Serial no. 102-JH 1. 274p. Y4.In8/14:102-JH 1. Washington DC: U.S. G.P.O. (iv) 1993: 274.

Statements from Ron Eden (BIA), Jonathan Taylor (E.B. of Cherokee), Jack Campisi, Adolph Blue. Campisi on difficulty of accessing 18th century documentation on Siouan origin of Lumbee.

Anonymous. "Indian Bills Advance to Committee," Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 51, no. 19 (May 8, 1993): 1161.

Anonymous. "House Approves Lumbee Bill," Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report 51, no. 43 (October 30, 1993): 2985

Anonymous. "Congressional Redistricting: No Grey Areas," Economist 322, no. 7745 (February 8, 1992): 26-27.

Christensen, Mike. "House Backs Bill to recognize N.C.'s Lumbee Tribe," Atlanta-Constitution, 1991 September 27, Section A (3): Column 2.

Green, Connie. "N.C.'s Lumbee Indians Battle for Identity," Atlanta-Constitution, 1992 May 8, Section 2 (1): Column 2.

Lewis, Shawn D. "Special Report: Native Americans: For some casinos worsen struggle to uphold culture," Detroit News, 1997 April 30, Section D (1): Column 2.

McAlister, Durwood. "Lumbee Indians Earned Name in One Glorious Night," Atlanta-Journal, 1991 October 1, Section A (10): Column 3.

McCulloch, Anne M. and David E. Wilkins. "Constructing Nations Within States: The Quest for Federal Recognition by the Catawba and Lumbee Tribes," American Indian Quarterly 19, no. 3 (Summer 1995): 361-88.

McMillan, Alex Frew. "Lost cause: Federal Recognition for the Lumbee Indians would have meant as much as $150 million a year for Robeson County, so why didn't the business community care?," Business North Carolina, 21 September 1995: 15:40.

*McPherson, O. "Report on Conditions and Tribal Rights of the Indians of Robeson and Adjoining Counties of North Carolina," Indians of North Carolina (Senate Documents, Vol.4; 63rd Congress, #677. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1914.

Patureau, Alan. "Lumbees near recognition as tribe," Atlanta-Constitution, 1994 June 9 Section A (3): Column 1.

Washington Times. "Lumbee Nationalism," 1991 September 26, Section G (2): Column 1.

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Lumbee Health

Anonymous. "Smokeless Tobacco use among American Indian Women-southeastern North Carolina, 1991," (MMWR) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1995 February 17, 44, no. 6: 113-117.

Bell, Ronny A., Shaw, H.A., Dignan, M.B. "Dietary Intake of Lumbee Indian Women in Robeson County, North Carolina," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, no. 12: (December 1995): 1426-28.

Beltrane, T. and McQueen, D.V. "Urban and Rural drinking patterns: the special case of the Lumbee," International Journal of the Addictions 14, no. 4 (1979): 533-48.

Constans, J., S. Hazout, R.M. Garruto, D.C. Gajdusek, E.K. Spees, ed. "Population distribution of the human Vitamin D binding protein: anthropological considerations," American Journal of Physical Anthropology 68 (1986): 107-122.

Croom, Edward. "Medicinal Plants of the Lumbee Indians," (MA dissertation). Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International, 1983.

______. "Herbal Medicine Among the Lumbee Indians," In Herbal and Magical Medicine: Traditional Healing Today, ed. James Kirkland, Holly F. Matthews, C.W. Sullivan III, and Karen Baldwin. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1992.

Humphrey, J.A, and H.J. Kupferer. "Homicide and Suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina," International Journal of Social Psychiatry 28, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 121-28.

Kupferer, Harriet J. and J.A. Humphrey. "Fatal Indian Violence in North Carolina," Anthropological Quarterly 48, no. 4 (October 1975): 236-44.

Pardini, Ricci S. "Effect of educational brochures on Cherokee women with abnormal pap smears," Public Health Reports 111 (November/December 1996): 546-47.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "The Root Doctors and the Courtroom." North Carolina Folklore Journal 29 no. 2 (Fall-Winter 1981): 102-105.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "Criminal Justice-Related Magical Practices Among the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina." Paper presented at the Conference of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, May 1980.

Spangler, J.G., R.A. Bell, M.B. Dignan, and R. Micheleutte. "Prevalence and predictor of Tobacco use among Lumbee Indian Women in Robeson County, NC," Journal of Community Health 2, no. 22 (April 1997): 115-25.

Steedly, Mary Margaret. "The Evidence of Things Not Seen": Faith and Tradition in a Lumbee Healing Practice." (MA Thesis) Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1979.

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Cherokees

Everett, Dianna. The Texas Cherokees: A People Between Two Fires, 1819-1840. Norman, OK: Oklahoma University Press, 1990.

*Humphrey, J.A, and H.J. Kupferer. "Homicide and Suicide among the Cherokee and Lumbee Indians of North Carolina," International Journal of Social Psychiatry 28, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 121-28.

Kupferer, Harriet J. and Humphrey J.A. "Fatal Indian Violence in North Carolina," Anthropological Quarterly 48, no. 4 (October 1975): 236-44.

*McLoughlin, William Gerald. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

*Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee, 1979.

*Pardini, Ricci S. "Effect of educational brochures on Cherokee women with abnormal pap smears," Public Health Reports 111 (November/December 1996): 546-47.

Rice, Horace R. The Buffalo Ridge Cherokees: The Colors and Culture of a Virginia Indian Community. Madison Heights, VA: BRC Books, 1991. BRC Books, P.O. Box 1018, Madison Heights, VA, 24572

*Standing Bear, Zug G. "To Guard Against Invading Indians: Struggling for Native Community in the Southeast," American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18, no. 4 (1994): 301-20.

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Haliwa-Saponi

Alexander, Ralph W. Jr., and George K. Neumann. "On the Origin of the Tutelo-and Eastern Siouan Tribe," Indiana Academy of Science 1968: 88-92.

*Beale, Calvin L. "American Triracial Isolates: Their Status and Pertinence to Genetic Research," Eugenics Quarterly 4 (December 1957): 187-96.

*Boyce, Douglas W. "Notes on Tuscarora Political Organization, 1650-1713," M.A. thesis. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1971.

*Dane, J.K. and B. Eugene Griessman, "The Collective Identity of Marginal Peoples: The North Carolina Experience," American Anthropologist 74 (June 1972): 696-701.

Haithcock, Richard L., and Vicki L. Haithcock. The Occaneechi, Saponi and Tutelo: The Piedmont Catawba. 1995.

Holland, C.G. "A Saponi Note," Archeological Society of Virginia Quarterly Bulletin 37 (1982).

James, A. Everette. "Claude Richardson: Haliwa-Saponi Carver," North Carolina Folklore Journal 40, no. 2 (Summer/Fall 1993): 91-96.

Miller, Carl F. "Reevaluation of the Eastern Siouan Problem, with particular emphasis on the Virginia branches-the Occaneechi, Saponi and the Tutelo," Anthropological Papers 49-56. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1957: 115-212.

Moody, James. "Saponi." In Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, ed. Frederick Webb Hodge. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1910.

*Paschal, Herbert Richard. "The Tuscarora Indians in North= Carolina," M.A. thesis. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1953.

*Potter, Stephen R. "An Analysis of Chicacoan Settlement Patterns," Ph.D. diss. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1982.

*Quattelbaum, Paul. The Land Called Chicora: The Carolinas under Spanish Rule with French Intrusions, 1520-1670. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1956.

*Wallace, Anthony F.C. "The Modal Personality Structure of the Tuscarora Indians," Bureau of Ethnology Bulletin 150. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1952.

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Waccamaw-Siouan

Aldred, Lisa. "'No More Cigar Store Indians': Ethnographic and Historical Representation by and of the Waccamaw-Siouan Peoples and their Socio-Economic, Legal and Political Consequences," Dialectical Anthropology 18, no. 2 (September 1993): 207-244.

Alexander, James E. "Waccamaw-- the Fallen Star." American Indian 5, no. 3 (Spring 1950): 30-39.

Hemming, Jill. "Waccamaw-Siouan Quilts: A Model for Studying Native American Quilting," Uncoverings 18 (1997): 189-211.

*Lerch, Patricia B. "Articulatory Relationships: The Waccamaw Struggle Against Assimilation." In Sea and Land: Cultural and Biological Adaptations in the Southern Coastal Plain, Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings. No. 21, ed. James L. Peacock and James C. Sabella. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1988: 76-91.

______. "State-recognized Indians of North Carolina, including a history of the Waccamaw-Sioux." In Indians in the Southeastern United States in the late 20th Century, ed. J. Anthony Paredes. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1992: 44-71.

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Choctaw

Farr, Eugene. "Religious Assimilation: A Case Study of the Adoption of Christianity by the Choctaw Indians of Mississippi," Th.D. diss. New Orleans, LA: New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1948.

Peterson, John H. Jr. "Assimilation, Separation, and Out-Migration in an American Indian Group," American Anthropologist 74 (October 1972): 1286-95.

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Powhatan

Craven, Wesley Frank. "Indian Policy in Early Virginia," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Series 1, no. 1 (1944): 65-82.

*Dearborn, Mary V. Pocahontas's daughters: gender and ethnicity in American culture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Fausz, J. Frederick. "Fighting Fire with Firearms: The Anglo-Powhatan Arms Race in Early Virginia," American Indian Culture and Research Journal 3 (1980): 33-50; reprinted in The American Indian: Past and Present, 3rd Edition, ed. Roger L. Nichols. New York, 1986.

______. "Opechancanough: Indian Resistance Leader," Struggle and Survival in Colonial America, ed. David Sweet and Gary B. Nash. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1981: 21-37.

*______. "The Barbarous Massacre Reconsidered: The Powhatan Uprising of 1622 and the Historians," Explorations in Ethnic Studies 1 (January 1978): 16-36.

*______. "The Powhatan Uprising of 1622: A Historical Study of Ethnocentrism and Cultural Conflict," Ph.D. diss. College of William and Mary, 1977.

Feest, Christian F. "Powhatan: A Study in Political Organization," Wiener vlkerkundliche Mitteilungen 12 (1966): 69-83.

*______. "Seventeenth Century Virginia Algonquian Population Estimates," Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia 28 (1973-74): 66-79.

______. "The Virginia Indian in Pictures, 1612-1624," Smithsonian Journal of History 11 (Spring 1967): 1-30.

*Harriot, Thomas. A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1903.

Mooney, James. "The Powhatan Confederacy: Past and Present," American Anthropologist 9, no. 1 (January-March 1907): 129-152.

Mouer, Daniel L. "Powhatan and Monacan Regional Settlement Hierarchies: A Model of Relationship Between Social and Environmental Structure," Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia 36, no. 1 (1981): 1-21.

*Porter, Frank W. III. "Backyard Ethnohistory: Understanding Indian Survivals in the Middle Atlantic Region." Virginia Social Science Journal 17 (1982): 41-48.

*Roundtree, Helen C. "Being an Indian in Virginia: Four Centuries in Limbo," Chesopiean 10, no. 1 (1972): 1-7.

*______. "Change Came Slowly: The Case of the Powhatan Indians of Virginia," Journal of Ethnic Studies 3, no. 3 (1975): 1-20.

*______. "Ethnicity Among the 'Citizen' Indians of Tidewater Virginia, 1800-1930." In Strategies For Survival: American Indians of the Eastern United States, ed. Frank W. Porter III. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1986: 173-209.

*______. "Indian Land Loss in Virginia: A Prototype of Federal Indian Policy," (Ph.D. diss). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1973.

*______. "The Indians of Virginia: A Third Race in a Biracial State." In Southeastern Indians Since the Removal Era, ed. Walter L. Williams. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1979: 27-48.

*______. Pocahontas's People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

*______. "Powhatan's Descendants in the Modern World: Community Studies of the Two Virginia Indian Reservations, with Motes on Five Non-Reservation Enclaves," The Chesopiean 10 (1972): 62-69.

*______. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

*Speck, Frank G. "Chapters in the Ethnology of the Powhatan Tribes of Virginia," Indian Notes and Monographs 5, no. 1 (1928). New York, NY: The Heye Foundation.

Smith, John. Virginia Disouered and Described by Captayn John Smith, 1606. Richmond, VA: Virginia State Library, 1608.

Taylor, Donna. "Some Locational Aspects of Middle-Range Hierarchical Societies," Ph.D. diss. New York, NY: Department of Anthropology, City University of New York, 1975.

Turner, E. Randolph III. "A Re-examination of Powhatan Territorial Boundaries and Population, ca. A.D. 1607," Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia 37 (1982-83): 45-64.

______. "An Archeological and Ethnohistorical Study of the Evolution of Rank Societies in the Virginia Coastal Plain," Ph.D. diss. Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, 1976.

______. "Problems in the Archeological Identification of Chiefdoms: An Example from the Virginia Coastal Plain," Middle Atlantic Archeological Conference Annual Meeting, 1983. [Copy on file at Virginia Research Center for Archeology, Yorktown, VA.]

______. "Socio-Political Organization within the Powhatan Chiefdom and the Effects of European Contact, A.D. 1607-1646." In Cultures in Contact: The Impact of European Contacts on Native American Cultural Institutions, A.D. 1000-1800. Washington, DC: Anthropological Society of Washington Series, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

*Wood, Peter H., Gregory A. Waselkov, and M. Thomas Hatley, ed. Powhatan's Mantle: Essays on Indians of the Southeast. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

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Chickahominy

Stern, Theodore. "Chickahominy: The Changing Culture of a Virginia Indian Community," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96, no. 2 (April 21, 1952): 157-225.

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Nanticoke

Babcock, William H. "The Nanticoke Indians of Indian River, Delaware," American Anthropologist 1, no. 2 (April 1899): 227-282.

Porter, Frank W., III. "A Century of Accommodation: The Nanticoke Indians in Colonial Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine 74 (1979): 175-92.

*______. "Anthropologists at Work: A Case Study of the Nanticoke Indian Community," American Indian Quarterly 4 (1978): 1-18.

______. "Behind the Frontier: Indian Survivals in Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine 75 (1980): 42-54.

______. "Quest for Identity: The Formation of the Nanticoke Indian Community at Indian River Inlet, Sussex County, Delaware," Ph.D diss. Baltimore, MD: University of Maryland, 1978.

*______. "Strategies for Survival: The Nanticoke in a Hostile World," Strategies For Survival: American Indians in the Eastern United States. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986: 139-171.

Speck, Frank G. The Nanticoke Community of Delaware. New York, NY: The Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1915.

Weslager, Clinton A. Delaware's Forgotten Folk: The Story of the Moors and Nanticokes. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1943.

______. "Folklore among the Nanticokes of Indian River Hundred and the Moors of Cheswold, Delaware," Delaware Folklore Bulletin 1, no. 5 (March 1955).

______. The Nanticoke Indians: Past and Present. Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press, 1983.

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Nottoway

*Binford, Lewis R. "Ethnohistory of the Nottoway, Meherrin and Weanock Indians of Southeastern Virginia," Ethnohistory 14 (1967): 103-218.

*Roundtree, Helen C. "The Termination and Dispersal of the Nottoway Indians of Virginia," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 95 (1987): 193-214.

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Pamunkey

Anonymous. "A Treaty between Virginia and the Indians, 1677," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 14 (1906-07): 289-96.

Feest, Christian F. "Pride and Prejudice: The Pocahontas Myth and the Pamunkey," In The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies, ed. James A. Clifton. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990.

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Rappahanock

Speck, Frank G. "The Rappahannock Indians of Virginia," Indians Notes and Monographs 5, no. 3 (1925). New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation.

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Poarch Creek

Creek Nation East of the Mississippi. Creek Nation East of the Mississippi: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. Atmore, AL: Creek Nation East of the Mississippi, Inc., 1975.

Cvpvkke, Holeitte (C.B. Clarke). "Drove Off like Dogs- Creek Removal." In Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, [Proceedings of the Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference], ed. John K. Mahon. Pensacola, FL: Pensacola Historical Preservation Board, 1975.

Mason, Carol I. "Eighteenth Century Culture Change among the Lower Creeks," Florida Anthropologist 16, no. 3 (1963): 65-80.

Paredes, J. Anthony. "The Emergence of Contemporary Eastern Creek Indian Identity." In Social and Cultural Identity [Southern Anthropological Society Proceedings 8], ed. Thomas K. Fitzgerald. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1974.

______. "The Folk Culture of the Eastern Creek Indians: Synthesis and Change." In Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present [Proceedings of the Fifth Gulf Coast History and Humanities Conference], ed. John K. Mahon. Pensacola, FL: Pensacola Historical Preservation Board, 1975.

Speck, Frank G. "The Road to Disappearance: Creek Indians Surviving in Alabama, A Mixed Culture Community," American Anthropologist 51 (October-December, 1949).

______. "Notes on Social and Economic Condition among the Creek Indians of Alabama in 1941," America Indigena 7 (July 1947).

U.S. Congress, Senate. "Providing for the Disposition of Funds Appropriated to Pay a Judgement in Favor of the Creek Nation of Indians in Indian Claims Commission Docket No. 21, and for Other Purposes," S.R. 1516, 90th Congress, 2nd session. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1968.
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Shinnecock

Carr, Lloyd G., and Carlos Westez (Chief Red Thunder Cloud). "Surviving Folktales and Herbal Lore among the Shinnecock Indians of Long Island," Journal of American Folklore 58, no. 228 (April-June 1945): 113-123.

Westez, Carlos A.H. (Chief Red Thunder Cloud). "A Study of the Long Island Indian Problem," Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 5, no. 2 (January 1944): 17-19.

_____. "An Ethnological Introduction to the Long Island Indians," Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 6, no. 3 (April 1945): 39-42.

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Turks

Gregorie, Anne King. History of Sumter County, South Carolina. Sumter, SC: Library Board of Sumter County, 1954.

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Melungeons

Addington, F. "Mountain Melungeons Let the World Go By," Baltimore Sunday Sun, 29 July 1945.

Allen, S.D. "More on the free black population of the southern Appalachian Mountains: Speculations on the North African connection," Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 6 (July 1995): 651-671.

Anonymous. "Mysterious Melungeons Unite This Weekend in Appalachia," Los Angeles Sentinel, July 24, 1997, A12, col. 1.

Aswell, James R. God Bless the Devil! Liars' Bench Tales. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, 1940.

_______. "Lost Tribes of Tennessee's Mountains," Nashville Banner, 22 August 1937.

Ball, Bonnie. "America's Mysterious Race," Read 16 (May 1944): 64-67.

______. "The Melungeons," Historical Society of Southwest Virginia 2 (1966).

______. The Melungeons: Their Origins and Kin. Johnson City, TN: Overmountain-Press, 1992.

______. "Mystery Men of the Mountains," Negro Digest 3, no. 3 (January 1945): 39-41.

______. "Virginia's Mystery Race," Virginia State Highway Bulletin 2, no. 6 (April 1945): 2-3.

______. "Who are the Melungeons?" Southern Literary Messenger 3, no. 2 (June 1945): 5-7.

Barr, Phyllis Cox. "The Melungeons of Newman's Ridge," M.A. thesis. Department of English, East Tennessee State University, 1965.

Beaver, Patricia Duane. Rural Community in the Appalachian South. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky Press, 1986.

______. "Hillbilly Women, Hillbilly Men: Sex Roles in Rural-Agricultural Appalachia," In Appalachia Women: A Learning/Teaching Guide, ed. Sharon B. Lord and Carolyn Patton-Crowder. Newton, Mass: Education Development Center, 1979.

Bible, Jean Patterson. Melungeons Yesterday and Today. Johnson City, Rogersville, TN: East Tennessee Printing Company, 1975.

______. "A People With an Unknown Past," Baltimore Sunday Sun Magazine, 13 June 1971.

Bleakley, Fred R. "On-Line: Appalachian clan mines web sites for ancestral clues," Wall Street Journal (April 14, 1997): B1, 3.

Brewster, Paul G. "The Melungeons: a mystery people of East Tennessee," Ethnos 29 (1964): 43-48.

Burnett, Swan M., "A Note on the Melungeons," American Anthropologist 2 (1889): 347-49.

Cavender, Anthony P. "The Melungeons of Upper East Tennessee: Persisting Social Identity," Tennessee Anthropology 6 (Spring 1981): 27-36.

Crawford, Bruce. "Hills of Home," Southern Literary Messenger 2, no. 5 (May 1940): 302-313.

Davis, Louise Littleton. "Are They Vanishing?" Nashville Tennessean Sunday Magazine, 29 September 1963; Republished In Frontier Tales of Tennessee. Gretna: Pelican Publishing Co., 1976: 165-79.

_______. "The Mystery of the Melungeons," Nashville Tennessean Sunday Magazine, 22 September 1963.

*DeMarce, Virginia Easley. "Looking at Legends-Lumbee and Melungeon: Applied Genealogy and the Origins of Tri-Racial Isolate Settlements," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 81 (March 1993): 24-45.

*_____. "Verry Slitly Mixt': Tri-racial Isolate Families of the Upper South- A Genealogical Study," National Genealogical Society Quarterly 80 (March 1992): 5-35.

Dromgoole, Will Allen. "The Malungeons," The Arena 3 (1891): 470-79.

______. "The Malungeon Tree and Its Four Branches," The Arena, (3) June 1891.

*Dunlap, Arthur R. and Clinton A. Weslager. "Trends in the Naming of Tri-Racial Mixed-Blood Groups in the Eastern United States," American Speech 22 (1947): 81-87.

Dunlop, Daniel S. "The Melungeons of Southern Appalachia," Unpublished paper for Dr. Carl Ross. ASU in Belk Library, Appalachian Collection, 1981.

Dunn, Durwood. Cades Cove: The Life and Death of a Southern Appalachian Community 1818-1937. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1988.

Eller, Ronald D. Miners, Millhands, and Mountaineers: Industrialization of the Appalachian South, 1880-1930. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1982.

Fetterman, John. "The Mystery of Newman's Ridge," Life Magazine (June 26, 1970).

Gallegos, Eloy. The Spanish Pioneers in United States History: The Melungeons: The Pioneers of the Interior Southeastern United States. Knoxville, TN: Vallagra Press, 1997.

Gaventa, John. Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1980.

*Gilbert, William H., Jr. "Memorandum concerning the characteristics of the larger mixed-blood racial islands of the eastern United States,"Social Forces 24 (1945/46): 438-47.

Gaskins, Avery F. "An Introduction to the Guineas: WV Melungeons," Appalachian Journal 1, no. 3 (Autumn 1973): 234-37.

Guthrie, James L. "Melungeons: Comparison of Gene Frequency Distributions to Those of Worldwide Populations," Tennessee Anthropologist XV, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 14-23.

Hale, W.T., and D.L.Merritt. A History of Tennessee and Tennesseans. Chicago, IL: Lewis Publishing Co., 1913: 179-196.

Hamer, Philip L. Roman Survival. Chillicothe, Ohio: The Ross County Historical Society (1960).

Haywood, John. The Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee, Up to the First Settlements Therein by the White People in the Year 1768. Nashville, TN: Geo. Wilson, 1823.

Hodge, Tom. "The Melungeons: Descendents of the Lost Tribe of Israel," Johnson City Press Chronicle, 18 March 1976.

Isaac, Norm. From Newman Ridge: TN to Southeastern KY Highlands: Trail of the Portuguese, Indian and English Mixed Clans. Dublin, IN: Prinit Press, 1983.

Ivey, Saudra Keyes. "Ascribed Ethnicity and the Ethnic Display Event: The Melungeon of Hancock County, Tennessee," Western-Folklore (1977): 85-107.

______. "Oral, Printed, and Popular Culture: Traditions Related to the Melungeons of Hancock County, Tennessee,"Ph.D. Thesis.

Judge, Joseph. "Between Columbus and Jamestown: Exploring Our Forgotten Century," National Geographic 173, no. 3 (March 1988).

*Kaplan, Sidney. "Historical Efforts to Encourage White-Indian InterMarriage in the United States and Canada," International Social Science Review 65, no. 3 (1990): 126-132.

Kennedy, N. Brent and Robyn Vaughan Kennedy. The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People. An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing in America. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1994.

Langdon, Barbara T. The Melungeons: An Annotated Bibliography: References in Both Fiction and Nonfiction. Woodville: Dogwood Press, 1998.

Lipsey, C. McCurdy. "The Melungeon Mystery: The Making of a Myth?" Southern Sociological Society (1977).

*McGlothen, Mike. Melungeons and other mestee groups.

*McWhiney, Grady and Forrest McDonald. "Celtic Names in the Antebellum Southern United States," Names 3, no. 2: 89-102.

Mira, Manuel. The Forgotten Portuguese: The Melungeons and Other Groups. PAHRF, Inc., 1998.

Offut, Chris. "The Melungeons," Michigan Quarterly Review 30, no. 3 (Summer 1991): 423-437.

*Price, Edward T. "Mixed-Blood populations of eastern United States as to origins, localization, persistence," Ph.D. diss. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1950.

_______. "The Melungeons: A Mixed-Blood Strain of the Southern Appalachians," Geographical Review 41, no. 151: 256-71.

Price, Henry R. "Melungeons: the vanishing colony of Newman's Ridge," Sneedville, TN: Hancock County Drama Association VI, no. 26; Paper presented at the American Studies Association of Kentucky and Tennessee. Cookville, TN: Tennessee Technological University, March 1966.

*Pollitzer, William S., and William H. Brown, "Survey of Demography, Anthropometry, and Genetics in the Melungeons of Tennessee: An Isolate of Hybrid Origin in Process of Dissolution," Human Biology 41 (1969): 388-400.

*Reed, John Shelton. "Mixing in the Mountains," Southern Cultures 3, no. 4 (Winter 1997/98): 25-36.

Shepherd, Lewis. "Romantic Account of the Celebrated Melungeon Case," Watson's Magazine 17, no. 1 (May 1913): 34-40.

Southern, J. Albert. The Melungeons. 1978.

Thompson, Edgar T. "The 'Little Races'." In Plantation Societies, Race Relations, and the South: the regimentation of populations. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1975.

Whitthoft, John. "Bushwhackers and Melungeons: Indian Remnant Groups or Libels?" Keystone-Folklore (1974): 183-205.

Wohlwend, Chris. "Mystery of the Melungeons," Atlanta-Constitution, 6 July, 1993, A3, col.1.

Worden, William L. "Sons of the Legend," Saturday Evening Post 22, no. 16 (October 18, 1947).

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Northeast

*Campisi, Jack. Tribe on Trial: The Mashpee Indians. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1991.

*Clifford, James. "Identity in Mashpee," In The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Cohen, David S. The Ramapo Mountain People. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1974.

Collins, Daniel. "The Racially-mixed People of the Ramapos: Undoing the Jackson White Legends," American Anthropologist 74: 1276-85.

Gonzalez, Ellice B. "Tri-racial Isolates in a Bi-racial Society: Poospatuck Ambiguity and Conflict," In Strategies For Survival: American Indians in the Eastern United States, ed. Frank W. Porter III. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Hicks, George L., and David I. Kertzer. "Making a Middle Way: Problems of Monhegan Identity.' Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 28, no. 1 (1972): 1-24.

Mochow, Marion Johnson. Stockbridge-Munsee Cultural Adaptation: "Assimilated Indians." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 112, no. 3 (1968): 182-219.

New York Herald Tribune. "Indians Face Eviction Threat on Long Island." October 5, 1935

New York Times. "State Denies Aid to Poospatuck School; Negroes cause it to lose its Indian Status," May 4, 1935.

O'Toole, Francis J., and Thomas N. Tureen. "State Power and the Passomaquoddy Tribe: "A Gross National Hypocrisy'?" Maine Law Review 23 (1971): 1-39.

Thomas, Peter A. "Contrastive Subsistence Strategies and Land Use as Factors for Understanding Indian-White Relations in New England," Ethnohistory 23 (1976): 1-18.

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Wampanoag

Boissevain, Ethel. "The Detribalization of the Narragansett Indians: A Case Study." Ethnohistory 3, no. 3 (Summer 1956): 225-45.

______. "Narragansett Survival: A Study of Group Persistance Through Adapted Traits." Ethnohistory 6, no. 4 (Fall 1959): 347-362.

*Campisi, Jack. Tribe on Trial: The Mashpee Indians. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1991.

*Clifford, James. "Identity in Mashpee," In The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography, Literature, and Art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Travers, Milton A. The Wampanoag Indian Tribute Tribes of Martha's Vineyard. New Bedford, MA: Reynolds Printing, Inc., 1960.

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Wesorts

*Gilbert, William H. Jr. "The Wesorts of Maryland: An Outcasted Group," Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 35, no. 8 (August 15, 1945): 237-246.

*Harte, Thomas J. "Integrative Role of Religion in the Brandywine Population," Research Plans in the Fields of Religion, Values and Morality. New York, NY: The Religious Education Association, 1962.

______. "Social Origins of the Brandywine Deme," Social Forces (1963).

*Maynard, Theodore. The Story of American Catholicism. New York, NY: Macmillan Company, 1941.

Sawyer, Sister Claire Marie, O.S.F., Some Aspects of the Fertility of a Tri-Racial Isolate. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1961.

*Wiktop, C.J., et al. "Medical and Dental Findings in the Brandywine Isolate." Alabama Journal of Medical Science 3 (1966): 382-403.

Yap, Angelita Q. A Study of a Kinship System: Its Structural Principles. Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1961.

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Redbones

Carver, Ada Jack. "The Redbone," Harper's Magazine 50, no. 897 (February 1925): 258-270.

*Dominguez, Virginia. White by Definition: Social Classification in Creole Louisiana. Rutgers University Press, 1986.

Kniffen, Fred B., Hiram F. Gregory, and George A. Stokes., The Historic Indian Tribes of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

Marler, Don C. The Neutral Zone: Backdoor to the United States. Woodville: Dogwood Press, 1996.

Marler, Don C. and Jane P. McManus. The Cherry Winche Country: History of the Redbones. Woodville: Dogwood Press, 1993.

Mills, Gary B. The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.

_____. The Mills Collection: Louisiana Red Bone File. Arlington, VA: NGS (National Geneological Society) Library.

*Posey, Darrell A. "Origin, Development and Maintenance of a Louisiana Mixed-Blood Community: The Ethnohistory of the Freejacks of the First Ward Settlement," Ethnohistory 26, no. 1 (1979): 177-92.

Tillery, Carlyle. Red Bone Woman. New York, NY: John Day Company, 1950.

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Houma (Sabines)

Downs, Earnest C. and Jenna Whitehead. "The Houma Indians: Two Decades in the History of Struggle," American Indian Journal 2 (March 1976).

Fischer, Ann. "History and Current Status of the Houma Indians." In The American Indian Today, ed. Stuart Levine and Nancy O. Lurie. Deland, FL: Everett/Edwards, 1968.

Parenton, Vernon J. and Roland J. Pellegrin. "The Sabines: A Study of Racial Hybrids in a Louisiana Coastal Parish," Social Forces, 29 (1950): 148-54.

Roy, Edison Peter. "The Indians of Dulac: A Descriptive Study of a Racial Hybrid Community in Terrebone Parish, Louisiana," MA Thesis. Louisiana State University, 1959.

*Speck, Frank G. "A Social Reconnaissance of the Creole Houma Indian Trappers of the Louisiana Bayous," America Indigena 3, no. 2-3 (April/July 1943): 135-146; 211-220.

Stanton, Max E. "The Indians of the Grand Caillou-Dulac Community," MA Thesis. Louisiana State University, 1971.

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Ramapough Mountain Indians (Jackson Whites)

Anonymous. "Community of Outcasts," Appleton's Journal of Literature, Science and Art (Saturday, March 23, 1872): 324-29.

Anonymous. "Deformity traced in Jersey Group," Newark Evening News, 6 June 1940.

Anonymous. "Jackson Whites," New York Sun, 28 February 1909.

Anonymous. "Jackson Whites get Ringwood County help," World-Telegram, 28 April 1937.

Anonymous. "Jackson White, racial hybrids, putter along in the Ramapos," Herald-Tribune, 15 September 1936.

Anonymous. "Jersey to succor Whites: State appoints an investigator for study as prelude to bid for federal aid," New York Times, 26 April 1937: 21.

Anonymous. "Jersey's Tobacco Road-50 miles from the Broadway they've never seen," New York World-Telegram, 27 April 1937.

Anonymous. "The Jackson Whites," Eugenical News 16 (1931): 218.

Anonymous. "Jersey man and his wife doing noble work among Jackson Whites," Prospector (November 12, 1936): 2.

Anonymous. "Ramapo Memories," Magazine of History 4 (September 1906): 139-144.

Anonymous. "Who are the Jackson Whites?" Pathfinder (September 5, 1931): 20.

Beck, Henry Charleton. The Roads of Home. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1956.

Berger, Meyer. "Hill folk at the City's Portals- Only 'forty-five minutes from Broadway' dwell primitive people whose lives are still untouched by turbulent stream of the metropolis," New York Times Magazine, 24 March 1935.

Chanler, David. "The Jackson Whites: An American Episode," The Crisis 46, no. 5 (May 1939).

Cohen, David S. Folk Legacies Revisited. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

______. "The Origin of the 'Jackson Whites': History and Legend among the Ramapo Mountain People,"Journal of American Folklore 85 (1972): 260-266.

______. The Ramapo Mountain People. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1986.

______. "The Ramapo Mountain People: A Reassessment," New Jersey Folklore 2 (1980): 15-17.

______. "They walk these hills: A Study of social solidarity among the racially-mixed people of the Ramapo Mountains," Ph.D. diss. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 1971.

Collins, Daniel. "The Racially-mixed People of the Ramapos: Undoing the Jackson White Legends," American Anthropologist 74: 1276-85.

Crawford, Constance. "The Jackson Whites," M.A. thesis. New York, NY: New York University, 1940.

Emerson, Josephine. "The Jackson Whites." In Hudson Highlands, ed. Salvitur Ambulando. New York, NY: Appalachian Mountain Club, 1945.

Greene, Frances E., "The Tobacco Road of the North," American Mercury 53, no. 211 (July 1941): 15-22.

Harrison, Charles. "'Jackson Whites' Origin," Bergen Evening Record, 1980.

Hernandez, Raymond. "The mountain people dig in over recognition as Indians. (People of the Ramapo Mountains want to be recognized by the federal government as Indians," New York Times 144 (1 January 1995): 29, col. 4.

Honeyman, Abraham Van Doren. "Early Trials of Negroes in Bergen County," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 10 (1925): 357.

Jessup, Elon. "Secrets of the Ramapos," Outing 81 (February 1923): 217-221.

Kaufman, Charles H. "An Ethnomusicological survey among the people of the Ramapo Mountains," New York Folklore 23 (1957): 3-43; 109-131.

Lacetena, Angelo Victor. "The People of the Ramapos: Yesterday, today and tomorrow," M.A. thesis William Paterson College of New Jersey, 1969.

Mayer, Alan J. "Is this tribe Indian?" Newsweek 95 (January 7, 1980): 32(1).

Merwin, Miles M. "The Jackson Whites," Rutgers Alumni Monthly 42 (1963): 8.

_____. "The Jackson Whites," M.A.thesis. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University, 1953.

Miller, David. The Forsaken Jackson Whites. New York, NY: New York Herald Tribune, 1961.

New York Public Library. The Jackson Whites: References to books, documents and magazines," October 1941.

Ramapough Mountain Indian Tribe of New York and New Jersey. Ramapough Mountain Indians Incorporated: Petition for federal acknowledgment, 1990. Washington, DC: Bureau of Indian Affairs, March 31, 1990.

Rankin, Edward. "The Ramapo Tract," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 50 (1932): 375-394.

Skinner, Alanson. "A primitive new race in the very heart of civilization: the 'Jackson Whites',"American Examiner (1911). [In the files of the Eugenics Records Office, Dwight Institute for Human Genetics, University of Minnesota].

Snedecor, Spencer T. and William K. Harriman. "Surgical problems in heredity in polydactylism and syndactylism," Journal of the New Jersey Medical Society 37 (September 1940): 443-449.

*Speck, Frank G. "The Jackson Whites," Southern Workman 40 (February 1911): 104-107.

Stamato, Linda. "The Jackson-Whites of the Ramapo Mountains," M.A. thesis. Seton Hall University, 1968.

Stimpson, George W. "Who are the Jackson Whites?" In Things Worth Knowing. New York, NY: Burton, 1932: 377-378.

Storms, J.C. Origin of the Jackson Whites of the Ramapo Mountains. Park Ridge, NJ: Privately Printed, 1945.

Terhune, Albert Payson. Treasure. New York, NY: Harper & Bros., 1926.

______. "When dogs go wild," New York Herald-Tribune Magazine, 4 March 1934.

*Thompson, Edward T. "The little races," American Anthropologist 74 (October 1972): 1295-1306.

*Wallace, Anthony F.C. "The Tuscarora, sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (May 1949): 159-165.

Weller, George. "The Jackson Whites," The New Yorker 14 (September 17, 1938). Reprinted In A New Jersey Reader. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1961.

*White, Newman L., ed. The Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1952-61.

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Amherst County, VA

*Estabrook, Arthur H. and Ivan E. McDougle. Mongrel Virginians: The WIN Tribe. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1926.

*Gray, A.P. "A Virginia Tribe of Indians," Southern Churchman 73, no. 1 (January 4, 1908).

Wailes, Bertha Pfister. "Backward Virginians: A Further Study of the Win Tribe," MA Thesis. University of Virginia, 1928.

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Guineas

Burnell, John P. "The Guineas of West Virginia," MA Thesis. Ohio State University, 1952.

Gaskins, Avery F. "An Introduction to the Guineas: West Virginia's Melungeons," Appalachian Journal: A Regional Studies Review 1 (1973): 234-237.

*Gilbert, William H. "Mixed Bloods of the Upper Monongahela Valley, West Virginia," Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences XXXVI (1946): 1-13.

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Creoles and Cajans

Bond, Horace M. "Two Racial Islands in Alabama," American Journal of Sociology 36: 552-567.

Jones, J. Hardy Jr., and Vernon Parenton, "The People of Frilot Cove: A Study of Racial Hybrids," American Journal of Sociology 57, no. 2 (September 1951): 145-49.

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Young Readers

Dial, Adolph L. The Lumbee: Indians of North America, ed. Frank W. Porter, III. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993.

Wetmore, Ruth Y. First on the Land: The North Carolina Indians. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, 1975.

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Music

*Baklanoff, Joy Driskill. "The Celebration of a Feast: Music, Dance and Possession Trance in the Black Primitive Baptist Footwashing Ritual." Ethnomusicology 31 no. 3 (Fall 1987): 381-394.

Bastin, Bruce. Red River Blues: The Blues Tradition in the Southeast. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1986.

Crawford, Isabel. Kiowa: A Woman Missionary in Indian Territory. With an Introduction by Clyde Ellis. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Draper, David E. "'Abba Isht Tuluwa:' The Christian Hymns of the Mississippi Choctaws." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 6 no. 1 (1982): 43-61.

*Jackson, George Pullen, ed. Down-East Spirituals, and Others: Three Hundred Songs Supplementary to the Author's Spiritual folk-songs of early America. New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 1975.

*__________. ed., Spiritual Folk-Songs of Early America: Two Hundred and Fifty Tunes and Texts. New York, NY: J.J. Augustin, 1937.

*__________. White and Negro Spirituals, their Life Span and Kinship: Tracing 200 Years of Untrammeled Song Making and Singing among our country folk: with 116 songs as sung by both races. New York, NY: J.J. Augustin, 1943.

*__________. White Spirituals of the Southern Upland: The Story of the FaSoLa Folk, their songs, singings, and "buckwheat notes." New York, NY: Dover Books, 1965.

Patterson, Beverly Bush. The Sound of the Dove: Singing in Appalachian Primitive Baptist Churches. Music in American Life. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Robertson, Carol E., ed. Musical Repercussions of 1492: Encounters in Text and Performance. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1992.

Rouget, Gilbert. Music and Trance: A Theory of the Relations Between Music and Possession. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.

*Sutton, Brett. "Shape-Note Tune Books and Primitive Hymns." Ethnomusicology 26 no. 1 (January 1992): 11-26.

Tallmadge, William H. "The Responsorial and Antiphonal Practice in Gospel Song." Ethnomusicology 7 no. 2 (May 1968): 219-238.

Tullos, Allen, Daniel W. Patterson and Tom Davenport. "A Singing Stream: A Black Family Chronicle." North Carolina Folklore Journal 36, no.1 (Winter-Spring 1989).

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Religion

Anonymous, "Sebastian Montero, Pioneer American Missionary, 1566-1572." Catholic Historical Review 51 (October 1965): 335-353.

*Apess, William. On Our Own Ground: The Complete Writings of William Apess, a Pequot. Edited by Barry O'Connell. Amherst: University of Massachusetts, 1992.

Bailey, Albert Edward. The Gospel in Hymns: Background and Interpretations. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950.

*Baklanoff, Joy Driskill. "The Celebration of a Feast: Music, Dance and Possession Trance in the Black Primitive Baptist Footwashing Ritual." Ethnomusicology 31 no. 3 (Fall 1987): 381-394.

Beaver, R. Pierce, ed. To Advance the Gospel: Selections From the Writings of Rufus Anderson. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1967.

__________. Church, State and the American Indian: Two and a Half Centuries of Partnership in Missions between Protestant Churches and Government. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1966.

Begaye, Russell. "The Story of Indian Southern Baptists." Baptist History and Heritage 18, no. 3 (July 1983): 30-39.

Berkhofer, Robert F., Jr. Salvation and the Savage: An Analysis of Protestant Missions and American Indian Response, 1787-1862. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1965.

Brewington, Tony. "Indian Religion in North Carolina." In Paths Toward Freedom: A Biographical History of Blacks and Indians in North Carolina, ed. The Center for Urban Affairs. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University, 1976: 19-23.

*Burnt Swamp Baptist Association. "Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Session of the Burnt Swamp Baptist Association," 17-19 November 1910. Lumber River Legal Services Archives, Pembroke, N.C. Pamphlet.

Chesire, Joseph Blount. "First Settlers in North Carolina Not Religious Refugees," The North Carolina Booklet 5 (April 1906): 247.

Delke, James A., History of the North Carolina Chowan Baptist Association, 1806-1881. Raleigh, N.C.: Chowan Baptist Association, 1882.

Edwards, Morgan. "Materials towards a History of the Baptists in the Province of North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review 7, no. 3 (1930): 388-389.

Farr, Eugene. "Religious Assimilation: A Case Study of the Adoption of Christianity by the Choctaw Indians of Mississippi." Th.D. diss. New Orleans, LA: New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, 1948.

Gustafson, Robert K. "The Religion of the Lumbee Indians." Paper presented at the American Academy of Religion Conference, New Orleans 14 Nov. 1990.

Harrell, David Edwin. All Things are Possible: The Healing and Charismatic Revivals in Modern America. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.

Harrington, Daniel J. "Sociological Concepts and the Early Church: A Decade of Research," Theological Studies 41, no. 1 (March 1980): 181.

Harvey, Paul. Redeeming the South: Religion, Cultures and Racial Identities Among Southern Baptists, 1865-1925. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997.

Heriot, M. Jean. Blessed Assurance: Beliefs, Actions, and the Experience of Salvation in a Carolina Baptist Church. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1994.

Heyrman, Christine Leigh. Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997.

Hill, Samuel, ed. Religion in the Southern States: A Historical Survey.

Hill, Samuel, ed. Encyclopedia of Religion in the South. Mercer, GA: Mercer University Press, 1984.

Hood, Fred J. Reformed America: The Middle and Southern States, 1783-1837. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1980.

Howard, James H. The Southeastern Ceremonial Complex and its Interpretation.

*Jackson, George Pullen, ed. Down-East Spirituals, and Others: Three Hundred Songs Supplementary to the Author's Spiritual folk-songs of early America. New York, NY: Da Capo Press, 1975.

*__________. ed., Spiritual Folk-Songs of Early America: Two Hundred and Fifty Tunes and Texts. New York, NY: J.J. Augustin, 1937.

*__________. White and Negro Spirituals, their Life Span and Kinship: Tracing 200 Years of Untrammeled Song Making and Singing among our country folk: with 116 songs as sung by both races. New York, NY: J.J. Augustin, 1943.

*__________. White Spirituals of the Southern Upland: The Story of the FaSoLa Folk, their songs, singings, and "buckwheat notes." New York, NY: Dover Books, 1965.

Juster, Susan. Disorderly Women: Sexual Politics and Evangelicalism in Revolutionary New England. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Lovell, John Jr. Black Song: The Forge and the Flame. New York, NY: Macmillan, 1972

McCoy, Isaac. History of Baptist Missions: Embracing Remarks on the Former and Present Condition of Aboriginal Tribes, and their Settlement with the Indian Territory, and their Future Prospects, 1840. Reprint. New York, NY: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1970.

McCurry, Stephanie. Masters of Small Worlds: Yeoman Households, Gender Relations, and the Political Culture of the Antebellum South Carolina Low Country. New York, NY, 1995.

McLoughlin, William Gerald. Cherokees and Missionaries, 1789-1839. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1984.

Paschal, George Washington. History of North Carolina Baptists. 2 vols. Raleigh, NC: General Board, North Carolina Baptist State Convention, 1930.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "The Root Doctors and the Courtroom." North Carolina Folklore Journal 29 no. 2 (Fall-Winter 1981): 102-105.

*Schmalleger, Frank. "Criminal Justice-Related Magical Practices Among the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina." Paper presented at the Conference of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, May 1980.

*Smith, Joseph Michael and Lula Jane Smith. The Lumbee Methodists: Getting To Know Them. Raleigh: Commission of Archives and History, North Carolina Methodist Conference, 1990.

Sobel, Mechal. Travelin' On: The Slave Journey to an Afro-Baptist Faith. Princeton: University of Princeton Press, 1979.

Swift, David Everett. Black prophets of Justice: activist clergy before the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

*Sutton, Brett. "Shape-Note Tune Books and Primitive Hymns." Ethnomusicology 26 no. 1 (January 1992): 11-26.

Thompson, Robert Ellis. A history of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900 [1895].

Trafzer, Clifford. American Indian Prophets: religious leaders and revitalization movements. Sacramento: Sierra Oaks Publishing, 1986.

*Treat, James, ed. Native and Christian: Indigenous Voices on Religious Indentity in the United States and Canada. New York: Routledge: 1996.

*Tyson, Ruel W., James L. Peacock and Daniel W. Patterson, eds. Diversities of Gifts: Field Studies in Southern Religion. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, 1988.

Weeks, Stephen Beauregard. The Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina. Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, vol. 15. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1896.

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Websites

General Reference/Information

University of North Carolina at Pembroke - www.uncp.edu

Robeson County Information - www.ncse.org/robeson.html

Other Native American Resources

North Carolina Commission on Indian Affairs - www.doa.state.nc.us/doa/cia/indian.html

Charlotte's Web Native American Home Page – information about other tribes in North Carolina. www.charweb.org/neighbors/na/na-index.html

Capucine's Native Resources – www.klingon.org/native/pages/nations.html

Index to Native American Resources on the Internet - hanksville.phast.umass.edu:80/misc/NAresources.html

Native American Geneology Links – www.thefuturesite.com/nzingha/newlinks.html

"Heartbeats and Drumbeats of American Indians" - Southeastern Geneology and Other Resources www.geocities.com/heartland/plains/2604/glorialinks.html

N.C. State University's Society of Native American Culture – www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/stud-orgs/native_american/index.html

CSU-Long Beach American Indian Studies Department - http://www.csulb.edu/projects/ais/

Native Americans in South Carolina – www.pride-net.com/native_indians

A Line in the Sand – Native American Cultural Property Issues. hanksville.phast.umass.edu:8000/cultprop/index.shtml

Buffy Sainte Marie's Cradleboard Teaching Project – www.cradleboard.org

Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation Home Page - www.geocities.com/Heartland/Estates/3702

Occaneechi History - www.pride-net.com/native_indians/saponi.html

Historical Resources

Historical U.S. Census Data – icg.fas.harvard.edu/~census

U.S. Geneological and Historical Societies – www.magibox.net/~tfc/assoc/states/ablist.html

Library of Congress – lcweb.loc.gov/homepage/lchp.html

National Archives – www.nara.gov

Smithsonian Institution – www.si.edu

Newberry Library – www.newberry.org

North Carolina Archives – www.ah.dcr.state.nc.us/home/default.htm

UNC-Chapel Hill Manuscripts Department – www.lib.unc.edu/mss/

A Melungeon Home Page – pluto.clinch.edu/appalchia/melungeon

Free African-Americans in Virginia and North Carolina - www.freeafricanamericans.com

Occaneechi Town Excavation - www.arch.dcr.state.nc.us/amonth/ocan2.htm

Making of America - www.umdl.umich.edu/moa/

Documenting the American South - sunsite.unc.edu/docsouth

US INDEX - www.ukans.edu/~usa/

Duke University Special Collections Library - scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/

Lumbees

The Official Home Page of the Lumbee Tribe – www.lumbee-tribe.org

Lumbee Indians – www.charweb.org/neighbors/na/lumbee.htm

Turtle Vision – www.intrstar.net/~turtlevision

Lumbee Indian Gospel – ils.unc.edu/liz/lumbee.html

Native American Resource Center – www.uncp.edu/nativemuseum/

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Video/Multimedia

"Excavating Occaneechi Town" - A CD-ROM exploring the artifacts found in archaeologists' excavation of an Occaneechi town site. Contact UNC Press, sunsite.unc.edu/uncpress/occaneechi

"Good to be an Indian, Proud and Free" - portrays the history of the Lumbee from the early 1800's to contemporary times. Contact the Lumbee Tribal Council for more information.

"North Carolina Indians" - tells the story of the major Indian tribes still living in North Carolina. Contact the Lumbee Tribal Council for more information.

"A Talk With the Elders" - captures the stories of days gone by in the Indian communities of Robeson County. Contact the North Carolina Robeson County Board of Education, Robeson County Indian Education Program.

"The Lumbee Indians: People of the Dark Water" - WRAL-TV's 30 minute documentary on the Lumbee. Go to www.wral-tv.com/news/wral/documentaries/1997/1028-people-of-the-dark or contact WRAL-TV 5.

"Real Indian" - A 7 minute video examining stereotypes and their role in one person's Lumbee identity. Contact Malinda Maynor, P.O. Box 464, Moss Beach, CA 94038, or email lumbee@ix.netcom.com

"Sounds of Faith" - A 14-minute video on Lumbee Indian gospel music and how one family passes its musical and spiritual traditions on to younger generations. Contact Malinda Maynor, P.O. Box 464, Moss Beach, CA 94038, or email lumbee@ix.netcom.com

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