Linguistics 520: Linguistic Phonetics
UNC-Chapel Hill Linguistics
2014 Oct. 1 (W)
Topics: Vowel-system typology. Dispersion theory.
- Finding f0
- f0, F1, F2, and tone
- Plausibility checking!
- Dispersion theory: Vowels spread out in perceptual space.
- HO: Vowel-system typology (HO)
- Compare with plots from HW 3.
- HO: Article reports
- Field trip to Odum Institute (2nd floor of Davis Library)
- For 10/3 F:
- Read Ladefoged & Disner 11.2 and 11.3 on place of
- Read Ladefoged & Disner 6.5 on fricatives
- Read Johnson 7.1 and 7.2 on fricatives
- Bring mirrors!
- By 10/10 F: Choose articles for article report
2014 Sept. 29 (M)
As always, the Carolina Honor Code is in effect.
Assignment for 10/1 W: Keep thinking about Impossible
Vowel #3 from HW 3.
2014 Sept. 26 (F)
Topics: Acoustic vowel space. Dispersion theory.
Assignment: Review for midterm (which is Monday)
- HW 3, the acoustic vowel space
- Measuring the Ladefoged vowels
- Theory and reality
- Implications for percepual distinctness? (looking forward
to Adaptive Dispersion Theory)
- Impossible vowels
- Dispersion theory: Vowels spread out in perceptual space.
- Vowel-system typology handout (based on Crothers 1978)
- Compare with plots from HW 3.
2014 Sept. 24 (W)
Topics: Vowel typology. Two-tube vowel models. Nomograms.
- Vowel typology: near-ubiquity of /i a u/ (Crothers 1978,
- Possible explanation: Quantal vowel theory (Stevens 1972,
- Two-tube vowel models and nomograms
- Regions of stability as shown on nomograms
- Questions re midterm? HW 3?
Announcement: Walt Wolfram and Jeffrey Reaser, of NCSU Linguistics,
will be speaking on
dialects of North Carolina
on Thursday the 25th at 5:30, Pleasants Family Assembly Room,
- Continue working on HW 3.
- Midterm is Monday the 29th
2014 Sept. 22 (M)
Topics: Nasalization and nasalized vowels.
- Vowel nasalization
- Video of French speaker produci\
ngoral and nasal vowel (L&D website).
- French oral and nasal vowels (on L&D website).
- Go over goals for HW 3.
- Formant-measuring practice. Four methods, all requiring human
- Measure wide-band spectrogram. (Easy but crude.)
- Measure spectral slice of wide-band spectrogram.
- Zoom in on a single glottal pulse.
- Put cursor on most intense part of pulse (where the higher
frequencies are darkest). Be careful not to fall between
- Make slice. Find formants on slice.
- Measure spectral slice of narrow-band spectrogram. Pick most-intense micropeak (harmonic) under each macropeak (formant).
- LPC (see HO on Sakai)
- For 9/24 W: Read Johnson, sections 5.2 and 6.3 (quantal theory
and adaptive dispersion); review 6.1 (two-tube theory).
- For 9/26 F: HW 3
- Midterm is Monday, 9/29
2014 Sept. 19 (F)
Topics: English and non-English vowels. The IPA.
- The IPA vowel chart
- Another talking IPA chart (York U.)
- What you need to know for this course about using the IPA for vowels (HO)
of oral (= non-nasal) vowels from Ladefoged & Disner's Chapter 15 (practice
hearing height, backness, rounding)
- Discussion of HW 2.
- Vowel midterm one week from Monday; syllabus is in today's Resources folder
- Homework warning: HW 3 goes out Monday (next time), and is due at the
end of the week (the Friday before the midterm).
- Bring mirrors again on Monday!
2014 Sept. 17 (W)
Topics: Source/filter independence and laryngeal vowel features.
English vowels and IPA.
Assignments for Wednesday 9/21:
- Significance of F3: rhoticity
- Some laryngeal vowel features:
- F0 (heard as pitch, used for tone and intonation)
- Creaky voice
- Breathy voice
- Movies from Edmondson & Esling 2006 article in Phonology.
- Natural audio examples from Ladefoged
- Schematic of effect of glottal posture on glottal waveform
(D. H. Klatt)
- Synthetic voice-quality demos (creaky, normal ("modal"), breathy)
- IPA symbols for English vowels. Practice materials are
- Listen to the IPA vowel chart
- Read Ladefoged & Disner Ch. 15, "Vowels around the world".
2014 Sept. 15 (M)
Topics: HW 2. Source/filter independence.
Assignments for Wednesday the 17th:
- HW 2 (do-re-mi) due. Reminders:
- One writeup per partnership.
- Honor Code is (of course!) in force. If in doubt, ask
before turning something in.
- This is practice for the project --- are you dividing the
- Perturbation theory (David/Goliath)
- Main point of HW 2: source/filter independence.
- Source: Measuring f0
- Measuring F1 and F2
- Difficulties measuring F1 and F2 in high-pitched vowels--why?
- Example: A
natural soprano voice (J. Wolfe, U. of New South Wales)
- Synthetic demo of the same point
Announcement: Two-week warning of Midterm
- Read Ladefoged & Disner 13.5-13.7 ("Actions of the Larynx")
- Listen to L&D's audio examples from Gujarati, Jalapa Mazatec, and Mpi.
2014 Sept. 12 (F)
Topics: Perturbation theory, vowel backness, and F2.
Simulation of air resonating in a half-open pipe (W. Fendt).
- Some low-tech ways of
observing your articulators
- Articulation (linguini demo)
Acoustic effect of front vs. back oral constriction on F2
- Psychological effect of F2 on perceived vowel backness.
Synthetic demo of F2 being varied:
- With F1 low (high vowels).
- With F1 middling (mid vowels).
- With F1 high (low vowels).
2014 Sept. 10 (W)
Topics: Perturbation theory, vowel height, and F1.
- Basic vocal-tract landmarks. Chiba & Kajiyama 1941 figure
(J figure 6.7).
- Didier Demolin's
vowel articulations (Ladefoged)
- Articulation (L. Goldstein)
- Acoustic effect of oral vs. pharyngeal constriction on F1
- Acoustic consequences of
pinching a flexible tube
- Psychological effect of F1 on perceived vowel height
- Relation between height and lip rounding
- Questions re HW 2 (pending)?
- Read Ladefoged & Disner Ch. 3, "Vowel Contrasts". This will
English vowel inventory and the IPA symbols that go with it.
- Bring mirrors again on Friday
2014 Sept. 8 (M)
Topics: Beyond schwa: Rounding.
- Perturbation theory (Johnson Ch. 6
Sect. 2 reading).
Simulation of half-open tube, showing nodes and antinodes (W. Fendt).
- Correlates and cues
- Go over HW 2 assignment
- The soundproof booth in Dey 103
- How to
reserve time on-line
- The key can be signed out in Dey 109
- Go downstairs and see it
- For 9/10 (W): Read Ladefoged Ch. 5, "Charting English vowels".
Bring mirrors again!
- For 9/15 (M): HW 2 (Sakai, under "Assignments").
- For 9/22 (M): Do the
on-line human-subjects training (do the CITI
modules for Social and Behavioral Research)
2014 Sept. 3 (W)
Topics: Nodes and antinodes of schwa. Recording.
Assignment for Monday, September 8:
- Nodes and antinodes.
- Demonstration with actual tube, and
simulation (W. Fendt).
- Issue microphones.
- HO: How to record with Praat (Sakai)
- Sign up
here for the soundproof studio in Dey 103.
- Read Johnson Ch. 6, Sections 1 and 2
- Bring hand mirror to class.
- Start thinking about when you're going to find time for the
2014 Aug. 29 (F)
Topics: Resonances of a half-open tube; formants of schwa.
- Source/filter model of vowel production
- Smoothly falling glottal source spectrum
- Photo of schwa response curve from last time's experiment
is now on Sakai, under Resources: 8/27 (thanks to EA and AM)
- Effect of tubular filter on source (glottal) spectrum
- Why are the resonant peaks where they are? Echoes in the
- Handout on Sakai
- audio example
- Destructive and constructive interference
- Resonant frequencies of schwa: F1, F2, F3, ...
- Thought HW for next time: Fill in last page of today's handout
- For 9/3 (W): Read Ladefoged Ch. 12 ("Making English vowels").
One member of each pair should bring a computer to practice
2014 Aug. 27 (W)
Topics: Source/filter theory. Resonances of schwa.
Assignment (for Friday, Aug. 29): Read Johnson 2.4 (resonance
and schwa). Print out the ``Reflection and inversion'' handout (Sakai),
and bring it to class.
- Reprise of source-filter theory
- Last time: Source (larynx).
Glottal waveform, F0 = 100 Hz
(similar to Johnson Figures 2.1 and 2.2)
- This time: Filter (supralaryngeal vocal tract).
Schwa made from that glottal wave.
- Demo: Resonances of a half-open cylinder.
- Harmonics and formants.
- Schwa glissando: Fundamental
and harmonics change, formants stay the same.
- Diphthong: Formants change,
fundamental and harmonics stay the same.
2014 Aug. 25 (M)
Topics: HW 1. Vowels; source/filter theory. Source: the larynx
and the glottal wave.
Assignment for 8/27 (W): Read Johnson 2.1 (voicing),
2.3 (vocal-tract filtering).
- Go over HW 1. Don't forget:
- Honor Code statement
("I completed this work in accordance with the UNC Honor Code").
- Names of collaborators.
- Draw box around notes added in class (or
mark in some other clear way)
- Using Praat's Spectrum: View spectral slice to make a
- Demonstration of acoustic filtering by half-open tube. Low-tech source-filter synthesis:
Buzzing lips, then buzzing lips into 17.7-cm tube.
- Source: The larynx (vocal-fold vibration)
- Acoustics of the glottal wave
2014 August 22 (F)
Topics: Using Praat. Sound. Spectrograms.
Assignment for Monday, August 25:
- Types of sound wave
- Simple periodic waves
- Using the Edit function to listen and look (helpful handout from
Jen Smith is
- Measuring frequency and period; calculating wavelength
- Spectrogram basics (like reading music).
- Use of Spectrum:Spectrogram settings... to change
- Analysis window: wide-band (0.005 s) and narrow-band
- Complex periodic waves.
- Fundamental frequency.
- Preview HW 1.
- Do HW 1 (Sakai, Resources: 08.22). The alternative website for
the Ladefoged/Disner audio is
- Read Ladefoged & Disner Ch. 2, on pitch and the larynx.
2014 August 20 (W)
Topics: Course organization. Praat and the Ladefoged/Disner website.
Intro to sound.
- Course organization and Sakai site.
- Information on
Praat, and more Praat resources (Jen Smith).
The Praat website is here.
website.that goes with the Ladefoged & Disner textbook
- Reading the Praat waveform display.
- Acoustic parameters of sound waves: Period and frequency.
Assignment (to be done by 8/22 Fri):
- Read Ladefoged & Disner Ch. 1 and Johnson Ch 1 (sections 1-3 only).
- Install Praat
on your computer and check that it runs.
- Check that you can listen to and download sound files from the
Ladefoged & Disner website.
- Bring laptops to class on Friday with Praat installed!