Social Influence

I. Compliance: how do we get people to do what we want them to?
 
    A. Techniques based on commitment and need for consistency

        1. Foot-in-the-door: asking for small thing first, then asking for a bigger thing
            * Freedman & Fraser

        2. Low-balling: changing the deal after commitment (bait and switch)
            * Cialdini

    B. Techniques based on reciprocity

        1. Door in the face: ask for a big thing, then ask for smaller thing

        2. That's not all! technique: adding "extras" at the end to make the deal seem sweeter.

    C. Two other tactics:

        1. scarcity: deadline technique

        2. attention: pique technique
 
 

II. Conformity: when people influence others via their behavior, not by asking
 
    A. Two classic studies

        1. Sherif's autokinetic effect
            ambiguous task
            alone vs. in groups
            internalization of norms

        2. Asch's line segments
            procedure: video
            conformity on 33% of all critical trials
            group size effects
            group unanimity: one partner (right or wrong), partner who defects, late-arriving partner
 
    B. The difference between these two situations? normative vs. informational influence

            normative influence: people conform because they want to fit in with the group (group sets "norms")

            informational influence: people conform because they want to be right and the group offers them information

        1. Group size/importance relevant
        2. Personality characteristics that make people more likely to conform?
 
 

III. Obedience

    A. Milgram's experiment (video)
 
    B. Explanations for this?

        1. ambiguity of the scale
        2. participant role
        3. diffusion of responsibility
        4. expeirmenter status

    C. Variations to original experiment

        1. proximity to victim: different room to same room to touching participant's hand
        2. proximity to experimenter: same room vs. instructions by telephone
        3. Change of setting: Yale vs. Research associates of Bridgeport

    D. Individual differences?

    E. Resistance to instrucutions: the role of conformity