Lighthouses of China: Southwestern Liaoning

Liaoning is a province of northeastern China, in the region formerly called Manchuria by Westerners. A principal geographical feature of the province is the Liaodong (Liaotung) Peninsula, which projects into the northern end of the Yellow Sea, separating Korea Bay on the east from Liaodong Bay on the west. The major port complex of Dalian is near the end of the peninsula on the eastern side, and Lüshun (Port Arthur) is at the end of the peninsula. This page includes lighthouses of Lüshun and Liaodong Bay. Lighthouses of the Dalian area, the coast to the northeast, and the islands to the east are on the Southeastern Liaoning page.

During the colonial period Russia and Japan vied for control of this strategically located area. In 1898 Russia leased the Dalian area from China, but Japan conquered the Russian colony during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. In 1931, Japan invaded northeast China and incorporated Liaoning into the puppet state of Manchukuo until the end of the Second World War in 1945. Soviet troops then occupied the Liaodong Peninsula and held it until they were withdrawn in 1955.

An additional note: the province of Liaoning was known as Fengtian from 1907 to 1929 and during the Japanese administration; the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.

The Chinese word for a lighthouse is dēngtǎ (灯塔). Jiao or chiao is a cape, dao, tao, yu, or hsu is an island, wan is a bay, and kang or gang is a harbor. Lighthouses in China are maintained by the PRC Maritime Safety Administration. The administration is organized in regional administrations; Liaoning lighthouses fall under theLiaoning MSA, a branch office of the Tianjin MSA.

The pinyin system for transliterating Chinese into Latin characters is now the international standard, but some locations continue to be known also under the spellings of older transliteration systems. The pinyin word jiao (formerly chiao) refers to a reef or rock in some cases, and to a cape or headland in others. Dao (tao) is an island; yu (tsu) is a small island, wan is a bay and gang (kang) is a harbor.

Names formerly used by the Japanese administration are shown in brackets {}.

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. CN numbers are Chinese light list numbers. Admiralty numbers are from volume F of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources
MSA Aids to Navigation - Lighthouse
Two pages of photos of prominent Chinese lighthouses.
Lighthouse Appreciation
Posted by the Wenzhou MSA office in Zhejiang Province, this portfolio of photos includes several Liaoning lighthouses.
Manchuria AMS Topographic Maps
U.S. Army maps from around 1950, collected by the University of Texas.
Leuchttürme Chinas auf historischen Postkarten
Historic postcard views posted by Klaus Huelse.

Laotieshan Light
Laotieshan Light, Lüshun
PRC Maritime Safety Administration photo

Dalian Subprovince Lighthouses (see also Southeastern Liaoning)

Lüshunkou District Lighthouses
Note: Lüshun is a port near the southern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. The city is north of the Laotieshan mountain, with port facilities on both coasts of the peninsula. The history of the city is complex. The British, who had outposts on the peninsula as early as the 1850s, called the city Port Arthur. The Japanese occupied it in 1894-95 during the First Sino-Japanese War, but they were forced to give it up by the Western powers. In 1898, Russia occupied the port and made it the terminus of the Chinese Eastern Railway. The city was then re-occupied by the Japanese in 1905 and remained under their control until the end of the Second World War. During this period, the city was known as Ryojun in Japanese, but it continued to be called Port Arthur in the west. Soviet troops occupied the city in 1945 and remained in control until 1953. Additional note: For some reason, the lights of Lüshun are missing from the available Chinese light lists and many of them are also missing from international light lists. We need more information about these lighthouses.
Lüshun East Reef
Date unknown. Active; light characteristic unknown. Round concrete tower with gallery, probably at least 12 m (39 ft) in height. Vladislav Nikitenko has a photo, a second photo is available, the lighthouse is seen on the left of another photo, and Bing has a satellite view. Located at the end of a dangerous reef about 2.5 km (1.5 mi) east of the entrance to the eastern (Korea Bay) harbor of Lüshun. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed.
Lüshun (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 45 m (148 ft); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 21 m (69 ft) rectangular concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. An MSA photo is at right, Vladislav Nikitenko has a good photo, a view from the sea is available, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse is part of a large complex of buildings, probably a military base; the harbor appears to be a major base for the Chinese Navy. The modern lighthouse replaced a much smaller light seen in a view from the harbor and to the right of the tower in MSA's photo at right. Located on a promontory on the west side of the entrance to the eastern (Korea Bay) harbor of Lüshun. Site status unknown.
** Laotieshan (Liaotieshan Xijiao, Port Arthur)
1893. Active; focal plane 100 m (328 ft); two white flashes every 30 s. 14 m (46 ft) round cylindrical cast iron tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white. Original 1st order Fresnel lens. Several keeper's houses and other light station buildings. An MSA photo is at the top of this page, MSA has another good photo, Liao Ye has a 2013 closeup, Américo Alves has a 2010 photo, Guo Zhimeng has a 2009 photo, Warren Hsu has a closeup photo, another good photo is available, the lighthouse appears on a postage stamp, and Google has a satellite view. Prefabricated in France, this historic lighthouse marks the southwestern tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. The lighthouse was installed by Chinese authorities, but was managed by Russia (1898-1904), Japan (1904-1945), and the Soviet Union (1945-1955) before being returned to Chinese control. Today the lighthouse is a popular attraction for visitors to Lüshun. Located about 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest of Lüshun (known as Port Arthur during the colonial period). Site open, tower closed. ARLHS PRC-038; CN-1175; Admiralty F3986; NGA 18312.
Lüshun Xingang East Outer Breakwater
2013. Active; focal plane 23 m (75 ft); green light, 3 s on, 3 s off. 12 m (39 ft) round cylindrical white concrete tower. No photo available, and the light is too new to appear in Google's satellite view. Located at the end of the east outer breakwater of the western (Liaodong Bay) harbor of Lüshun. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3984.69.
Lüshun Light
Lüshun Light, Lüshun
PRC Maritime Safety Administration photo
Lüshun Xingang East Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 7 m (23 ft); continuous green light. 6 m (20 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Tower covered with white ceramic tiles; lantern painted green. A view from the harbor is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the inner east breakwater of the Lüshun Xingang harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3984.6.
Lüshun Xingang West Breakwater
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 7 m (23 ft); continuous red light. 6 m (20 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery. Tower covered with white ceramic tiles; lantern painted red. A view from the harbor is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the west inner breakwater of the Lüshun Xingang harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3984.5.
Lüshun Xingang Outer Breakwater
2012. Active; focal plane 23 m (75 ft); white light, 3 son, 3 s off. 6 m (20 ft) round concrete tower, colored with red and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view that may show an earlier light. Located at the end of the outer breakwater of the Lüshun Xingang harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3984.7; CN-1176.11.
Shuangdaowan
Date unknown. Google's satellite view reveals a substantial lighthouse with lantern and gallery on the breakwater of Shuangdaowan, a sheltered bay about 15 km (9 mi) north of Xingang harbor. No other information is available about this lighthouse.
Xiaolongshan (Xiaolongshan Dao) {Sho-ryu-san-to} (2?)
1998 (station established 1932). Active; focal plane 69 m (226 ft); white flash every 4 s. 8.5 m (28 ft) round concrete tower, painted white. An MSA photo is available, but Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the location. Located at the northwestern tip of an island about 10 km (6 mi) off the northwestern point of the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. CN-1177; Admiralty F3984; NGA 18316.

Wafangdian City Lighthouses
Changxingdao (Hulushan Wan) North Breakwater
2009. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); red light, 3 s on, 3 s off. 12 m (39 ft) round cylindrical white concrete tower. No photo available, and the breakwater is not seen in Google's satellite view. Located at the end of the north outer breakwater of the Hulushan harbor of Wafangdian. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3983.2.
Changxingdao
1932. Reactivated (inactive 1945-1960). Active; focal plane 199 m (653 ft); white flash every 25 s. 10 m (33 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery, attached to a 1-story concrete equipment building. Entire lighthouse covered with white tiles. An MSA photo is at right, a smaller MSA photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. The lighthouse was heavily damaged in 1945, near the end of World War II, and it remained out of service until restored by the Navy in 1960. Changxingdao is a large island, about 25 km (15 mi) long, separated from the west coast of the Liaodong Peninsula by a narrow channel. Located on a high bluff at the west end of the island. Site status unknown. ARLHS PRC-013; CN-1199; Admiralty F3983; NGA 18334.
Changxingdao North Harbor East Breakwater
2013. Active; focal plane 21 m (69 ft); continuous red light. 15 m (49 ft) round concrete tower painted with red and white horizontal bands. No photo available, and the breakwater is not seen in Google's fuzzy satellite view of the harbor. Located on the east (really south) breakwater of Wafangdian's new north harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty F4382.6.
Changxingdao North Harbor West Breakwater
2013. Active; focal plane 21 m (69 ft); continuous green light. 15 m (49 ft) round concrete tower painted with green and white horizontal bands. No photo available, and the breakwater is not seen in Google's fuzzy satellite view of the harbor. Located on the west (really north) breakwater of Wafangdian's new north harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty F4382.7.
* Dagushan
1992. Active; focal plane 79 m (259 ft); white flash every 20 s. 19.5 m (64 ft) round concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands. An MSA photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on a sharp promontory of the Liaodong Peninsula mainland about 16 km (10 mi) northwest of Fuzhoucheng. Accessible by road, according to MSA. Site probably open, tower closed. ARLHS PRC-020; CN-1199.02; Admiralty F3982; NGA 18334.3.
Changxingdao Light
Changxingdao Light, Wafangdian
PRC Maritime Safety Administration Wenzhou Office photo
* Taipingjiao
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 35 m (115 ft); white flash every 15 s. 13 m (43 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with gallery, covered with white tiles. An MSA photo is available, and Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the area. Located on a promontory sheltering the north side of the harbor of Huatong. Accessible by road, according to MSA. Site probably open, tower closed. ARLHS PRC-059; CN-1199.03; Admiralty F3981; NGA 18334.6.

Yingkou Prefecture Lighthouses

Bayuquan District Lighthouses
Xianren Dao South Breakwater
Date unknown.Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); green light, 4 s on, 2 s off. 14 m (46 ft) round concrete tower, painted with green and white horizontal bands. No photo available, and Google's satellite view shows nothing of this new harbor. Located on the south breakwater of the Xianren Dao harbor on the south side of Bayuquan. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3979.45; NGA 18334.62.
Xianren Dao North Breakwater
Date unknown.Active; focal plane 14 m (46 ft); red light, 4 s on, 2 s off. 12 m (39 ft) round concrete tower, painted with green and white horizontal bands. No photo available, and Google's satellite view shows nothing of this new harbor. Located on the south breakwater of the Xianren Dao harbor on the south side of Bayuquan. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3979.44; NGA 18334.61.
Bayuquan West Breakwater (2?)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12 m (39 ft); quick-flashing green light. 12 m (39 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery, painted with green and white horizontal bands. A photo is available, but Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the breakwater. NGA lists the focal plane height as 9 m (30 ft) and describes the lighthouse as white; the MSA Shanghai light list also describes the lighthouse as white. Located at the north end of the main breakwater at Bayuquan. Site status unknown. CN-1199.2; Admiralty F3979.2; NGA 18334.8.
Bayuquan Approach Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 21 m (69 ft); continuous white light. 25 m (82 f) skeletal tower, painted with orange and white horizontal bands and carrying a triangular orange daymark. No photo available, and the tower is not seen in Google's satellite view. Located on the end, or on pilings just off the end of a quay opposite the entrance to the harbor. Site and tower closed. CN-1199.1; Admiralty F3979; NGA 18334.7.
Bayuquan Approach Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); continuous white light. 48 m (157 f) skeletal tower, painted with orange and white horizontal bands and carrying a triangular orange daymark. No photo availableand the tower is not seen in Google's satellite view. Located in the harbor area 1.74 km (1.1 mi) east of the front light. Site and tower closed. CN-1199.11; Admiralty F3979.1; NGA 18334.71.
Bayuquan North Breakwater (2?)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12 m (39 ft); quick-flashing red light. Approx. 12 m (39 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern and gallery, probably painted with red and white horizontal bands. No photo available, and Google has only a fuzzy satellite view of the breakwater. NGA lists the focal plane height as 9 m (30 ft) and describes the lighthouse as white; the MSA Shanghai light list also describes the lighthouse as white. Located at the north end of the main breakwater at Bayuquan. Site status unknown. CN-1199.32; Admiralty F3979.15; NGA 18334.75.
Taizishan (2)
1993 (station establishment date unknown). Active; focal plane 131 m (430 ft); white flash every 10 s. 21 m (69 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with lantern, gallery, and four ribs. Tower covered with white tiles; lantern and gallery painted white. A photo is at right, a 2011 photo is available, and Google has a very fuzzy satellite view. The lighthouse was built in 1989 but not activated until 1993. An older lighthouse is seen in the background of an MSA photo, but we don't know if it survives today. Taizishan means "table mountain." Located on a hill above the harbor of the new port of Bayuquan, about 13 km (8 mi) north of Xiongyuecheng. Site status unknown. CN-1199.5; Admiralty F3978; NGA 18335.
Taizishan Light
Taizishan Light, Bayuquan, August 2008
Panoramio Creative Commons photo by 关春国

Yingkou City Lighthouses
Note: Yingkou is a major seaport at the northeastern corner of the Bohai Gulf and the mouth of the Liao River, the largest river of Liaoning province. The city has a population of about 900,000.
Lightship Yingkou
Date unknown (station established 1867). Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); white flash every 12 s. 23 m (75 ft) steel lightship; light tower with lantern and gallery amidships. Entire vessel painted red. A photo is at right, and another photo is available. The ship was crewed until it was converted to automatic operation in 1985. It was refurbished in 2012-13 and a modern automatic weather station was installed. Located about 12 km (7.5 mi) southwest of the mouth of the river Liao, which is the harbor of Yingkou. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. CN-1200; Admiralty F3970; NGA 18336.
Yingkou Bar Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17.5 m (57 ft); continuous white light. 22 m (72 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. This is the first of a series of ranges guiding ships on the difficult approach to Yingkou at the head of the Bohai Gulf. Located on the coast at the edge of an extensive saltworks on the southwest side of the city. Site status unknown. CN-1202; Admiralty F3971; NGA 18340.
Yingkou Bar Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); continuous white light. 32.5 m (106 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located in the salt pans, 950 m (0.6 mi) northeast of the front light. Site status unknown. CN-1203; Admiralty F3971.1; NGA 18344.
Yingkou Turning Beacon
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 16 m (52 ft); continuous white light. 19 m (69 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a ball-shaped daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located offshore about 400 m (1/4 mi) northwest of the Yingkou Bar Range Front Light. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. CN-1212.1; Admiralty F3970.5; NGA 18338.
Lightship Yingkou
Lightship Yingkou, April 2013
photo posted by Yingkou Meteorological Bureau
Yingkou Inner Channel Entrance Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 14 m (46 ft); continuous red light. 18 m (59 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located on the east side of the entrance to the Liao River. Site status unknown. CN-1209; Admiralty F3971.9; NGA 18348.
Yingkou Inner Channel Common Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 29 m (92 ft); continuous red light. 29 m (92 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located about 1 km (0.6 mi) northeast of the Entrance Range Front light. Site status unknown. CN-1210; Admiralty F3972; NGA 18352.
Yingkou No. 4 Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); continuous red light. 20 m (66 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black, carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. This light and the Common Range Rear light provide a range for vessels leaving Yingkou. Located on the east bank of the Liao River about 600 m (0.38 mi) north of the Common Rear light. Site status unknown. CN-1220; Admiralty F3972.1; NGA 18353.
Yongyuau Jiao
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); white flash every 6 s. 10 m (33 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower, painted black. No photo available, but Gogle has a satellite view. Located on the north side of an oxbow bend of the Liao River. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3977; NGA 18378.
Yingkou West Channel Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 26 m (85 ft); continuous white light. 28 m (92 ft) square skeletal tower, painted black and carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, and the tower has not been found in Google's satellite view. Located on the west bank of the mouth of the Liao River. Site status unknown. CN-1214; Admiralty F3972.51; NGA 18374.
Yingkou West Channel Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 16 m (52 ft); continuous white light. 18 m (59 ft) square skeletal tower, mounted on a square platform supported by piles. Lighthouse painted black, and carrying a triangular daymark. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located in a lagoon on the west bank of the mouth of the Liao River. Site status unknown. CN-1213; Admiralty F3972.5; NGA 18373.

Jinzhou Prefecture Lighthouses

Jinzhou City Lighthouses
Note: Wedged in the northwestern corner of the Bohai Gulf, Jinzhou is China's northernmost port.
Jinzhou Gang Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); continuous white light. Approx. 40 m (131 ft) concrete tower topped by a large observation or harbor control structure. No photo available, but Google has a good satellite view. NGA lists a "white beacon" at this location. Located on the waterfront of Jinzhou. Site status unknown. NGA 18382.
Jinzhou Gang Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 73 m (240 ft); continuous white light. Approx. 67 m (220 ft) concrete tower topped by a large observation or harbor control structure. A distant view is available, and Google has a good satellite view. NGA lists a "white beacon" at this location. Located on the waterfront of Jinzhou. Site status unknown. NGA 18382.1.

Huludao Prefecture Lighthouses

Huludao City Lighthouse
Huludao Gaojiao
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 128 m (420 ft); two white flashes every 12 s. 10 m (33 ft) square masonry tower with lantern and gallery, rising from a 1-story keeper's house. A distant view is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the tip of a peninsula about 15 km (9 mi) east of Jinxi on the northwest coast of Liaodong Bay. Site status unknown. Admiralty F3965.5; NGA 18380.

Suizhong County Lighthouses
** Diaolongzui (Tuanshan Jiao, Daolong Zui) (2)
1998. Active; focal plane 41 m (135 ft); three white flashes, in a 2+1 pattern, every 20 s. 39 m (128 ft) round cylindrical concrete tower with three buttresses, a large round observation room near the top, and lantern and gallery. The lighthouse is white concrete with red trim. A photo is at right, but Google has only a distant satellite view of this area. Located near the mouth of the river Liuquhe, about 13 km (8 mi) southeast of Suizhong on the west side of Liaodong Bay. Site open; the observation level of the tower is probably open, but no information is available on this. CN-1251.12; Admiralty F3964; NGA 18387.
* Huanhaisi (Huanhaisidizui) (2)
1997 (station established 1988). Active; focal plane 25 m (82 ft); white flash every 10 s. 12 m (39 ft) concrete tower: a round inverted conical lantern structure is supported by three columns. The entire lighthouse is white. The Wenzhou MSA office has an excellent photo, another MSA photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on a promontory about 10 km (6 mi) east of Shanhaiguan, near the border with Hebei province. Accessible by road. Site open, tower closed. CN-1251.2; Admiralty F3960; NGA 18390.

Information available on lost lighthouses:

Notable faux lighthouses:

Dialongzui Light
Diaolongzui Light, Suizhong, March 2013
Panoramio photo copyright Yougu; used by permission

Adjoining pages: East: Southeastern Liaoning | South: Hebei

Return to the Lighthouse Directory index | Ratings key

Posted February 25, 2008. Checked and revised April 11, 2014. Lighthouses: 36; lightships: 1. Site copyright 2014 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.