Lighthouses of Indonesia: Western Java

Indonesia has been independent since 1945, after having been the Dutch East Indies for more than 350 years. It is a huge country, stretching along both sides of the Equator for more than 46 degrees of longitude (roughly 5100 km or 3200 miles). Comprised of some 17,000 islands (more than 6000 inhabited islands), it has hundreds of major aids to navigation. Unfortunately, we have no idea how many of these aids can be considered lighthouses. Information about them is scarce, and photos are even scarcer. Official light lists contain dozens of entries for "framework towers" and "white beacons," providing little guidance for the lighthouse fan.

The island of Java (Jawa in Indonesian) is the heart of the country and home to 62% of the population. In fact, with more than 130 million residents it is the world's most populous island. The national capital, Jakarta, is on the northwestern coast of Java.

This page includes lighthouses of the western third of Java, including the provinces of Banten and West Java and the Jakarta Special Capital Region.

The Indonesian word for a lighthouse is mercusuar or (in two words) mercu suar. The phrase menara suar, which includes the Arabic word menara, is sometimes used instead. Tanjung and ujung are words for capes, pulau is an island, selat is a strait, karang is a reef, and teluk is a harbor.

The original Dutch names of historic lighthouses, if known, are shown in curly brackets {}.

Aids to navigation in Indonesia are operated and maintained by the Indonesian Directorate of Marine Navigation (Indomarinav).

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. Admiralty numbers are from volumes F and K of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources
Historical Lighthouses
From Indomarinav, information on four surviving Dutch lighthouses.
Leuchttürme in Indonesien
Photos posted by Andreas Köhler.
Lighthouses in Indonesia
Wikimedia photos, including a collection of historic photos from the collection of the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam.
World of Lighthouses - Indonesia
Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net.
Indonesian Lighthouses
Historic postcard views from the collection of Michel Forand.
Leuchttürme Asiens, Australiens, und Ozeaniens auf historischen Postkarten
Historic postcard views posted by Klaus Huelse.
Edam Light
Edam (Pulau Damar)
Light, Jakarta, August 2007
Flickr photo copyright Deni Adam Mali
permission requested
West Java Province: South Coast Lighthouses
* Pangandaran (Teluk Penanjung)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12 m (39 ft); white flash every 5 s. 12 m (39 ft) square pyramidal skeletal tower, painted white and mounted on a square platform supported by concrete piles. Robby Satya has a photo, Fajar Abdillah has a photo, Herman Tirtobudi has a sunrise closeup, and Google has a satellite view. Pangandaran is a beach resort town; it is connected by a narrow isthmus to a nature reserve on the Penanjung Pangandaran (Pangandaran Peninsula). Located just off the beach on the east side of the isthmus in Pangandaran. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1278.2; NGA 23869.
* Teluk Parigi
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12 m (39 ft); white flash every 4 s. Approx. 10 m (33 ft) round barbell-shaped tower. Entire lighthouse is white. A closeup photo and a distant view (5th photo on the page) are available, and Google has a satellite view. Located just off the beach at Parigi, about 25 km (15 mi) west of Pangandaran. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1278; NGA 23869.5.
* Legok
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); white flash every 5 s. Approx. 32 m (105 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located near a prominent cape in the Tasikmalaya Regency southwest of Pangandaran. Accessible by road. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1277; NGA 23870.
Pulau Manuk (Manuk Island)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 50 m (164 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. A photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. Not to be confused with a much better known Pulau Manuk, a wildlife reserve farther west, near the Sunda Strait. Located on an island just off the coast about 20 km (13 mi) southwest of Cijulang. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1277.5; NGA 23870.5.
Karang Gajah Garut
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 18 m (59 ft); white flash every 4 s. 15 m (49 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located in the surf near a river entrance about 25 km (15 mi) east of Pantai Santolo. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1278.6.
* Teluk Cilauteureun (Pulau Santolo, Tjilaoeteureum)
Date unknown (station established 1930. Active; focal plane 25 m (82 ft); white flash every 6 s. Approx. 21 m (69 ft) post with gallery. Entire lighthouse is white. A photo and a second photo are available, and Bing has a satellite view. Located on Pulau Santolo, an island on the south side of the harbor at Pantai Santolo (Santolo Beach). Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1279; NGA 23871.
* Cidaun East
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); white flash every 5 s. 15 m (49 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white and mounted on a square platform supported by piles. A photo and a second photo are available, Rendra Dwiariaguna also has a photo, and Google has a satellite view. Located in the surf off a village in the Cidaun area. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1279.3.
Pulau Ujung Genteng
2007. Active; focal plane 43 m (141 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 40 m (131 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white, mounted on a 2-story building. A photo is at right, a good closeup, another closeup photo and another photo are available, and Bing has a satellite view. Located on an island just off a prominent cape in Sukabumi Regency at the western end of West Java Province. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1279.5.
* Pelabuhan Ratu (Pelabuhanratu) (3?)
Date unknown (station established 1914). Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 7.5 s. Approx. 22 m (72 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. Fajar Abdillah has a photo, Ikung Adiwar has a photo, and Google has a satellite view. Palabuhan Ratu is a small port and district capital on Java's far southwest coast. Located at the end of a gravel bar protecting the harbor. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1280; NGA 23871.5.
Pulau Ujung Gentang Light
Pulau Ujung Genteng Light, Ciracap, May 2008
Panoramio photo copyright miurak; permission requested

Banten Province: Sunda Strait Lighthouses
Pulau Deli
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 40 m (131 ft) "white tower," presumably a square skeletal tower painted white. No photo available, and no tower appears in Google's satellite view of the listed location. Located on an island about 50 km (30 mi) southeast of the southern entrance to Sunda Strait. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1050.4.
Tanjung Layar (Ujung Kulon, First Point) {Eerste Punt, Oedjoeng Koelon} (3)
1906 (station established 1877). Inactive. Approx. 16 m (52 ft) square metal framework tower, painted black (or covered with rust). This lighthouse is at the left in Arief Bidjak's view at right, and Martinus Rinaldi has a distant view, but the dark tower does not show up well in Bing's satellite view. The lighthouse is also seen in a 1926 Tropenmuseum photo and Forand's postcard view. This historic light station is at the extreme southwest tip of Java, marking the east side of the entrance to the Sunda Strait from the Indian Ocean. The first lighthouse was a tall cast iron tower. This handsome structure was severely damaged by an earthquake on 1 September 1880, after only three years of service. It was replaced by a brick tower seen in a Tropenmuseum photo and an 1886 French book (halfway down the page) posted by the Cornell Digital Library. There is a report that foundations of this lighthouse remain. In 1906 the brick lighthouse was damaged by an earthquake and replaced by the skeletal tower. Located at the extreme tip of the point. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed.
Tanjung Layar (Ujung Kulon, First Point) {Eerste Punt} (4)
Date unknown (station established 1877). Active; focal plane 50 m (164 ft); three white flashes every 15 s. 30 m (98 ft) square tapered metal framework tower, painted white. Several keeper's houses and other station buildings. A photo, a closeup, and a view from the sea are available, and Bing has a satellite view of the station. The present lighthouse is staffed by crews rotating every four months. The area is included in the Ujung Kulon National Park. Located about 300 m (330 yd) northeast of the 1906 lighthouse. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IDO-084; Admiralty K1050.2; NGA 23332.
Tanjung Parat
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 4 s. "White beacon," height unknown, but a tall skeletal tower would be indicated for this location. No photo available, and the light is apparently too new to appear in Bing's satellite view. Located at the northeastern point of Pulau Panaitan, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Tanjung Layar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1050.1; NGA 23333.
Tanjung Layar Lights
Old (left) and new Tanjung Layar Lights, Ujungjaya, August 2006
Panoramio photo copyright Arief Bidyak; permission requested
Tanjung Lesung
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 23 m (75 ft); white flash every 4 s. Approx. 21 m (69 ft) square pyramidal skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a prominent cape about 15 km (9 mi) northwest of Panimbang. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1050.5; NGA 23334.
* Panto Binuangen
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 7.5 s. No description given, but a tall tower would be required. No photo available, and the lighthouse has not been found in Google's satellite view. Located about 3 km (2 mi) south of the Cikoneng lighthouse (next entry). Site status unknown, but the coastal road passes the site. Admiralty K1050.05; NGA 23335.
*** Cikoneng (Tjikoneng, Anyer, Fourth Point) {Vierde Punt} (2)
1885 (station established 1855). Active; focal plane 60 m (197 ft); two white flashes every 20 s. 58 m (190 ft) 12-sided cast iron tower with lantern and gallery. Entire lighthouse painted white. David Howell's photo appears at right, Unian Husien has a 2010 photo, Köhler has a 2011 photo, a closeup, a second closeup, and a more distant view are available, the Tropenmuseum has three historic photos, and Bing has a satellite view. The lighthouse was prefabricated at The Hague in the Netherlands by Enthoven and Co. It is one the very few Indonesian lighthouses readily accessible to tourists. The original lighthouse was destroyed by tsunami waves triggered by the catastrophic explosion of the Krakatoa volcano on 27 August 1883. These waves were at least 30 m (100 ft) high, obliterating the original light station except for the foundation of the lighthouse. Located on Tanjung Cikoneng near Anyer Kidul on the east shore of Sunda Strait, overlooking the still-active Krakatoa. Accessible by road. Site open, tower open for climbing. ARLHS IDO-081; Admiralty K1050; NGA 23336.
Pulau Ular
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 64 m (210 ft); white flash every 5 s. Approx. 20 m (66 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a small island about 3 km (2 mi) west of the oil terminal at Kepuh. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1051; NGA 23340.
Pulau Sangiang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 7.5 s. Approx. 20 m (66 ft) square skeletal tower. The top of the tower is seen in a photo, and Google has an indistinct satellite view. Pulau Sangiang is a boomerang-shaped island roughly 5 km (3 mi) in diameter in the middle of the narrowest passage of Sunda Strait. Located at the southern tip of the island. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1051.1; NGA 23342.
Pulau Tampurung (Toppers Island, Button Island) (2)
Date unknown (station established 1919). Active; focal plane 77 m (253 ft); white flash every 3 s. Approx. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Ayah Maman has a view from the strait, the light can be seen in Hadi Kusmana's distant photo of the island (click on the photo for an enlargement), and Google has a satellite view. Pulau Tampurung is a small but very high island in the northern entrance to the Sunda Strait, about 10 km (6 mi) northwest of Merak. Located on the highest point of the island. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1052; NGA 23344.
Cikoneng (Anyer) Light
Cikoneng
(Anyer) Light, November 2011
Flickr photo copyright David Howell, Peak Design
used by permission

Banten Province: North Coast Lighthouses
* Karang Antu (Karangantu)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 13 m (43 ft); white flash every 5 s. 12 m (39 ft) round hourglass-shaped white concrete tower. Zulkifli Faiz has a photo, another photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the west side of the harbor entrance at Kasemen. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1055; NGA 23362.
Pulau Tunda (Babi Island) (2)
Date unknown (station established 1890). Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); one long white flash every 6 s. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Putri Dwi Jayanti has a photo, another photo and a third photo are available, the tower is visible in an aerial photo of the island (click on the photo for enlargement), and Bing has a satellite view. This light and the Payung Besar light below guide vessels between the Sunda Strait and Jakarta. The original lighthouse had a focal plane of 18 m (60 ft). Pulau Tunda is a narrow island about 4.5 km (3 mi) long and about 25 km (15 mi) east of the Sunda Strait entrance. Located on the central south coast of the island. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown, probably open. ARLHS IDO-256; Admiralty K1054; NGA 23360.

Seribu Islands Lighthouses
Note: The Seribu Islands (or Thousand Islands) are a chain of small islands extending north from near Jakarta into the Java Sea. Many of the islands are protected within a marine national park, but several have resort developments. The islands are administered as part of the Capital Territory of Jakarta.
Pulau Payung Besar (Big Umbrella Island) (2)
Date unknown (station established 1890). Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); two white flashes every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. A photo is available, there's a view from the sea (first photo on the page), and Google has a good satellite view. The original lighthouse was similar but not identical to the present light. Located on a small island about 32 km (20 mi) east of Pulau Tunda and 90 km (55 mi) northwest of Jakarta. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-236; Admiralty K1058; NGA 23364.
Jaga Utara (Pulau Sebira, Pulau Seribu, North Watcher) {Noord Wachter}
1869. Active; focal plane 48.5 m (159 ft); two white flashes every 11 s. 48 m (157 ft) 16-sided cast iron skeletal tower with lantern, gallery, central cylinder, and a 1-story keeper's house enclosed in the base. Lighthouse painted white. Tommy Bernardus has the closeup photo at right, another closeup is available, Ruli Indra has a photo, Wikipedia has a distant aerial photo, and a very distant sailor's view and a historic photo are available, but Google has only a distant satellite view of the island. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has a builder's model of the lighthouse. This is the oldest surviving Dutch lighthouse in Indonesia. The Indonesian jaga utara and the Dutch noord wachter both mean "north watcher" or "guardian of the north." Located on the northernmost island of the chain of the Seribu chain, about 65 km (40 mi) east of the Sumatran coast and 130 km (80 mi) north northwest of Jakarta. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-062; Admiralty K1042; NGA 23376.
Pulau Peniki (South Watcher) {Zuid Wachter}
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 5 s. 35 m (115 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. No photo available, and the island is barely visible in Bing's satellite view. This light greets vessels bound for Jakarta from Singapore. Located on a small island in the Java Sea about 90 km (55 mi) north northwest of Jakarta. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-236; Admiralty K1060.5; NGA 23372.
Pulau Damar Besar {Edam}
1881. Active; focal plane 55 m (180 ft); four white flashes every 20 s. 50 m (164 ft) 12-sided cast iron tower with lantern and gallery. Entire lighthouse painted white. Deni Adam Malik's photo is at the top of this page, another photo are available, Michael Thirnbeck has an aerial photo, and Google has a fuzzy satellite view. Staffed by a crew of five. This famous lighthouse traditionally welcomes travelers to Jakarta. It was prefabricated in the Netherlands by Nering Bögel, Deventer. Located on Pulau Damar Besar in the center of the entrance to the bay of Jakarta. Accessible only by boat, but apparently boats can be chartered in Jakarta. ARLHS IDO-061; Admiralty K1062; NGA 23404.
Jaga Utara Light
Jaga Utara Light, Java Sea, October 2006
Flickr photo copyright Tommy Bernardus
permission requested

Jakarta Lighthouses
Muara Karang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); white flash every 3 s. 15 m (49 ft) round white concrete tower. The light is seen in an aerial photo (click on the photo for enlargement), and Bing has a satellite view. Located on the east side of the entrance to an industrial canal on the west side of Jakarta's harbor. Site and tower closed. Admiralty K1070; NGA 23416.1.
Sunda Kelapa Harbor West (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 17 m (56 ft); two green flashes every 6 s. 17 m (56 ft) round hourglass-shaped tower, painted green. Bill Strong has a photo, and Bing has a distant satellite view. This light replaced a much shorter light listed by NGA. Located at the end of the west breakwater of the harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1069.4; NGA 23412.
Sunda Kelapa Harbor East (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 17 m (56 ft); two red flashes every 6 s. 17 m (56 ft) round hourglass-shaped tower, painted red. Suharwan has a photo, Augusto Sunga has a photo of the lighthouse in silhouette, and Bing has a distant satellite view. This light replaced a much shorter light listed by NGA. Located at the end of the west breakwater of the harbor. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1069; NGA 23408.
Jakarta {Batavia} West Mole (Sunda Kelapa)
1862. Active (?); focal plane 17 m (56 ft); red flash every 3 s. 16 m (52 ft) round stone tower, painted white. No recent photo available. A photo and another photo are available, a page for the lighthouse has recent and historic photos, the Tropenmusuem has historic photos, Forand has a historic postcard view, and Google has a satellite view. Several of these sources describe the lighthouse as inactive. The lighthouse is now immediately adjacent to the Jakarta Fish Port, which is under development by Japanese investors. As part of the redevelopment, the lighthouse was to be refurbished. We do not know the status of this planned restoration. Located on the east side of the mole, about 1200 m (3/4 mi) south of Kelapa Harbor lights. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-063; Admiralty K1068.5; NGA 23416.
Tanjung Priok West Mole
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 22 m (72 ft); green flash every 4 s. 20 m (66 ft) fiberglass column with an octagonal base. Entire lighthouse is green. Lightphotos.net has a distant view of the two breakwater lights, and Google has a satellite view. Tanjung Priok, at Tipar in east Jakarta, is a modern containership port and ferry terminal. Located at the end of the west breakwater of Tanjung Priok harbor. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1074; NGA 23432.
Tanjung Priok East Mole
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 22 m (72 ft); red flash every 4 s. 20 m (66 ft) round fiberglass tower with an octagonal base and a flared top. Entire lighthouse is red. A photo by Klaus Ottes is at right, Lightphotos.net has a distant view of the two breakwater lights, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of the east breakwater of Tanjung Priok harbor. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1076; NGA 23436.
** Jakarta Harbor (Batavia Marina) (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); white flash every 2.5 s. Approx. 22 m (72 ft) octagonal light tower atop a square cylindrical glass-enclosed tower attached to the side of a 5-story building. The marina has numerous photos, and Google has a satellite view. This appears to be a historic building recently converted to an upscale marina and restauarant. Located just east of the Sunda Kelapa quays. Site open; it appears that visitors can climb to the gallery. Site manager: Batavia Marina. Admiralty K1068; NGA 23420.
Tanjung Priok East Light
Tanjung Priok East Mole Light, Jakarta, December 2006
Flickr Creative Commons photo by Klaus Ottes
Tanjung Priok (Tipar) Inner Harbor
Date unknown (station established 1885). Active; focal plane 46 m (151 ft); white flash every 10 s. 40 m (131 ft) skeletal tower with galley, painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located on the Tanjung Priok harbor waterfront at Tipar, in east Jakarta. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1073.5; NGA 23428.
Tanjung Kerawang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 13 m (43 ft); two red flashes every 8 s. 14 m (46 ft) concrete tower, painted red. No photo available, but Bing has a distant satellite view. Located on a reef about 2 km (1.2 mi) off the cape, marking the eastern entrance to the bay of Jakarta. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1078; NGA 23396.

West Java Province North Coast Lighthouses
Pulau Biawak (Pulau Rakit) {Boompjes Eiland}
1872. Active; focal plane 54 m (177 ft); white flash every 15 s. 50 m (164 ft) 16-sided cast iron skeletal tower with lantern, gallery, and central cylinder. Although listed by NGA as black and white, the lighthouse is now painted all white. A photo is at right, another photo is available, and Google has a fuzzy satellite view. This lighthouse was prefabricated by Grofsmederij Leiden in the Netherlands. The present lantern was added in 1911. Located on a small island about 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Kandanghaur in the Java Sea. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-074; Admiralty K1084; NGA 23460.
Karang Tanah
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 14 m (46 ft); two white flashes every 5 s. 14 m (46 ft) "white beacon," according to NGA; this is probably a round fiberglass tower mounted on a platform supported by piles. No photo available. Located on a reef about 25 km (15 mi) north northeast of Cirebon. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1090; NGA 23472.
Cirebon Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 19 m (62 ft); nine quick white flashes every 15 s. 17 m (56 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the water's edge on the north side of Cirebon harbor. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1092.51; NGA 23484.
* Cirebon (2)
Date unknown (station established 1867). Active; focal plane 31 m (102 ft); three white flashes every 20 s. 30 m (98 ft) octagonal skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Tjetjep Rustandi has a 2012 photo, Nancy Kie Sheng has a good photo, a closeup of the lighthouse in action is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the mole on the east side of inner harbor at Cirebon. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IDO-123; Admiralty K1092; NGA 23476.
Pulau Biawak Light
Pulau Biawak Light, Java Sea, July 2007
Panoramio photo copyright bstwan
permission requested

Information available on lost lighthouses:

Notable faux lighthouses:

Adjoining pages: North: Kalimantan (Borneo) | East: Central Java | West: Southern Sumatra

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Posted April 13, 2006. Checked and revised January 4, 2014. Lighthouses: 38. Site copyright 2014 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.