Lighthouses of Indonesia: Southern Sulawesi (Celebes)

Indonesia has been independent since 1945, after having been the Dutch East Indies for more than 350 years. It is a huge country, stretching along both sides of the Equator for more than 46 degrees of longitude (roughly 5100 km or 3200 miles). Comprised of some 17,000 islands (more than 6000 inhabited islands), it has hundreds of major aids to navigation. This page includes the lighthouses of the southern half of Sulawesi (Celebes), a major island in the northern part of the country.

Shaped like an artistically drawn letter K, Sulawesi consists mostly of four narrow peninsulas. The Makassar Strait separates Sulawesi from Kalimantan (Borneo) to the west. The Celebes Sea is north of the island, the Banda Sea is to the east and southeast, and the Flores Sea is on the south. Makassar, also called Ujung Pandang, is the major port. This page covers roughly the southern half of the island, including the provinces of Southeast Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi.

The Indonesian word for a lighthouse is mercusuar. The phrase menara suar, which includes the Arabic word menara, is sometimes used instead. Pulau is an island and karang is a reef.

Aids to navigation in Indonesia are operated and maintained by the Indonesian Directorate of Marine Navigation (Indomarinav).

ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. Admiralty numbers are from volumes F and K of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.

General Sources
Historical Lighthouses
From Indomarinav, information on four surviving Dutch lighthouses.
Indonesian Lighthouses
Historic postcard views from the collection of Michel Forand.

Karang Takarewataya Light, Java Sea, November 2008
photo copyright Damien Loong; permission requested

Southeast Sulawesi Province Lighthouses

Kendari and Pulau Wowoni Area Lighthouses
Note: Kendari is a port city on the east coast and the capital of Southeast Sulawesi province.
Pulau Dehaan (Pulau Labengki Kecil)
2007. Active; focal plane 55 m (180 ft); four white flashes every 10 s. Approx. 40 m (131 ft) white concrete tower. A view from the sea by Muhammed Idris is at right, and Bing has a satellite view. Located on a small island about 65 km (40 mi) north of Kendari. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1559.97; NGA 25278.5.
Pulau Manui
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); white flash every 4 s. "White beacon." No photo available, and Google has only a distant satellite view of the area. Located on heights above the southeastern point of Pulau Manui, a 12 km (7.5 mi) long high island about 80 km (50 mi) northeast of Kendari. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1559.8; NGA 25279.
Teluk Kendari Range Front
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 9 m (30 ft); white light, 2 s on, 2 s off. Harri Daryanto has a photo, and Google has a satellite view. Located off the ferry terminal at Kendari. Accessible only by boat, but easily seen from shore or from ferries. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1560.3; NGA 25290.
Teluk Kendari Range Rear
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); white light, 1 s on, 1 s off. Harri Daryanto has a closeup photo, and Google has a satellite view. Located 130 m (430 ft) west of the front light. Accessible only by boat, but easily seen from shore or from ferries. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1560.31; NGA 25290.2.
Pulau Wowoni (Tanjung Pemali)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 44 m (144 ft); four white flashes every 20 s. Approx. 38 m (125 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery. Tower painted white. Coast guard station with staff quarters and other buildings. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Wowoni is a roughly heart-shaped island about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter located off the southeastern coast of Sulawesi. Located at the northern tip of the island. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1559.7; NGA 25288.
Pulau Dehaan Light
Pulau Dehaan (Labengki Kecil) Light, Banda Sea, May 2012
Panoramio photo copyright Muhammad Idris; permission requested
Tanjung Watutembatu
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 65 m (213 ft); four white flashes every 10 s. 40 m (131 ft) skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, and Google has only a very distant satellite view of the cape. This light stands on a promontory at the easternmost tip of the island of Wowoni, southeast of Kendari. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-334; Admiralty K1559.9; NGA 25289.
Campada South
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); red flash every 4 s. 17 m (56 ft) square skeletal tower, painted red, mounted on a square platform supported by piles. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located at the south end of a reef on the west side of the strait separating Wowoni from the mainland. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty K1558.7; NGA 25310.

Pulau Buton Lighthouses
Note: Pulau Buton and Pulau Muna are large islands located off the southeastern tip of Sulawesi. Pulau Buton is larger, about 120 km (75 mi) long, and is separted from Pulau Muna to the west by a narrow north-south channel.
Tanjung Batu Sori
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 25 m (82 ft); white flash every 3 s. Approx. 20 m (66 ft) tower. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on the west coast of Buton at the narrowest point of the Buton Strait, which separates Buton from Muna. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1551.8; NGA 25330.
Pulau Lebutan
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); two white flashes every 8 s. 15 m (49 ft) skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available; Google has a distant and clouded satellite view of the area. Located on an island in the channel on the west side of Buton. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-154; Admiralty K1551.5; NGA 25328.
Tanjung Loba
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (108 ft); two white flashes every 8 s. Approx. 28 m (92 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a prominent point of land on the northwest coast of Pulau Buton. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1550.5; NGA 25317.
Tanjung Buton
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 60 m (197 ft); white flash every 3 s. Described only as a "beacon." No photo available, but Bing's satellite view reveals a white concrete tower of unknown height. Located in a heavily forested area at the northern tip of Pulau Buton. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1558.4; NGA 25311.
Tanjung Kanolanatumbi
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); white flash every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) white concrete tower with lantern and gallery. A photo is at right, and Google has a satellite view. This light stands on the eastern point of Pulau Buton. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-302; Admiralty K1555.8; NGA 25346.
Tanjung Kordoa
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); white flash every 4 s. Approx. 12 m (39 ft) white concrete tower. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a promontory on the southeast coast of Pulau Buton. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1554.4; NGA 25342.
Tanjung Kanolanatumbi Light
Tanjung Kanolanatumbi Light, Pulau Buton
Wordpress photo copyright musafirtimur; permission requested
Tanjung Masige (Pulau Siumpu)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 20 m (66 ft); white flash every 5 s. 15 m (49 ft) square skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a reef off the southwestern tip of Pulau Siumpu, an island off the southwestern tip of Butan. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-280; Admiralty K1553; NGA 25352.

Tukangbesi Islands Lighthouses
Pulau Wangiwangi
Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 150 m (492 ft); two white flashes every 12 s. 21 m (69 ft) skeletal tower, painted white. Savitri Kusuma has the photo at right, and Waode NaniKurnia has on Twitter a photo taken on the gallery of the lighthouse, but Google has only a distant satellite view of the area. Pulau Wangiwangi is an island in the Tukangbesi group, east of Buton. Located on the northern tip of the island, 35 km (22 mi) east of Tanjung Kanolanatumbi. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IDO-259; Admiralty K1558; NGA 25348.
Pulau Binongko
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); white flash every 10 s. "White beacon," according to NGA. A tall tower would be expected here to guide vessels rounding the southeastern tip of Sulawesi and its associated islands. No photo available, and Google has only a distant satellite view of the area. Located at the southern tip of Pulau Binongko, the southernmost major island of the Tukangbesi group, southeast of Buton. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1558.34; NGA 25350.4.
Pulau Moromaho
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 45 m (148 ft); four white flashes every 10 s. "Lighthouse," according to NGA. A distant photo (a little more than halfway down the page) shows what appears to be a white concrete tower perhaps 40 m (131 ft) tall. Google has a distant satellite view of the island. Located on a small island at the extreme end of the Tukangbesi Islands and at the junction of the Banda and Flores Seas. The island is a well known scuba diving site. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IDO-225; Admiralty K1558.33; NGA 25351.
Pulau Wangi-Wangi Light
Pulau Wangiwangi Light, Banda Sea, October 2011
Panoramio photo copyright Savitri Kusuma; used by permission

Gulf of Boni Lighthouses
Note: The Gulf of Boni separates the Southeast and South Sulawesi peninsulas. Kolaka is the principal town on the east side of the gulf and the west side of the Southeast Sulawesi peninsula; ferries cross the gulf from Kolaka to Watampone in South Sulawesi.
Telaga Besar
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); two white flashes every 15 s. Approx. 40 m (131 ft) square pyramidal skeletal tower, painted white. Coast guard station with several station buildings. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view of the station. This light marks the eastern entrance to the Gulf of Boni from the Flores Sea. Located at the west end of Telaga Besar, a small island off the south end of the much larger Pulau Kabaena. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1553.5; NGA 25374.
* Kolaka Pier (2)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); yellow flash every 3 s. 15 m (49 ft) white concrete post. A photo is available, and Google has a satellite view. Located on the east pier at Kolaka. Site status unknown, but there must be good views from the waterfront. Admiralty K1547.9; NGA 25360.
Lambacina (Lambasina) Kecil
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 60 m (197 ft); two white flashes every 8 s. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a good satellite view. Located on a small island in the Gulf of Boni about 30 km (19 mi) west of Kolaka. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1548.6; NGA 25370.

South Sulawesi Province Lighthouses

Gulf of Boni Lighthouse
Tanjung Lameriki
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 34 m (112 ft); white flash every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) octagonal skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. This lighthouse faces the Gulf of Boni, the arm of the Flores Sea that separates the southern and southeastern peninsulas of Sulawesi. Located on a promontory about 45 km (28 mi) north of Macoppe. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-306; Admiralty K1541.3; NGA 25473.

Selayer Islands Lighthouses
Note: The Selayer Islands extend south and then southeast from the southeastern tip of Sulawesi's Southern Peninsula. The islands separate the Flores Sea to the east from the Java Sea to the west.
Pulau Pasitanete (Pamatata) (3)
Date unknown (station established 1898). Active; focal plane 65 m (213 ft); four white flashes every 20 s. 20 m (66 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery. Lighthouse painted white, lantern red. A photo is at right, and Google has a satellite view of the station. The original lighthouse had a focal plane height of only 45 m (148 ft), so it must have been built at a lower location. Located on a small island off the northern end of the much larger island of Selayar, about 30 km (19 mi) southeast of Bulukumba. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-234; Admiralty K1536; NGA 25408.
Pulau Bonerate
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 64 m (210 ft); three white flashes every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) square skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view of the station. Located on an island in the Flores Sea near the southeastern end of the Selayer group. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1328; NGA 25663.

South Coast Lighthouses
Bulukumba (Tanjung Papanambeja) (2)
Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 26 m (85 ft); four white flashes every 20 s. 24 m (79 ft) skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has an indistinct satellite view. The original tower had a height of 13 m (43 ft). Located on a promontory on the southwest side of Bulukumba. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-121; Admiralty K1532; NGA 25412.
Pulau Pasitanete Light
Pulau Pasitanete Light, Selayer, May 2007
Panoramio photo copyright MACTAK; used by permission
* Kaili
Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 22 m (72 ft); light characteristic unknown. Approx. 20 m (66 ft) square skeletal tower with gallery, painted white, mounted on a square concrete base supported by piles. Asrul Noer's photo is at right, and Bing has an indistinct satellite view. Located at the base of a long pier at Kaili. Site open, tower closed.
Tanjung Bulu Bulu
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); white flash every 10 s. No description available, but a tall tower would be needed in this location. This tower may be new, since it has not been found in Google's satellite view. Located at the southern tip of the Southern Peninsula near Binamu. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1528; NGA 25414.

Java Sea Island Lighthouses

Pulau Banawaya (2)
Date unknown (station established 1913). Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); two white lights every 5 s. Approx. 27 m (89 ft) "white beacon." No photo available, and Google has only a very distant satellite view of the area. The original lighthouse had a focal plane height of 20 m (66 ft). Located on a small island in the middle of the Java Sea about 150 km (90 mi) south of the southern point of Sulawesi. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-009; Admiralty K1325; NGA 25416.5.
Pulau Jailamu (2?)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 17 m (56 ft); white flash every 5 s. NGA describes this as a 10 m (33 ft) fiberglass tower, but two very distant views (no longer online) suggest a taller, possibly skeletal tower. Google has a very distant satellite view of the island. Located on a small island about 210 km (130 mi) south southwest of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1325.3; NGA 25416.6.
Pulau Longkoitang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 32 m (105 ft); white flash every 5 s. Approx. 30 m (98 ft) "white beacon," according to NGA. No photo available, and Google has only a very distant satellite view of the island. Located on a small island about 275 km (170 mi) south southwest of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1325.5; NGA 25416.7.
Kaili Light
Kaili Light, Kaili, February 2009
Panoramio photo copyright Asrul Noel; permission requested
Pulau Kapoposangbali
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 34 m (112 ft); white flash every 10 s. 30 m (98 ft) "white beacon," according to NGA. No photo available; Google has a very distant satellite view of the island. Located on a small island of the Satengar group, far across the Java Sea, roughly 360 km (225 mi) southwest of Makassar and only 80 km (50 mi) off the north coast of Lombok in the Lesser Sunda Islands. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-203; Admiralty K1322; NGA 25578.
Karang Takarewataya (De Bril, Den Bril)
1887. Active; focal plane 25 m (82 ft); white flash every 10 s. 23 m (75 ft) octagonal cast iron tower with lantern and three galleries, painted with red and white horizontal stripes. Damien Loong's photo is at the top of this page, the Amsterdam Tropenmuseum has a 1929 distant view, and Google has a distant satellite view of the reef. This is the only survivor among several lighthouses of this class built in the Dutch Indies. Located at the south end of a reef in the Java Sea about 120 km (75 mi) south southwest of the southern point of Sulawesi. Accessible only by boat; fishing tours to the reef are available. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-009; Admiralty K1524; NGA 25416.

Southern Strait of Makassar Lighthouses
Dewakang Besar
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 33 m (108 ft); white flash every 5 s. 30 m (98 ft) white iron skeletal tower. Taufik Hidayatullah has an excellent photo, and Google has a satellite view of the station. Located on a small island about 105 km (65 mi) west southwest of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-125; Admiralty K1522; NGA 25420.
Pulau Tanakeke
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 24 m (79 ft); white flash every 10 s. 20 m (66 ft) white concrete tower. No photo available, but Google has a good satellite view. Pulau Tanakeke is a populated island about 15 km (9 mi) southwest of Patalasang, on the southwestern tip of Sulawesi. ARLHS IDO-250; Admiralty K1518.5; NGA 25421.
Pulau Dayangdayangan (2)
Date unknown (station established 1893). Active; focal plane 42 m (138 ft); white flash every 5 s. 30 m (98 ft) iron skeletal tower with gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. The original lighthouse had a focal plane height of 32 m (105 ft). Located on a small island about 50 km (30 mi) south southwest of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-196; Admiralty K1518; NGA 25424.
Pulau Kalu Kalukuang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 44 m (144 ft); four white flashes every 30 s. 40 m (131 ft) square tapered skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Taufik Hidayatullah's closeup photo is at right, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the north end of a small but inhabited island in the middle of the south entrance to the Makassar Strait, about 180 km (110 mi) west of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-139; Admiralty K1442.7; NGA 24982.
Kudingareng (Kodengarang) Lompo
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 41 m (135 ft); four white flashes every 27 s. 40 m (131 ft) square skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white; lantern painted red. Arham Muhammad has a 2012 photo (first photo on the page), a small photo is available (3/4 the way down the page), and Google has an indistinct satellite view. Located at the south end of a small but densely populated island about 15 km (9 mi) west of Makassar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-023; Admiralty K1518; NGA 25432.
Pulau Kalu Kalukuang Light
Pulau Kalu Kalukuang Light, Makassar Strait, May 2009
Panoramio photo copyright Taufik Hidayatullah
used by permission
Pulau Lanyukang
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 24 m (79 ft); white flash every 10 s. 20 m (66 ft) round white concrete tower with lantern and gallery. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on an islet about 40 km (25 mi) northwest of Makassar (the outermost of a large group of small islands). Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty K1508.5; NGA 25461.
Pulau Kapoposang (1)
1906. Inactive since 1957. Approx. 25 m (82 ft) cast iron tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. Andika Ferial's photo at right shows this historic Dutch lighthouse and its modern replacement, but the island is only a blur in Google's satellite view. This important light station marks the westernmost of a large group of islands and reefs in the southeastern quadrant of the Makassar Strait. Site open, tower closed.
Pulau Kapoposang (2)
1957 (station established 1906). Active; focal plane 36 m (118 ft); white flash every 5 s. 33 m (108 ft) skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted red (?). Andika Ferial's photo is at right, and S. Budiarto has a very distant photo. Kapoposang is a popular destination for scuba divers. Located on an island in the Makassar Strait, about 100 km (60 mi) northwest of Makassar in southwestern Sulawesi. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS IDO-022; Admiralty K1508; NGA 25468.

Kapoposang Lights, Makassar Strait, May 2008
Panoramio photo copyright Andika Ferial; permission requested

West Sulawesi Province Lighthouses

Central Strait of Makassar Lighthouses
Tanjung Rangasa
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 105 m (344 ft); white flash every 5 s. 21 m (69 ft) white iron skeletal tower. No photo available, but a Bing satellite view probably shows the station. Located on a prominent cape in Banggae, a town about 5 km (3 mi) southwest of Majene (Madjene). Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-325; Admiralty K1496; NGA 25492.
Tanjung Binanga
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 24 m (79 ft); white flash every 6 s. Approx. 20 m (66 ft) square pyramidal skeletal tower, painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. Located on a promontory at Palangpalang, about 40 km (25 mi) north of Majene (Madjene). Site probably open, tower closed. Admiralty K1494; NGA 25494.
Tanjung Rangas
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 99 m (325 ft); white flash every 6 s. 21 m (69 ft) white iron skeletal tower. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a prominent cape about 10 km (6 mi) northwest of Mamuju. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-324; Admiralty K1490; NGA 25500.
Tanjung Pasangkayu (Pasaugkajoe)
Date unknown. Active; focal plane 56 m (184 ft); three white flashes every 24 s. 37 m (131 ft) skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, painted white. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a promontory about 2.5 km (1.5 mi) west of Pasangkayu. Site status unknown. ARLHS IDO-044; Admiralty K1484; NGA 25504.

Information available on lost lighthouses:

Notable faux lighthouses:

Adjoining pages: North: Northern Sulawesi | East: North Maluku | Southeast: Maluku | South: Lombok and Sumbawa | West: Kalimantan

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Posted December 18, 2008. Checked and revised December 19, 2013. Lighthouses: 43. Site copyright 2013 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.