Lighthouses of Myanmar (Burma)
Burma, as it was called for many years, became a British
colony as a result of a series of colonial campaigns between 1826 and
1886. Governed until 1937 as a part of the British Empire of India,
the country became independent in 1948. A military junta took control
in 1988 and changed the country's name to Myanmar. Civil unrest and
international sanctions have made the nation unattractive or dangerous
for foreign tourists; as a result we know little of the fate of the
magnificent lighthouses built in British Burma. (It doesn't help that
none of the historic lighthouses are accessible without boat transportation.)
Current information and photos are badly needed.
Some of the information on this page comes from Ken Trethewey's study
Lighthouses of Asia. Missing from the Internet for several
years, this work has been reposted at Pharology.eu. Trethewey describes how plans for these historic Burmese lighthouses
were drawn by the famous Scottish lighthouse engineer Alan Stevenson
and his younger brothers David and Thomas.
On 2-3 May 2008, the central coast of Myanmar was devastated by Tropical
Cyclone Nargis. We do not know if the cyclone damaged the Alguada Reef
Light or any of the other lighthouses.
Aids to navigation in Myanmar are maintained by the Myanmar Port Authority (MPA), an agency of the Ministry of Transport.
ARLHS numbers are from the ARLHS World List of Lights. Admiralty
numbers are from volume F of the Admiralty List of Lights & Fog
Signals. U.S. NGA List numbers are from Publication 112.
- General Sources
- Marine Department Services
- Posted by the MPA, this page has small photos of the Green Island and Beacon Island lighthouses as well as an unidentified lightship.
- Photos taken in January 2011 and November 2014 by Andreas Köhler.
- Pharology - Burma
- Tretheway's account of early lighthouse development in Burma.
- World of Lighthouses - Myanmar
- Photos by various photographers available from Lightphotos.net.
- Lighthouses of Other Regions
- Historic postcard views posted by Michel Forand.
Asiens, Australiens, und Ozeaniens auf historischen Postkarten
- Historic postcard views posted by Klaus Huelse.
Green Island Light, Kyaikkami, January 2011
photo copyright Andreas Köhler; used by permission
- Coco Islands Lighthouse
- Table Island (Coco Islands)
- 1867. Active (?); focal plane 59 m (194
ft); four white flashes every 25 s. 27 m (92 ft) cast iron tower with lantern
and gallery, painted with red and white horizontal bands. Two 1-story brick
keeper's houses and other light station buildings. No photo available, but
Google has the fine satellite
view seen in part at right. There is no sign that the station is occupied. The Coco
Islands are an extension northward of the Andaman Islands, which
are administered by India; British colonial authorities transferred them
to Burma in 1882. In 1953, India sought to lease the light station
in order to better protect shipping in the Bay of Bengal, but Burma rejected
this proposal. The islands are uninhabited, but the Burmese Navy maintains
a small base on Great Coco Island. According to various sources, China has leased facilities on the islands; the government of Myanmar denies this, and there is no credible evidence of significant military activity in the islands. More recently, the government has announced interest in developing tourism in the islands, which are an important nesting site for marine turtles. The islands are attached administratively to the Yangon Region. Located on Table Island, the northernmost
of the islands, about 3 km (2 mi) north of Great Coco Island and 250 km
(150 mi) south southwest of the Irrawaddy Delta on the mainland. Accessible
only by boat. Site status unknown, but almost certainly closed to casual
visitors. ARLHS MYA-018; Admiralty F1200; NGA 26564.
Table Island Light, Bay of Bengal
satellite view copyright Google Maps
Tanintharyi Region (Southern Burma) Lighthouses
- Pulau Perlin (Pak Chan River, Myin Sei Kyun)
- Date unknown (station established 1893). Active; focal plane 16 m (52 ft); white flash every 5 s. 16 m (52 ft) square skeletal tower. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. This light marks the northern entrance to the Pak Chan estuary, which forms the border between Thailand and Myanmar. Note: NGA misspells the name as Pulau Palin. Located at the southeastern tip of Pulau Perlin, an island about 10 km (6 mi) west of Kawthaung, the southernmost town in Myanmar. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. Admiralty F1158; NGA 26570.
- * Seikkantha (Myeik, Mergui Harbour)
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 15 m (49 ft); quick-flashing white light.
19 m (62 ft) 2-stage skeletal tower, the lower stage wooden and the upper state steel. Lighthouse painted white. The lighthouse is near the left edge of an aerial photo of the waterfront, and Bing's satellite view probably shows the lighthouse. Myeik (formerly Mergui) is the largest port in southern Myanmar; it was formerly
a Thai outpost, but the British annexed it to Burma in 1826. Located at the
water's edge on the Myeik waterfront. Site appears to be open, tower closed.
Admiralty F1144; NGA 26576.
- Kalwin Point
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 12.5 m (41 ft); white flash every 3 s. 12.5 m (41 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower, painted with red and yellow horizontal bands. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located off a swampy point at the entrance to Myeik, about 10 km (6 mi) north of city's waterfront. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower closed. Admiralty F1138; NGA 26572.
- Mibya Kyun (Reef Island, Tavoy River)
- 1883. Active; focal plane 94 m (308 ft); white flash every 5 s. 9 m (30
ft) square masonry tower with a "round lantern," according to NGA.
Lighthouse painted white. Sangamithra Iyer's photo is at right, and Google has a satellite
view. Located in southern Myanmar, on the west side of the entrance to
the Tavoy estuary. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS MYA-009;
Admiralty F1132; NGA 26584.
Mon State Lighthouses
- Kyun Nyi Naung (Double Island)
- 1865. Active; focal plane 43 m (141 ft); white flash every 15 s.
20 m (66 ft) brick tower with lantern and gallery, mounted on a granite
base. Lighthouse painted white. No photo available, but Google has a satellite view. The British engineers shipped brick from Singapore for
this lighthouse, which guides ships toward the Moulmein River entrance
to the north. Located on a small island about 11 km (7 mi) offshore
and about 25 km (15 mi) south of Kyaikkami, on the approach to the
Irrawaddy from the south. Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown.
ARLHS MYA-004; Admiralty F1128; NGA 26592.
Mibya Khun Light, Tavoy River, June 2013
photo copyright Sangamithra Iyer; used by permission
- Green Island (Amherst Point)
- 1903. Active; focal plane 41 m (135 ft); two white flashes every 10 s.
20 m (66 ft) masonry tower, painted with red and white horizontal bands.
1-story keeper's house and other light station buildings. A photo by Köhler is at the top of this page,
and Google has a satellite
view. Köhler visited the station in January 2011 and found it in good condition and staffed by a team of keepers. The lighthouse marks
the entrance to the Moulmein River from the Gulf of Martaban. Located on
a small island close to shore at Kyaikkami, a temple and resort town known
as Amherst during the colonial period. Accessible only by boat. Site open, tower open by arrangement with the keepers. ARLHS MYA-006; Admiralty F1126; NGA 26596.
Yangon (Rangoon) Region Lighthouses
- Eastern Grove Flats
- 1869. Active (?); focal plane 28 m (92 ft); white light, 4 s on, 2 s off. 32
m (105 ft) cast iron skeletal tower with lantern and gallery, mounted on a
screwpile foundation; a 1-story keeper's house is included in the lower portion of the tower. The lighthouse was originally painted red and the lantern black and white.
Cara Gilbert's photo is at right, and Google has a satellite view. Since shipping no longer makes much use of the Eastern Channel to Yangon, it seems unlikely that this lighthouse is maintained, and it appears abandoned in Gilbert's photo. Located on the east side of the entrance to the Yangon
River estuary leading to Yangon (Rangoon), the capital of the country. Accessible
by 4WD during the dry season. Site open, tower closed. ARLHS MYA-005; Admiralty F1088; NGA 26620.
- Yangon (Rangoon) Lightships
- There is a photo of two lightfloats, taken in November 2010 (2/3 the way down a long page of photos); one of these vessels is marked for the Thuriya station (ARLHS MYA-020) southwest of Alguada Reef and the other is marked for the Dagon station (ARLHS MYA-003) on the approaches to Yangon. Lightphotos.net has Jaap Termes's historic photo of two other lightships, identified as the Krishna and the Baragua. Information on all these vessels is needed.
- Seik Giy Training Wall East End
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane about 8 m (26 ft); white flash every 5 s. 4 m (13 ft) concrete tower, painted with red and white horizontal bands, mounted on a large concrete base. U Tin Hlaing has a photo, and Google has a satellite view. Located at the end of breakwater across the river from downtown Yangon. Site status unknown. Admiralty F1105.5.
Ayeyarwady Region Lighthouses
- Alguada Reef
- 1865. Active; focal plane 44 m (144 ft); white flash every 10 s. 49 m (161 ft) tapered granite tower with lantern and gallery, painted with black and white horizontal bands. Keeper's house and other station buildings connected to the lighthouse by a raised walkway. No current photo available, but Michel Forand has posted an 1865 drawing of the lighthouse, a photo from around 1900 is available, and Bing has a good satellite view. Surely one of the most impressive lighthouses ever built in Britain's empire, this tower was based on Alan Stevenson's design for the Skerryvore lighthouse in Scotland. It took six years to build, since construction was only possible during the winter monsoon. The lighthouse was strafed by U.S. aircraft in March 1943. Located at the end of a long reef in the Bay of Bengal extending from Cape Negrais, the southwestern tip of Myanmar. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS MYA-001; Admiralty F1068; NGA 26688.
Eastern Grove Flats Light, August 2014
photo copyright Cara Gilbert; used by permission
- Thamihla Kyun (Diamond Island)
- Date unknown (station established 1913). Active; focal plane 24 m (79 ft); white flash every 4 s. 12 m (39 ft) skeletal tower, painted with red and white horizontal bands. No photo available; Bing's satellite view probably shows the station. Located on an island off Cape Negrais, marking the entrance to the Bassein River. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower
closed. Admiralty F1070; NGA 26692.
- Goyangyi Kyun
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 66 m (217 ft); white flash every 15 s. Skeletal tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands. No photo available; Bing's satellite view probably shows the station. NGA misspells the name as Gorangyi Kyun. Located on Goyangyi Kyun, a steep ridge connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, about 65 km (40 mi) north of Cape Negrais. Site status unknown. Admiralty F1067; NGA 26704.
Rakhine State Lighthouses
- Lontha (Andrew Bay)
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 41 m (131 ft); white flash every 8 s. 11 m (36 ft) square towerr, painted with black and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Bing has a satellite view. Located on a promontory at Gyeiktaw. Site status unknown. Admiralty F1065; NGA 26708.
- Mun Aung (Beacon Island)
- 1909. Active; focal plane 37 m
(121 ft); white flash every 5 s. 36 m (118 ft) round cast iron tower with lantern and gallery. The lower half of the lighthouse is painted red and the upper half white. An MPA photo is at right, and Bing has a satellite view. Located
on a small island about 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the northwestern
point of Cheduba Island and roughly 150 km (90 mi) south of Sittwe.
Accessible only by boat. Site status unknown. ARLHS MYA-010; Admiralty
F1064; NGA 26724.
- Thanta (North Terrible Rock)
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 16.5 m (54 ft); white flash every 8 s. 14 m (46 ft) square skeletal tower, painted with black and white horizontal bands. No photo available, but Google has a fuzzy satellite view. Located
on an isolated rock off Kyaukphyu, about 80 km (50 mi) southeast of Sittwe. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower
closed. Admiralty F1063; NGA 26728.
- Paungnetkyi (Laws Island)
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 33 m (108 ft); white flash every 5 s. 12 m (39 ft) square skeletal tower, painted red with a "white top." No photo available, but Bing has a distant satellite view. Located on teh west side of the island, opposite the waterfront of Kyaukpyu, a district capital south of Sittwe. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower
closed. Admiralty F1062; NGA 26732.
- Savage Island (Laychindaung, Great Savage Island, Fakir Point, Aracan)
- 1891 (station established 1844). Inactive, apparently since the 1980s.
21 m (69 ft) round stone tower; lantern removed. Köhler has a photo, Christoph Ulleweit has a fuzzy view from the sea, David Stewart has a fuzzy distant view, Huelse has a historic postcard view, and Google has a satellite
view. Forand has a historic postcard
view of Myanmar's first
lighthouse (called Fakir Point), built here in 1844 by Lieutenant Siddons
of the Royal Engineers. It's very possible that the 1844 tower still stands,
since the Google satellite view shows a smaller tower next to the tall one.
The current condition of the second light is completely unknown, but the
sailing directions for this coast (NGA Publication 173) mention it as a
landmark. The lighthouse was probably deactivated in favor of the Sittwe
light (next listing). Located on a small island off the south side of the
entrance to Sittwe (formerly Aracan). Accessible only by boat. Site status
unknown. ARLHS MYA-022; ex-Admiralty F1060.
Mun Aung (Beacon Island) Light, Bay of Bengal
Maritime Port Authority photo
- ** Sittwe (1)
- Date unknown. Inactive. Approx. 7 m (23 ft) round concrete tower, originally painted with narrow black and white horizontal bands but now painted a pale green. A stairway winds around the tower, and the lantern has been replaced by a covered observation deck. Köhler has a 2014 photo (also seen at right), Sheila Simkin has a photo (halfway down the page), the tower can been be seen in the background of Tun Lin Aung's view from the sea, and Google has a satellite view. Located about 80 m (260 ft) north of the active light (next entry). Site open, and visitors can climb the stairway to the gallery.
- * Sittwe (2)
- Date unknown. Active; focal plane 27 m (89 ft); white flash every 10 s.
27 m (89 ft) square pyramidal skeletal tower with gallery and a small lantern, painted white.
Köhler has a 2014 photo, Tun Lin Aung has a view from the sea, Forand has a historic postcard view, and Google has a satellite
view. Located on a sharp point on the north side of the entrance
to Sittwe. Site status unknown. ARLHS MYA-017; Admiralty F1059;
Original Sittwe Light, Sittwe, November 2014
photo copyright Andreas Köhler; used by permission
- Mayu (Oyster Island) (2)
- 1892 (station established 1885). Active; focal plane 40 m (131 ft); white or red light, depending
on direction, 10 s on, 5 s off. 43 m (141 ft) round cast iron
tower with lantern and gallery (originally, at least). Lighthouse painted
with black and white horizontal bands. Sgt. Lister
Walker's 1942 photo is at right, but Bing's distant satellite view does not show the tower. This lighthouse was repaired
after being damaged by Cyclone Mala in 2006. The Burmese Navy staffs this
station. Located about 25 km (15 mi) southwest of Magyichaung in westernmost
Myanmar. Accessible only by boat. Site and tower closed. ARLHS MYA-012; Admiralty
F1058; NGA 26748.
Information available on lost lighthouses:
- China Bakir (1869-1920s). This screwpile lighthouse was rebuilt in 1901. It was still in service in 1920, but was replaced soon thereafter by a lightship. Ruins were visible for many years.
- Krishna Shoal (1869-1877). This screwpile lighthouse was destroyed, probably by a tropical cyclone. The lighthouse was replaced by the lightship Krishna; Jaap Termes has a historic photo of a more recent lightship at the station. Currently the Sanda lightship station is near this location. Admiralty F1074; NGA 26680.
- Oyster Reef (1876-1884). Destroyed by a tropical cyclone, this screwpile light was replaced by the Oyster Island lighthouse.
Notable faux lighthouses:
Oyster Island Light, Bay of Bengal, 1942
photo by Sgt. Lister Walker, 113th Squadron, Royal Air Force
courtesy of Kevin Krawford; all rights reserved
Adjoining pages: North: Bangladesh | Southeast: Southern Thailand | South: Andaman and Nicobar Islands
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Posted February 20, 2006. Checked and revised January 7, 2014.
Lighthouses: 21; lightships: 2. Site copyright 2014 Russ Rowlett and the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.