Frost: The Way to the Poem
[from Robert Frost: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. James M. Cox. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1962. 21-30.]
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
Whose woods these are I think I know. My little horse must think it queer He gives his harness bells a shake The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
His house is in the village, though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
My little horse must think it queer
He gives his harness bells a shake
The woods are lovely, dark and deep,
The School System has much to say these days of the virtue of reading widely, and not enough about the virtues of reading less but in depth. There are any number of reading lists for poetry, but there is not enough talk about individual poems. Poetry, finally, is one poem at a time. To read any one poem carefully is the ideal preparation for reading another. Only a poem can illustrate how poetry works.
Above, therefore, is a poem—one of the master lyrics of the English language, and almost certainly the best-known poem by an American poet. What happens in it?—which is to say, not what does it mean, but how does it mean? How does it go about being a human reenactment of a human experience? The author—perhaps the thousandth reader would need to be told—is Robert Frost.
Even the TV audience can see that this poem begins as a seemingly-simple narration of a seemingly-simple incident but ends by suggesting meanings far beyond anything specifically referred to in the narrative. And even readers with only the most casual interest in poetry might be made to note the additional fact that, though the poem suggests those larger meanings, it is very careful not to abandon its pretense to being simply narration. There is duplicity at work. The poet pretends to be talking about one thing, and all the while he is talking about many others.
Many readers are forever unable to accept the poet’s essential duplicity. It is almost safe to say that a poem is never about what it seems to be about. As much could be said of the proverb. The bird in the hand, the rolling stone, the stitch in time never (except by artful double-deception) intend any sort of statement about birds, stones, or sewing. The incident of this poem, one must conclude, is at root a metaphor.
Duplicity aside, this poem’s movement from the specific to the general illustrates one of the basic formulas of all poetry. Such a grand poem as Arnold’s “Dover Beach” and such lesser, though unfortunately better known, poems as Longfellow’s “The Village Blacksmith” and Holmes’s “The Chambered Nautilus” are built on the same progression. In these three poems, however, the generalization is markedly set apart from the specific narration, and even seems additional to the telling rather than intrinsic to it. It is this sense of division one has in mind in speaking of “a tacked-on moral.”
There is nothing wrong in itself with a tacked-on moral. Frost, in fact, makes excellent use of the device at times. In this poem, however, Frost is careful to let the whatever-the-moral-is grow out of the poem itself. When the action ends the poem ends. There is no epilogue and no explanation. Everything pretends to be about the narrated incident. And that pretense sets the basic tone of the poem’s performance of itself.
The dramatic force of that performance is best observable, I believe, as a progression in three scenes.
In scene one, which coincides with stanza one, a man—a New England man—is driving his sleigh somewhere at night. It is snowing, and as the man passes a dark patch of woods he stops to watch the snow descend into the darkness. We know, moreover, that the man is familiar with these parts (he knows who owns the woods and where the owner lives), and we know that no one has seen him stop. As scene one forms itself in the theatre of the mind’s eye, therefore, it serves to establish some sort of as yet unspecified relationship between the man and the woods.
It is necessary, however, to stop here for a long parenthesis: even so simple an opening raises a number of questions. It is impossible to address all the questions that rise from the poem stanza by stanza, but two that arise from stanza one illustrate the sort of thing one might well ask of a poem detail by detail.
Why, for example, does the man not say what errand he is on? What is the force of leaving the errand generalized? He might just as well have told us that he was going to the general store, or returning from it with a jug of molasses he had promised to bring Aunt Harriet and two suits of long underwear he had promised to bring the hired man. Frost, moreover, can handle homely detail to great effect. He preferred to leave his motive generalized. Why?
And why, on the other hand, does he say so much about knowing the absent owner of the woods and where he lives? Is it simply that one set of details happened-in whereas another did not? To speak of things “happening-in” is to assault the integrity of a poem. Poetry cannot be discussed meaningfully unless one can assume that everything in the poem—every last comma and variant spelling—is in it by the poet’s specific act of choice. Only bad poets allow into their poems what is haphazard or cheaply chosen.
The errand, I will venture a bit brashly for lack of space, is left generalized in order more aptly to suggest any errand in life and, therefore, life itself. The owner is there because he is one of the forces of the poem. Let it do to say that the force he represents is the village of mankind (that village at the edge of winter) from which the poet finds himself separated (has separated himself?) in his moment by the woods (and to which, he recalls finally, he has promises to keep). The owner is he-who-lives-in-his-village-house, thereby locked away from the poet’s awareness of the time-the-snow-tells as it engulfs and obliterates the world the village man allows himself to believe he “owns.” Thus, the owner is a representative of an order of reality from which the poet has divided himself for the moment, though to a certain extend he ends by reuniting with it. Scene one, therefore, establishes not only a relation between the man and the woods, but the fact that the man’s relations begins with his separation (though momentarily) from mankind.
End parenthesis one, begin parenthesis two.
Still considering the first scene as a kind of dramatic performance of forces, one must note that the poet has meticulously matched the simplicity of his language to the pretended simplicity of the narrative. Clearly, the man stopped because the beauty of the scene moved him, but he neither tells us that the scene is beautiful nor that he is moved. A bad writer, always ready to overdo, might have written: “The vastness gripped me, filling my spirit with the slow steady sinking of the snow’s crystalline perfection into the glimmerless profundities of the hushed primeval wood.” Frost’s avoidance of such a spate illustrates two principles of good writing. The first, he has stated himself in “The Mowing”: “Anything more than the truth would have seemed too weak” (italics mine). Understatement is one of the basic sources of power in English poetry. The second principle is to let the action speak for itself. A good novelist does not tell us that a given character is good or bad (at least not since the passing of the Dickens tradition): he shows us the character in action and then, watching him, we know. Poetry, too, has fictional obligations: even when the characters are ideas and metaphors rather than people, they must be characterized in action. A poem does not talk about ideas, it enacts them. The force of the poem’s performance, in fact, is precisely to act out (and thereby to make us act out empathetically, that is to feel out, that is, to identify with) the speaker and why he stopped. The man is the principle actor in this little “drama of why” and in scene one he is the only character, though as noted, he is somehow related to the absent owner.
End second parenthesis.
In scene two (stanzas two and three) a foil is introduced. In fiction and drama, a foil is a character who “plays against” a more important character. By presenting a different point of view or an opposed set of motives, the foil moves the more important character to react in ways that might not have found expression without any such opposition. The more important character is thus more fully revealed—to the reader and to himself. The foil here is the horse.
The horse forces the question. Why did the man stop? Until it occurs to him that his “little horse must think it queer” he had not asked himself for reasons. He had simply stopped. But the man finds himself faced with the question he imagines the horse to be asking: what is there to stop for out there in the cold, away from bin and stall (house and village and mankind?) and all that any self-respecting beast could value on such a night? In sensing that other view, the man is forced to examine his own more deeply.
In stanza two the question arises only as a feeling within the man. In stanza three, however (still scene two), the horse acts. He gives his harness bells a shake. “What’s wrong?” he seems to say. “What are we waiting for?”
By now, obviously, the horse—without losing its identity as a horse—has also become a symbol. A symbol is something that stands for something else. Whatever that something may be, it certainly begins as that order of life that does not understand why a man stops in the wintry middle of nowhere to watch the snow come down. Can one fail to sense by now that the dark and the snowfall symbolize a death wish, however momentary, i.e., that hunger for final rest and surrender that a man may feel, but not a beast?
So by the end of scene two the performance has given dramatic force to three elements that work upon the man. There is his relation to the world of the owner. There is his relation to the brute world of the horse. And there is that third presence of the unknowable world, the movement of the all-engulfing snow across all the orders of life, the man’s, the owner’s, and the horse’s—with the difference that the man knows of that second dark-within-the-dark of which the horse cannot, and the owner will not, know.
The man ends scene two with all these forces working upon him simultaneously. He feels himself moved to a decision. And he feels a last call from the darkness: “the sweep/ Of easy wind and downy flake.” It would be so easy and so downy to go into the woods and let himself be covered over.
But scene three (stanza four) produces a fourth force. This fourth force can be given many names. It is certainly better, in fact, to give it many names than to attempt to limit it to one. It is social obligation, or personal commitment, or duty, or just the realization that a man cannot indulge a mood forever. All of these and more. But, finally, he has a simple decision to make. He may go into the woods and let the darkness and the snow swallow him from the world of beast and man. Or he must move on. And unless he is going to stop here forever, it is time to remember that he has a long way to go and that he had best be getting there (so there is something to be said for the horse, too).
Then and only then, his question driven more and more deeply into himself by these cross-forces, does the man venture a comment on what attracted him: “The woods are lovely, dark and deep.” His mood lingers over the thought of that lovely dark-and-deep (as do the very syllables in which he phrases the thought), but the final decision is to put off the mood and move on. He has his man’s way to go and his man’s obligations to tend to before he can yield. He has miles to go before his sleep. He repeats that thought and the performance ends.
But why the repetition? The first time Frost says “And miles to go before I sleep,” there can be little doubt that the primary meaning is: “I have a long way to go before I get to bed tonight.” The second time he says it, however, “miles to go” and “sleep” are suddenly transformed into symbols. What are those “something elses” the symbols stand for? Hundreds of people have tried to ask Mr. Frost that question and he has always turned it away. He has turned it away because he cannot answer it. He could answer some part of it. But some part is not enough.
For a symbol is like a rock dropped into a pool: it sends out ripples in all directions, and the ripples are in motion. Who can say where the last ripple disappears? One may have a sense that he knows the approximate center point of the ripples, the point at which the stone struck the water. Yet even then he has trouble marking it surely. How does one make a mark on water? Oh very well—the center point of that second “miles to go” is probably approximately in the neighborhood of being close to meaning, perhaps, “the road of life”; and the second “before I sleep” is maybe that close to meaning “before I take my final rest,” the rest in darkness that seemed so temptingly dark-and-deep for the moment of the mood. But the ripples continue to move and the light to change on the water, and the longer one watches the more changes he sees. Such shifting-and-being-at-the-same-instant is of the very sparkle and life of poetry. One experiences it as one experiences life, for every time he looks at an experience he sees something new, and he sees it change as he watches it. And that sense of continuity in fluidity is one of the primary kinds of knowing, and one that only the arts can teach, poetry being foremost among them.
Frost himself certainly did not ask what that repeated last line meant. It came to him and he received it. He “felt right” about it. And what he “felt right” about was in no sense a “meaning” that, say, an essay could apprehend, but an act of experience that could be fully presented only by the dramatic enactment of forces which is the performance of the poem.
Now look at the poem in another way. Did Frost know what he was going to do when he began? Considering the poem simply as an act of skill, as a piece of juggling, one cannot fail to respond to the magnificent turn at the end where, with one flip, seven of the simplest words in the language suddenly dazzle full of never-ending waves of thought and feeling. Or, more precisely, of felt-thought. Certainly an equivalent stunt by a juggler—could there be an equivalent—would bring the house down. Was it to cap his performance with that grand stunt that Frost wrote the poem?
Far from it. The obvious fact is that Frost could not have known he was going to write those lines until he wrote them. Then a second fact must be registered: he wrote them because, for the fun of it, he had got himself into trouble.
Frost, like every good poet, began by playing a game with himself. The most usual way of writing a four-line stanza with four feet to the line is to rhyme the third line with the first, and the fourth rhyme with the second. Even that much rhyme is so difficult in English that many poets and almost all of the anonymous ballad makers do not bother to rhyme the first and third lines at all, settling for two rhymes in four lines as good enough. For English is a rhyme-poor language. In Italian and French, for example, so many words end with the same sounds that rhyming is relatively easy—so easy that many modern French and Italian poets do not bother to rhyme at all. English, being a more agglomerate language, has far more final sounds, hence fewer of them rhyme. When an Italian poet writes a line ending in “vita” (life) he has literally hundreds of rhyme choices available. When an English poet writes “life” at the end of a line he can summon “strife, wife, knife, fife, rife,” and then he is in trouble. Now “life-strife” and “life-rife” and “life-wife” seem to offer a combination of possible ideas that can be related by more than just the rhyme. Inevitably, therefore, the poets have had to work and rework these combinations until the sparkle has gone out of them. The reader is normally tired of such rhyme-led associations. When he encounters “life-strife” he is certainly entitled to suspect that the poet did not really want to say “strife”—that had there been in English such a word as, say, “hife,” meaning “infinite peace and harmony,” the poet would as gladly have used that word instead of “strife.” Thus, the reader feels that the writing is haphazard, that the rhyme is making the poet say things he does not really feel, and which, therefore, the reader does not feel except as boredom. One likes to see the rhymes fall into place, but he must end with the belief that it is the poet who is deciding what is said and not the rhyme scheme that is forcing the saying.
So rhyme is a kind of game, and an especially difficult one in English. As in every game, the fun of the rhyme is to set one’s difficulties high and then to meet them skillfully. As Frost himself once defined freedom, it consists of “moving easy in harness.”
In “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” Frost took a long chance. He decided to rhyme no two lines in each stanza, but three. Not even Frost could have sustained that much rhyme in a long poem (as Dante, for example, with the advantage of writing in Italian, sustained triple rhyme for thousands of lines in “The Divine Comedy”). Frost would have known instantly, therefore, when he took the original chance, that he was going to write a short poem. He would have had that much foretaste of it.
So the first stanza emerged rhymed a-a-b-a. And with the sure sense that this was to be a short poem, Frost decided to take an additional chance and to redouble: in English three rhymes in four lines is more than enough; there is no need to rhyme the fourth line. For the fun of it, however, Frost set himself to pick up that loose rhyme and to weave it into the pattern, thereby accepting the all but impossible burden of quadruple rhyme.
The miracle is that it worked. Despite the enormous freight of rhyme, the poem not only came out as a neat pattern, but managed to do so with no sense of strain. Every word and every rhyme falls into place as naturally and as inevitably as if there were no rhyme restricting the poet’s choices.
That ease-in-difficulty is certainly inseparable from the success of the poem’s performance. One watches the skill-man juggle three balls, then four, then five, and every addition makes the trick more wonderful. But unless he makes this hard trick seem as easy as an easy trick, then all is lost.
The real point, however, is not only that Frost took on a hard rhyme-trick and made it seem easy. It is rather as if the juggler, carried away, had tossed up one more ball than he could really handle, and then amazed himself by actually handling it. So with the real triumph of this poem. Frost could not have known what a stunning effect his repetition of the last line was going to produce. He could not even know he was going to repeat the line. He simply found himself up against a difficulty he almost certainly had not foreseen and he had to improvise to meet it. For in picking up the rhyme from the third line of stanza one and carrying it over into stanza two, he had created a endless chain-link form within which each stanza left a hook sticking out for the next stanza to hang on. So by stanza four, feeling the poem rounding to its end, Frost had to do something about that extra rhyme.
He might have tucked it back into a third line rhyming with the know-though-snow of stanza one. He could thus have rounded the poem out to the mathematical symmetry of using each rhyme four times. But though such a device might be defensible in theory, a rhyme repeated after eleven lines is so far from is original rhyme sound that its feeling as rhyme must certainly be lost. And what good is theory if the reader is not moved by the writing?
It must have been in some such quandary that the final repetition suggested itself—a suggestion born of the very difficulties the poet had let himself in for. So there is that point beyond mere ease in handling a hard thing, the point at which the very difficulty offers the poet the opportunity to do better than he knew he could. What, aside from having that happen to oneself, could be more self-delighting than to participate in its happening by one’s reader-identification with the poem?
And by now a further point will have suggested itself: that the human insight of the poem and the technicalities of its poetic artifice are inseparable. Each feeds the other. That interplay is the poem’s meaning, a matter not of WHAT DOES IT MEAN, for no one can ever say entirely what a good poem means, but of HOW DOES IT MEAN, a process one can come much closer to discussing.
There is a necessary epilogue. Mr. Frost has often discussed this poem on the platform, or more usually in the course of a long-evening-after a talk. Time and again I have heard him say that he just wrote it off, that it just came to him, and that he set it down as it came.
Once at Bread Loaf, however, I heard him add one very essential piece to the discussion of how it “just came.” One night, he said, he had sat down after supper to work at a long piece of blank verse. The piece never worked out, but Mr. Frost found himself so absorbed in it that, when next he looked up, dawn was at his window. He rose, crossed to the window, stood looking out for a few minutes, and then it was the “Stopping by Woods” suddenly “just came,” so that all he had to do was cross the room and write it down.
Robert Frost is the sort of artist who hides his traces. I know of no Frost worksheets anywhere. If someone has raided his wastebasket in secret, it is possible that such worksheets exist somewhere, but Frost would not willingly allow anything but the finished product to leave him. Almost certainly, therefore, no one will ever know what was in that unsuccessful piece of blank verse he had been working at with such concentration, but I for one would stake my life that could that worksheet be uncovered, it would be found to contain the germinal stuff of “Stopping by Woods”; that what was a-simmer in him all night without its proper form, suddenly, when he let his still-occupied mind to look away, came at him from a different direction, offered itself in a different form, and that finding that form right the impulse proceeded to marry itself to the new shape in one of the most miraculous performances of English lyricism.
And that, too—whether or not one can accept so hypothetical a discussion—is part of HOW a poem means. It means that marriage to the perfect form, the poem’s shapen declaration of itself, its moment’s monument fixed beyond all possibility of change. And thus, finally, in every truly good poem, “How does it mean?” must always be answered “Triumphantly.” Whatever the poem “is about,” how it means is always how Genesis means: the word become a form, and the form become a thing, and—when the becoming is true—the thing become a part of the knowledge and experience of the race forever.