I.    The Library Exemption - § 108

       A.    Background of library exemption

                1.    Impact of the photocopier

                2.    Scope of library reproduction

II.    Section 108(a)

        A.    Enabling section

                1.    Written so no royalties due

                2.    What it takes to qualify for the exemption

        B.    “Not withstanding the provisions of § 106, it is not
                an infringement of copyright for a library or archives,
                or any of its employees acting within the scope of
                their employment, to reproduce no more than one copy
                or phonorecord of a work, except as provided in
                subsections (b) and (c), or to distribute such copy or
                phonorecord, under the conditions specified by this
                section, if...”
                1.    “The reproduction or distribution is made without
                        any purpose of direct or indirect commercial

                        a.    Libraries in for-profit companies

                        b.    Selling copies

                2.    “The collections of the library or archives are (i)
                        open to the public, or (ii) available not only to
                        researchers affiliated with the library or archives or
                        with the institution of which it is a part, but also to
                        other persons doing research in a specialized field.”

                        a.    Libraries that easily meet this requirement

                        b.    Can corporate libraries meet?

                3.    “The reproduction or distribution of the work includes
                        a notice of copyright that appears on the copy that is
                        reproduced or includes a legend stating that the work
                        may be protected by copyright if no such notice
                        appears on the work.”

                        a.    What is notice?

                                1.    Not ALA stamp "Notice this work may be
                                       protected by copyright."

                                2.    Notice = term of art in copyright law

                       b.    Where is the notice found?

                       c.    How to reproduce the notice?

                        d.    If no notice, use ALA stamp

III.    Section 108(b)

        A.    Preservation generally

                1.    Two subsections, § 108(b) = unpublished works,
                       § 108(c) = published

                2.    Amended by DMCA in 1998

        B.    “The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
                section apply to three copies or phonorecords of an
                unpublished work duplicated solely for purposes of
                preservation and security or for deposit for research
                use in another library or archives ... if the copy or
                phonorecord reproduced is currently in the collections
                of the library or archives and any such copy or
                phonorecord that is reproduced in digital format is not
                otherwise distributed in that format and is not made
                available to the public in that format outside the premises
                of the library or archives.”

                1.    Formerly said "a copy in facsimile form"

                2.    Purposes =  preservation, security or deposit for research
                       use in another library

                3.    Requirements:

                        a.    Copy = currently in collection

                        b.    Digital reproduction not used outside premises

1.    Right of first publication
                                 2.    If library makes a digital copy, why two
                                        analog copies?

IV.    Section 108(c)

        A.    Published works -- duplication only if first try to replace

        B.    “The right of reproduction under this section applies to
                three copies or phonorecords of a published work
                duplicated solely for the purpose of replacement of a copy
                or phonorecord that is damaged, deteriorating, lost, stolen
                or obsolete if (1) the library or archives has, after a
                reasonable effort, determined that an unused replacement
                cannot be obtained at a fair price and (2) any copy or
                phonorecord that is reproduced in digital format is not
                made available to the public in that format outside the
                premises of  that library or archives in lawful possession
                of such copy.”

                1.    Purpose = replacement

                2.    Restriction = after the fact, not just in case

                3.    Reasonable effort to obtain unused copy at a fair price

                       a.    H.R. 94-1476 defines

                              1.    Recourse to wholesalers, retail bookstores &

                              2.    Contacting the copyright owner or publisher, if
                                     known, or

                              3.    Using an authorized reproducing service.

                        b.    What is a fair price?

                                1.    Association of American Publishers

                                        a.     Suggested retail price, if available from
                                                the publisher.

                                        b.     Prevailing retain price, if not so available.

                                        c.     Normal price charged by authorized
                                                reproducing service.

                                2.    American Library Association, The Copyright
                                        Primer for Librarians and Educators 27
                                        (2d ed., 1995).

                                       a.    Fair price for a work in original format =
                                              latest suggested retail price of unused

                                        b.    Fair price of  reproduction = price as close
                                               as possible to manufacturing costs +
                                               royalty payments.

                                        c.    If the original format = multivolume &
                                                single volumes are unavailable, it
                                                could be argued  full set price is not
                                                fair price for single volume.

                    4.        Replacing small portion of a work

                    5.        Obsolete - "A format shall be considered obsolete
                                if the machine or device necessary to render
                                perceptible a work stored in that format is no
                                longer manufactured or is no longer reasonably
                                available in the commercial marketplace.”

        C.    Digital copy

               1.    Premises restriction:  preservation v. access

               2.    Critique

V.    Section 108(h)

       A.    Added by CTEA not DMCA but also 1998  (All new)

       B.    "During the last 20 years of any term of copyright of a
                published work, a library or archives, including a nonprofit
                educational institution that functions as such, may
                reproduce, distribute, display or perform in facsimile
                or digital form a copy or phonorecord of such work, or
                portions thereof, for purposes of preservation,
                scholarship, or research ..."

                1.    Author already dead 50 years

                2.    Three requirements before library can reproduce:

                       "No reproduction, distribution, display, or performance
                        is authorized under this subsection if…

                        (A)     The work is subject to normal commercial

                        (B)     A copy or phonorecord of the work can be
                                 obtained at a reasonable price; or

                        (C)     The copyright owner or its agent provides notice
                                  pursuant to regulations promulgated by the
                                  Register of Copyrights that either of the
                                  conditions set forth in subparagraphs (A)
                                  and (B) applies.”
                                  See  37 C.F.R. § 201.39 (2002).

                3.    “The exemption provided in this subsection does not
                        apply to any subsequent uses by users other than
                        such library or archives."

                4.    Not as restrictive as § 108(b)-(c)

                        a.    Not just for preservation but also for scholarship &

                        b.    No requirement that the work already be in library

                        c.    No restriction on premises for digital copy

VI.    Section 108(i)

        A.    “The rights of reproduction and distribution under this
                section DO not apply to a musical work, a pictorial,
                graphic or sculptural work, or a motion picture or other
                audiovisual work other than an audiovisual work dealing
                with news, except that no such limitation shall apply with
                respect to rights granted by subsections (b) and (c), or
                with respect to pictorial or graphic works published as
                illustrations, diagrams, or similar adjuncts to works of
                which copies are reproduced or distributed in accordance
                with  subsections (d) and (e).”

        B.    Section 108 = predominantly a text section

                1.    One exception is for preservation under (b)-(c).

                2.    E.g., damaged single videotape in tape set when
                        publisher refuses to sell singles

        C.    Section 108 Study Group

VII.  Digital Libraries